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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.12 2003/11/30 12:06:53 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.127 2013/12/17 11:52:05 swift Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section>
8<title>Timezone</title>
9<body>
10 10
11<p> 11<abstract>
12You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>: 14proceed.
15</p> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<pre caption="Setting the timezone information"> 17<version>33</version>
18# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i> 18<date>2013-12-17</date>
19<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT:)</comment>
20# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
21</pre>
22 19
23</body>
24</section>
25<section> 20<section>
26<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
27<subsection> 22<subsection>
28<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
29<body> 24<body>
30 25
31<p> 26<p>
32Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
33<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
34(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
35(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
36etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
37</p> 32</p>
38 33
39</body> 34</body>
40</subsection> 35</subsection>
41<subsection> 36<subsection>
42<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
43<body> 38<body>
44 39
45<p> 40<p>
46<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
47fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 42fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
48its own meaning: 43its own meaning:
49</p> 44</p>
50 45
51<ul> 46<ul>
52<li> 47<li>
53 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
54 file) 49 file)
55</li> 50</li>
56<li> 51<li>
57 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
58 mounted 53 mounted
59</li> 54</li>
60<li> 55<li>
61 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
62</li> 57</li>
63<li> 58<li>
64 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
65 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
66 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
67 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
68</li> 63</li>
69<li> 64<li>
70 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
71 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
72</li> 67</li>
73<li> 68<li>
74 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
75 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
76 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
77 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
78</li> 73</li>
79</ul> 74</ul>
80 75
81<p> 76<impo>
82So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
83<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
84</p> 79</impo>
85 80
86<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
87# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
88</pre> 83</pre>
89 84
90<p> 85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
95</body>
96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
97
98<p>
91Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
92partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 100partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
93<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 101<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
94</p>
95
96<p> 102</p>
103
104<p>
97In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 105In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
98<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
99be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
100would write down:
101</p> 108</p>
102 109
103<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
104/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
105</pre> 112</pre>
106 113
107<p>
108Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
109option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
110aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
111</p> 114<p>
112 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
113<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 117substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
115</pre> 118manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
116
117<p> 119</p>
118If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 120
119<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 121</body>
122<body>
123
120</p> 124<p>
125Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
126your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
127for those too.
128</p>
121 129
122<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 130<p>
123/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
132</p>
133
134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
124/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
125/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
126</pre>
127 146
128<p> 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
129To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
130(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
131partitions or drives, for those too):
132</p> 148</pre>
133 149
134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
135/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
156
157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159
160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
161</pre>
162
163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
136/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
138 167
139none /proc proc defaults 0 0
140none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
141
142/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
143</pre> 169</pre>
144 170
145<p> 171<p>
146<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
147removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
148<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 174<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
149</p> 175</p>
150 176
151<p> 177<p>
152Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
153SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
154too: 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
155</p> 181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
156 182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
157<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 183makes the TRIM command work.
158none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159</pre>
160
161<p> 184</p>
162If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 185
163</p> 186<p>
164
165<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
166none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
167</pre>
168
169<p>
170Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
171</p> 188</p>
172 189
173</body> 190</body>
174</subsection> 191</subsection>
175</section> 192</section>
176<section> 193<section>
177<title>Networking Information</title> 194<title>Networking Information</title>
178<subsection> 195<subsection>
179<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 196<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
180<body> 197<body>
181 198
182<p> 199<p>
183One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 200One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
184easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 201quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
185name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 202appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
186be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 203choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
187<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 204<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
188</p> 205</p>
189 206
190<p>
191We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the host name">
195# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
196</pre>
197 209
198<p> 210<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
199Second we set the domainname: 211hostname="<i>tux</i>"
212</pre>
213
200</p> 214<p>
215Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
219</p>
220
221<note>
222The <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file does not exist by default, so you might
223need to create it.
224</note>
201 225
202<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
203# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
230dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
204</pre> 231</pre>
232
233<note>
234If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
235hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
236<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
237</note>
205 238
206<p> 239<p>
207If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 240If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
208one), you need to define that one too: 241one), you need to define that one too:
209</p> 242</p>
210 243
211<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 244<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
212# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 245# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
213</pre>
214 246
215<p> 247<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
216Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 248nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
217</p> 249</pre>
218 250
219<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 251<note>
220# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 252For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
221</pre> 253provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
254can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
255to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
256</note>
222 257
223</body> 258</body>
224</subsection> 259</subsection>
225<subsection> 260<subsection>
226<title>Configuring your Network</title> 261<title>Configuring your Network</title>
227<body> 262<body>
228 263
229<p> 264<p>
230Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 265Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
231that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 266that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
232just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 267just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
233your Gentoo system permanently. 268your Gentoo system permanently.
234</p> 269</p>
235 270
271<note>
272More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
273bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
274link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
275</note>
276
236<p> 277<p>
237All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 278All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
238a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 279a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
239networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 280networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
240</p> 281commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
241 282<path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
242<p> 283</p>
284
285<p>
286DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
287client. This is described later in <uri
288link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
289Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
294specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
243First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 295<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
244is used in this example): 296this example):
245</p> 297</p>
246 298
247<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 299<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
248# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 300# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
249</pre> 301</pre>
250 302
251<p> 303<p>
252The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 304To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
253syntax: 305to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
254</p>
255
256<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
257iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
258</pre>
259
260<p> 306</p>
261If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 307
262to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 308<note>
263not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 309This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
264link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 310very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
265Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 311the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
312the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
313<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
314</note>
315
316<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
317config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
318routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
319</pre>
320
266</p> 321<p>
267 322To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
268<p> 323</p>
269So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 324
270(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 325<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
271192.168.0.1: 326config_eth0="dhcp"
327</pre>
328
272</p> 329<p>
273 330Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
274<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 331list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
275<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 332you need to set specific DHCP options.
276iface_eth0="dhcp"
277
278<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
279iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
280gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
281</pre>
282
283<p> 333</p>
284If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 334
285like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 335<p>
286shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 336If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
337<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
287</p> 338</p>
288 339
289<p> 340<p>
290Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 341Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
291</p> 342</p>
295<subsection> 346<subsection>
296<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 347<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
297<body> 348<body>
298 349
299<p> 350<p>
300To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 351To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
301default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 352default runlevel.
302the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
303</p> 353</p>
304 354
305<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 355<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
356# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
357# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
306# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 358# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
307</pre> 359</pre>
308 360
309<p> 361<p>
310If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 362If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
311<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 363<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
312use <c>ln</c> to do this: 364</p>
365
313</p> 366<p>
314 367If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
315<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 368currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
316# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
317# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
318# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
319</pre> 369</p>
370
371<ol>
372<li>
373update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
374instead of eth0),
375</li>
376<li>
377create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
378</li>
379<li>
380remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
381</li>
382<li>
383add the new one to the default runlevel, and
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
387</li>
388</ol>
320 389
321</body> 390</body>
322</subsection> 391</subsection>
323<subsection> 392<subsection>
324<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 393<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
325<body> 394<body>
326 395
327<p> 396<p>
328You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 397You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
329<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 398<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
330for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 399hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
331internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 400You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
332<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 401set up your own internal DNS system.
333open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
334</p> 402</p>
335 403
336<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 404<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
337# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 405# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
338</pre> 406</pre>
339 407
340<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 408<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
409<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
341127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork localhost 410127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
342192.168.0.5 jenny
343192.168.0.56 benny
344</pre>
345 411
346<p> 412<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
347If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 413they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
348resolution) a single line is sufficient: 414192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
349</p> 415192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
350
351<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
352127.0.0.1 localhost tux
353</pre> 416</pre>
354 417
355<p> 418<p>
356Save and exit the editor to continue. 419Save and exit the editor to continue.
357</p> 420</p>
358 421
359<p> 422<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
360If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 423If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
361link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 424link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
362following topic on PCMCIA. 425following topic on PCMCIA.
363</p> 426</p>
364 427
365</body> 428</body>
366</subsection> 429</subsection>
367<subsection> 430<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
368<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 431<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
369<body> 432<body>
370 433
371<p> 434<p>
372PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 435PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
373</p> 436</p>
374 437
375<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 438<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
376# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 439# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
377</pre>
378
379<p>
380When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
381runlevel:
382</p>
383
384<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
385# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
386</pre> 440</pre>
387 441
388</body> 442</body>
389</subsection> 443</subsection>
390</section> 444</section>
391<section> 445
446<section id="sysinfo">
392<title>System Information</title> 447<title>System Information</title>
448<subsection>
449<title>Root Password</title>
450<body>
451
452<p>
453First we set the root password by typing:
454</p>
455
456<pre caption="Setting the root password">
457# <i>passwd</i>
458</pre>
459
393<body> 460</body>
461</subsection>
462<subsection>
463<title>System Information</title>
464<body>
394 465
395<p>
396Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
397Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
398</p> 466<p>
467Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
468and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
469the comments in the file.
470</p>
399 471
400<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 472<pre caption="Configuring services">
401# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 473# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
402</pre> 474</pre>
403 475
404<p> 476<p>
405As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 477When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
406configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 478</p>
407<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 479
408</p> 480<p>
481Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
482Edit it to configure your keyboard.
483</p>
409 484
485<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
486# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
487</pre>
488
489<p>
490Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
491<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
492</p>
493
494<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
495PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
496</note>
497
498<p>
499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
500exit.
501</p>
502
503<p>
504Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
505according to your needs.
506</p>
507
508<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
509# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
510</pre>
511
512<p>
513If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
514to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
515</p>
516
517<p>
518When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
519exit.
520</p>
521
522</body>
523</subsection>
524
525<subsection>
526<title>Configure locales</title>
410</body> 527<body>
528
529<p>
530You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
531specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
532</p>
533
534<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
535# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
536</pre>
537
538<p>
539The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
540German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
541</p>
542
543<pre caption="Specify your locales">
544en_US ISO-8859-1
545en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
546de_DE ISO-8859-1
547de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
548</pre>
549
550<note>
551You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
552</note>
553
554<warn>
555We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
556applications may require it.
557</warn>
558
559<p>
560The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
561have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
562</p>
563
564<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
565# <i>locale-gen</i>
566</pre>
567
568<p>
569You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale -a</c>.
570</p>
571
572<p>
573Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings.
574With <c>eselect locale list</c>, the available targets are displayed:
575</p>
576
577<pre caption="Displaying the available LANG settings">
578# <i>eselect locale list</i>
579Available targets for the LANG variable:
580 [1] C
581 [2] POSIX
582 [3] en_US
583 [4] en_US.iso88591
584 [5] en_US.utf8
585 [6] de_DE
586 [7] de_DE.iso88591
587 [8] de_DE.iso885915
588 [9] de_DE.utf8
589 [ ] (free form)
590</pre>
591
592<p>
593With <c>eselect locale set &lt;value&gt;</c> the correct locale can be set:
594</p>
595
596<pre caption="Setting the LANG variable">
597# <i>eselect locale set 9</i>
598</pre>
599
600<p>
601Manually, this can still be accomplished through the
602<path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
603</p>
604
605<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
606LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
607LC_COLLATE="C"
608</pre>
609
610<p>
611Don't forget to reload your environment:
612</p>
613
614<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
615# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
616</pre>
617
618<p>
619We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
620Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
621<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
622informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
623</p>
624
625<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
626Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
627Tools</uri>.
628</p>
629
630</body>
631</subsection>
632<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
633<title>Configuring the Console</title>
634<body>
635
636<p>
637If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
638<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
639</p>
640
641<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
642hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
643hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
644</pre>
645
646<p>
647You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
648listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
649</p>
650
651<p>
652You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
653System Tools</uri>.
654</p>
655
656</body>
657</subsection>
411</section> 658</section>
412</sections> 659</sections>

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