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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.19 2004/01/09 20:59:21 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.122 2013/07/24 20:40:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10<section>
11<title>Timezone</title>
12<body>
13 10
14<p> 11<abstract>
15You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
16located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
17symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>: 14proceed.
18</p> 15</abstract>
19 16
20<pre caption="Setting the timezone information"> 17<version>28</version>
21# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i> 18<date>2013-07-24</date>
22<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT:)</comment>
23# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24</pre>
25 19
26</body>
27</section>
28<section> 20<section>
29<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
30<subsection> 22<subsection>
31<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
32<body> 24<body>
33 25
34<p> 26<p>
35Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
36<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
37(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
38(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
39etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
40</p> 32</p>
41 33
42</body> 34</body>
43</subsection> 35</subsection>
44<subsection> 36<subsection>
55<li> 47<li>
56 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
57 file) 49 file)
58</li> 50</li>
59<li> 51<li>
60 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
61 mounted 53 mounted
62</li> 54</li>
63<li> 55<li>
64 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
65</li> 57</li>
66<li> 58<li>
67 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
68 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
69 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
70 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
71</li> 63</li>
72<li> 64<li>
73 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
74 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
75</li> 67</li>
76<li> 68<li>
77 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
78 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
79 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
80 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
81</li> 73</li>
82</ul> 74</ul>
83 75
84<p> 76<impo>
85So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
86<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
87</p> 79</impo>
88 80
89<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
90# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
91</pre> 83</pre>
92 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
93<p> 88<p>
94Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
95partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
96<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
97</p>
98
99<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
100In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
101<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
102be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
103would write down:
104</p> 98</p>
105 99
106<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
107/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
108</pre> 102</pre>
109 103
110<p>
111Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
112option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
113aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
114</p> 104<p>
115 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
116<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
117/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
118</pre> 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
119
120<p> 109</p>
121If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110
122<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111</body>
112<body>
113
123</p> 114<p>
115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
118</p>
124 119
125<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 120<p>
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130</pre>
131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
129</pre>
130 136
131<p> 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
132To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
133(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
134partitions or drives, for those too):
135</p> 138</pre>
136 139
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
138/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141 157
142none /proc proc defaults 0 0
143none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
144
145/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146</pre> 159</pre>
147 160
148<p> 161<p>
149<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
150removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
151<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
152</p> 165</p>
153 166
154<p> 167<p>
155Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
156SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
157too: 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
158</p>
159
160<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
161none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
162</pre>
163
164<p> 171</p>
165If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 172
166</p> 173<p>
167
168<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
169none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
170</pre>
171
172<p>
173Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 174Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
174</p> 175</p>
175 176
176</body> 177</body>
177</subsection> 178</subsection>
178</section> 179</section>
179<section> 180<section>
180<title>Networking Information</title> 181<title>Networking Information</title>
181<subsection> 182<subsection>
182<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 183<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
183<body> 184<body>
184 185
185<p> 186<p>
186One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 187One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
187easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 188quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
188name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 189appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
189be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 190choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
190<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 191<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
191</p> 192</p>
192 193
193<p>
194We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
195</p>
196
197<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
198# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
199</pre>
200 196
197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre>
200
201<p> 201<p>
202Second we set the domainname: 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
203</p> 206</p>
204 207
205<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
206# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210
211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
207</pre> 213</pre>
214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
208 220
209<p> 221<p>
210If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
211one), you need to define that one too: 223one), you need to define that one too:
212</p> 224</p>
213 225
214<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
215# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
216</pre>
217 228
218<p> 229<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
219Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
220</p> 231</pre>
221 232
222<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 233<note>
223# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
224</pre> 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
238</note>
225 239
226</body> 240</body>
227</subsection> 241</subsection>
228<subsection> 242<subsection>
229<title>Configuring your Network</title> 243<title>Configuring your Network</title>
230<body> 244<body>
231 245
232<p> 246<p>
233Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 247Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
234that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 248that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
235just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 249just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
236your Gentoo system permanently. 250your Gentoo system permanently.
237</p> 251</p>
238 252
253<note>
254More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
255bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
256link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
257</note>
258
239<p> 259<p>
240All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
241a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
242networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
243</p> 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
244 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
245<p> 265</p>
266
267<p>
268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
269client. This is described later in <uri
270link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
271Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272</p>
273
274<p>
275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
246First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 277<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
247is used in this example): 278this example):
248</p> 279</p>
249 280
250<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 281<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
251# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 282# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
252</pre> 283</pre>
253 284
254<p> 285<p>
255The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 286You will see the following file:
256syntax:
257</p>
258
259<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
260iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
261</pre>
262
263<p> 287</p>
264If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 288
265to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
266not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
267link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
268Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294</pre>
295
269</p> 296<p>
270 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
271<p> 299</p>
272So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 300
273(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 301<note>
274192.168.0.1: 302This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
303very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
306<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
307</note>
308
309<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
310config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
311routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
312</pre>
313
275</p> 314<p>
276 315To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
277<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
278<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
279iface_eth0="dhcp"
280
281<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284</pre>
285
286<p> 316</p>
287If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 317
288like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 318<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
289shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 319config_eth0="dhcp"
320</pre>
321
322<p>
323Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
324list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
325you need to set specific DHCP options.
326</p>
327
328<p>
329If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
330<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
290</p> 331</p>
291 332
292<p> 333<p>
293Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 334Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
294</p> 335</p>
298<subsection> 339<subsection>
299<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 340<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
300<body> 341<body>
301 342
302<p> 343<p>
303To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 344To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
304default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 345default runlevel.
305the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
306</p> 346</p>
307 347
308<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 348<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
349# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
309# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 351# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
310</pre> 352</pre>
311 353
312<p> 354<p>
313If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 355If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
314<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 356<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
315use <c>ln</c> to do this: 357</p>
358
316</p> 359<p>
317 360If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
318<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 361currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
319# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
320# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
321# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
322</pre> 362</p>
363
364<ol>
365<li>
366update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
367instead of eth0),
368</li>
369<li>
370create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
371</li>
372<li>
373remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
374</li>
375<li>
376add the new one to the default runlevel, and
377</li>
378<li>
379remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
380</li>
381</ol>
323 382
324</body> 383</body>
325</subsection> 384</subsection>
326<subsection> 385<subsection>
327<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 386<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
328<body> 387<body>
329 388
330<p> 389<p>
331You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 390You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
332<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 391<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
333for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 392hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
334internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 393You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
335<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 394set up your own internal DNS system.
336open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
337</p> 395</p>
338 396
339<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 397<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
340# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 398# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
341</pre> 399</pre>
342 400
343<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 401<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
344127.0.0.1 localhost 402<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
345192.168.0.5 jenny 403127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
346192.168.0.6 benny
347192.168.0.7 tux
348</pre>
349 404
350<p> 405<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
351If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 406they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
352resolution) a single line is sufficient: 407192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
353</p> 408192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
354
355<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
356127.0.0.1 localhost tux
357</pre> 409</pre>
358 410
359<p> 411<p>
360Save and exit the editor to continue. 412Save and exit the editor to continue.
361</p> 413</p>
362 414
363<p> 415<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
364If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 416If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
365link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 417link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
366following topic on PCMCIA. 418following topic on PCMCIA.
367</p> 419</p>
368 420
369</body> 421</body>
370</subsection> 422</subsection>
371<subsection> 423<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
372<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 424<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
373<body> 425<body>
374 426
375<p> 427<p>
376PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 428PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
377</p> 429</p>
378 430
379<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 431<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
380# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 432# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
381</pre>
382
383<p>
384When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
385runlevel:
386</p>
387
388<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
389# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
390</pre> 433</pre>
391 434
392</body> 435</body>
393</subsection> 436</subsection>
394</section> 437</section>
395<section> 438
439<section id="sysinfo">
396<title>System Information</title> 440<title>System Information</title>
441<subsection>
442<title>Root Password</title>
443<body>
444
445<p>
446First we set the root password by typing:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Setting the root password">
450# <i>passwd</i>
451</pre>
452
397<body> 453</body>
454</subsection>
455<subsection>
456<title>System Information</title>
457<body>
398 458
399<p>
400Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
401Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
402</p> 459<p>
460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
461and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
462the comments in the file.
463</p>
403 464
404<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 465<pre caption="Configuring services">
405# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 466# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
406</pre> 467</pre>
407 468
408<p> 469<p>
409As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 470When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
410configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 471</p>
411you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 472
412your keyboard.
413</p> 473<p>
474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
475Edit it to configure your keyboard.
476</p>
477
478<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
479# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
480</pre>
481
482<p>
483Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
484<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
485</p>
486
487<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
488PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
489</note>
490
491<p>
492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
498according to your needs.
499</p>
500
501<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
502# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
503</pre>
504
505<p>
506If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
507to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
508</p>
509
510<p>
511When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
512exit.
513</p>
514
515</body>
516</subsection>
517
518<subsection>
519<title>Configure locales</title>
520<body>
521
522<p>
523You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
524specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
528# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
533German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="Specify your locales">
537en_US ISO-8859-1
538en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
539de_DE ISO-8859-1
540de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
541</pre>
414 542
415<note> 543<note>
416Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 544You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
417keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
418</note> 545</note>
419 546
420<p> 547<warn>
421When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 548We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
422continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 549applications may require it.
550</warn>
551
423</p> 552<p>
553The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
554have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
555</p>
424 556
557<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
558# <i>locale-gen</i>
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
563in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
564</p>
565
566<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
567LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
568LC_COLLATE="C"
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572And reload your environment:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
576# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
581Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
582<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
583informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
584</p>
585
586<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
587Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
588Tools</uri>.
589</p>
590
591</body>
592</subsection>
593<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
594<title>Configuring the Console</title>
425</body> 595<body>
596
597<p>
598If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
599<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
603hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
604hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
605</pre>
606
607<p>
608You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
609listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
610</p>
611
612<p>
613You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
614System Tools</uri>.
615</p>
616
617</body>
618</subsection>
426</section> 619</section>
427</sections> 620</sections>

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