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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.45 2004/08/30 17:44:00 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.122 2013/07/24 20:40:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>28</version>
18<date>2013-07-24</date>
19
10<section> 20<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 22<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 24<body>
15 25
16<p> 26<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21them or not, etc.) 31them or not, etc.)
22</p> 32</p>
23 33
37<li> 47<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file) 49 file)
40</li> 50</li>
41<li> 51<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted 53 mounted
44</li> 54</li>
45<li> 55<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 57</li>
48<li> 58<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
53</li> 63</li>
54<li> 64<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 67</li>
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 73</li>
64</ul> 74</ul>
65 75
66<p> 76<impo>
67The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
68file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
69<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 79</impo>
70</p>
71 80
72<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
73# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
74</pre> 83</pre>
75 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
76<p> 88<p>
77Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
78partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
79<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
80</p>
81
82<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
83In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
84<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
85It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
86</p> 98</p>
87 99
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
90</pre> 102</pre>
91 103
92<p> 104<p>
93Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
94automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
95substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
96manually mount this partition every time you want to use it. 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
97</p> 109</p>
98 110
99<p> 111</body>
100Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 112<body>
101option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 113
102aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
103</p> 114<p>
104 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
105<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
106/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 117for those too.
107</pre>
108
109<p> 118</p>
110If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 119
111<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
112</p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
113 123
114<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
115/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130</pre>
131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
116/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
117/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
118</pre>
119 136
120<p> 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
121To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
122(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
123partitions or drives, for those too):
124</p> 138</pre>
125 139
126<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
127/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
129/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
130 157
131none /proc proc defaults 0 0
132none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
133
134/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
135</pre> 159</pre>
136 160
137<p> 161<p>
138<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
139removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
140<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
141</p> 165</p>
142 166
143<p> 167<p>
144Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
145<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
146<path>/etc/fstab</path> 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
147too:
148</p>
149
150<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
152</pre>
153
154<p> 171</p>
155If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
156</p>
157
158<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
159none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
160</pre>
161 172
162<p> 173<p>
163Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 174Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
164</p> 175</p>
165 176
167</subsection> 178</subsection>
168</section> 179</section>
169<section> 180<section>
170<title>Networking Information</title> 181<title>Networking Information</title>
171<subsection> 182<subsection>
172<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 183<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
173<body> 184<body>
174 185
175<p> 186<p>
176One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 187One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
177quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 188quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
178appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 189appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
179choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 190choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
180<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 191<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
181</p> 192</p>
182 193
183<p>
184We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
185</p>
186
187<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
188# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
189</pre>
190 196
197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre>
200
191<p> 201<p>
192Second we set the domainname: 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
193</p> 206</p>
194 207
195<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210
211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
197</pre> 213</pre>
214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
198 220
199<p> 221<p>
200If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
201one), you need to define that one too: 223one), you need to define that one too:
202</p> 224</p>
203 225
204<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
205# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
206</pre>
207 228
208<p> 229<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
209Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
210</p> 231</pre>
211 232
212<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 233<note>
213# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
214</pre> 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
238</note>
215 239
216</body> 240</body>
217</subsection> 241</subsection>
218<subsection> 242<subsection>
219<title>Configuring your Network</title> 243<title>Configuring your Network</title>
220<body> 244<body>
221 245
222<p> 246<p>
223Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 247Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
224that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 248that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
225just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 249just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
226your Gentoo system permanently. 250your Gentoo system permanently.
227</p> 251</p>
228 252
253<note>
254More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
255bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
256link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
257</note>
258
229<p> 259<p>
230All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
231a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
232networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
233</p> 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
234 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
235<p> 265</p>
266
267<p>
268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
269client. This is described later in <uri
270link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
271Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272</p>
273
274<p>
275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
236First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 277<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
237is used in this example): 278this example):
238</p> 279</p>
239 280
240<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 281<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
241# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 282# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
242</pre> 283</pre>
243 284
244<p> 285<p>
245The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 286You will see the following file:
246syntax:
247</p>
248
249<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
250iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
251</pre>
252
253<p> 287</p>
254If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 288
255to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
256If you need to setup your network manually and you're 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
257not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
258link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
259Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294</pre>
295
260</p> 296<p>
261 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
262<p> 299</p>
263So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 300
264IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 301<note>
265gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 302This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
266rp-pppoe usage: 303very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
306<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
307</note>
308
309<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
310config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
311routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
312</pre>
313
267</p> 314<p>
268 315To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
269<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
270<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
271iface_eth0="dhcp"
272<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
280
281<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284
285<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
286iface_eth0="up"
287</pre>
288
289<p> 316</p>
290If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 317
291like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 318<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
292shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 319config_eth0="dhcp"
320</pre>
321
322<p>
323Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
324list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
325you need to set specific DHCP options.
326</p>
327
328<p>
329If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
330<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
293</p> 331</p>
294 332
295<p> 333<p>
296Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 334Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
297</p> 335</p>
302<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 340<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
303<body> 341<body>
304 342
305<p> 343<p>
306To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 344To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
307default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 345default runlevel.
308the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
309</p> 346</p>
310 347
311<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 348<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
349# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
312# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 351# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
313</pre> 352</pre>
314 353
315<p> 354<p>
316If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 355If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
317<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 356<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
318use <c>ln</c> to do this: 357</p>
358
319</p> 359<p>
320 360If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
321<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 361currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
322# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
323# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
324# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
325</pre> 362</p>
363
364<ol>
365<li>
366update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
367instead of eth0),
368</li>
369<li>
370create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
371</li>
372<li>
373remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
374</li>
375<li>
376add the new one to the default runlevel, and
377</li>
378<li>
379remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
380</li>
381</ol>
326 382
327</body> 383</body>
328</subsection> 384</subsection>
329<subsection> 385<subsection>
330<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 386<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
331<body> 387<body>
332 388
333<p> 389<p>
334You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 390You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
335<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 391<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
336for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 392hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
337internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 393You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
338<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 394set up your own internal DNS system.
339open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
340</p> 395</p>
341 396
342<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 397<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
343# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 398# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
344</pre> 399</pre>
345 400
346<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 401<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
347127.0.0.1 localhost 402<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
403127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
404
405<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
406they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
348192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 407192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
349192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 408192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
350192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
351</pre>
352
353<p>
354If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
355resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
357</p>
358
359<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
360127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
361</pre> 409</pre>
362 410
363<p> 411<p>
364Save and exit the editor to continue. 412Save and exit the editor to continue.
365</p> 413</p>
366 414
367<p> 415<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
368If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 416If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
369link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 417link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
370following topic on PCMCIA. 418following topic on PCMCIA.
371</p> 419</p>
372 420
373</body> 421</body>
374</subsection> 422</subsection>
375<subsection> 423<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
376<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 424<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
377<body> 425<body>
378 426
379<note>
380pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381</note>
382
383<p> 427<p>
384PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 428PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
385<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
386</p> 429</p>
387 430
388<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 431<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
389# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 432# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
390</pre>
391
392<p>
393When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
394runlevel:
395</p>
396
397<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
398# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
399</pre> 433</pre>
400 434
401</body> 435</body>
402</subsection> 436</subsection>
403</section> 437</section>
404<section> 438
439<section id="sysinfo">
405<title>System Information</title> 440<title>System Information</title>
406<subsection> 441<subsection>
407<title>Root Password</title> 442<title>Root Password</title>
408<body> 443<body>
409 444
413 448
414<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 449<pre caption="Setting the root password">
415# <i>passwd</i> 450# <i>passwd</i>
416</pre> 451</pre>
417 452
418<p>
419If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
420<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
421</p>
422
423<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
424# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
425</pre>
426
427</body> 453</body>
428</subsection> 454</subsection>
429<subsection> 455<subsection>
430<title>System Information</title> 456<title>System Information</title>
431<body> 457<body>
432 458
433<p> 459<p>
434Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
435Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 461and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
462the comments in the file.
436</p> 463</p>
437 464
438<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 465<pre caption="Configuring services">
439# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 466# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
440</pre> 467</pre>
441 468
442<p> 469<p>
443As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 470When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
444configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 471</p>
445you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 472
446your keyboard.
447</p> 473<p>
474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
475Edit it to configure your keyboard.
476</p>
477
478<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
479# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
480</pre>
481
482<p>
483Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
484<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
485</p>
486
487<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
488PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
489</note>
490
491<p>
492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
498according to your needs.
499</p>
500
501<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
502# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
503</pre>
504
505<p>
506If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
507to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
508</p>
509
510<p>
511When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
512exit.
513</p>
514
515</body>
516</subsection>
517
518<subsection>
519<title>Configure locales</title>
520<body>
521
522<p>
523You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
524specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
528# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
533German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="Specify your locales">
537en_US ISO-8859-1
538en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
539de_DE ISO-8859-1
540de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
541</pre>
448 542
449<note> 543<note>
450Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 544You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
451select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
452</note> 545</note>
453 546
454<p> 547<warn>
455<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 548We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
456ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 549applications may require it.
457to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 550</warn>
551
458</p> 552<p>
459 553The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
554have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
460<p> 555</p>
461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 556
557<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
558# <i>locale-gen</i>
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
563in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
564</p>
565
566<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
567LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
568LC_COLLATE="C"
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572And reload your environment:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
576# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
581Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
582<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
583informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
584</p>
585
586<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
462continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 587Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
463Tools</uri>. 588Tools</uri>.
589</p>
590
591</body>
592</subsection>
593<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
594<title>Configuring the Console</title>
595<body>
596
597<p>
598If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
599<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
603hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
604hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
605</pre>
606
607<p>
608You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
609listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
610</p>
611
612<p>
613You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
614System Tools</uri>.
464</p> 615</p>
465 616
466</body> 617</body>
467</subsection> 618</subsection>
468</section> 619</section>

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