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3 3
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.75 2006/02/27 00:55:34 fox2mike Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.122 2013/07/24 20:40:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>2.17</version> 17<version>28</version>
12<date>2006-02-27</date> 18<date>2013-07-24</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body> 24<body>
19 25
20<p> 26<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.) 31them or not, etc.)
26</p> 32</p>
27 33
41<li> 47<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file) 49 file)
44</li> 50</li>
45<li> 51<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted 53 mounted
48</li> 54</li>
49<li> 55<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li> 57</li>
52<li> 58<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57</li> 63</li>
58<li> 64<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li> 67</li>
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<p> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 79</impo>
74</p>
75 80
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 83</pre>
79 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
80<p> 88<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
84verbatim.
85</p>
86
87<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
88In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
89<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
90It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
91</p> 98</p>
92 99
93<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
94/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
95</pre> 102</pre>
96 103
97<p> 104<p>
98Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
99automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
100substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
101manually mount this partition every time you want to use it. 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
102</p> 109</p>
103 110
104<p> 111</body>
105Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 112<body>
106option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 113
107aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
108</p> 114<p>
109 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
110<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
111/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 117for those too.
112</pre>
113
114<p> 118</p>
115If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 119
116<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
117</p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
118 123
119<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
123</pre>
124 128
125<p> 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
126To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
127(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
128partitions or drives, for those too):
129</p> 130</pre>
130 131
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
132/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
135 136
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 138</pre>
138 139
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
139/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
157
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre> 159</pre>
141 160
142<p> 161<p>
143<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
144removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
145<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
146</p> 165</p>
147 166
148<p> 167<p>
149Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
150<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
151<path>/etc/fstab</path> 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
152too:
153</p>
154
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157</pre> 171</p>
158 172
159<p> 173<p>
160Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 174Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161</p> 175</p>
162 176
164</subsection> 178</subsection>
165</section> 179</section>
166<section> 180<section>
167<title>Networking Information</title> 181<title>Networking Information</title>
168<subsection> 182<subsection>
169<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 183<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
170<body> 184<body>
171 185
172<p> 186<p>
173One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 187One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
174quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 188quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
175appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 189appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
176choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 190choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 191<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178</p> 192</p>
179 193
180<p>
181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
182</p>
183
184<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
185# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186 196
187<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
188HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
189</pre> 199</pre>
190 200
191<p> 201<p>
192Second we set the domainname: 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
193</p> 206</p>
194 207
195<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i> 209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
197 210
198<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment> 211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
199DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>" 212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
200</pre> 213</pre>
214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
201 220
202<p> 221<p>
203If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
204one), you need to define that one too: 223one), you need to define that one too:
205</p> 224</p>
206 225
207<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
209 228
210<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment> 229<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
211NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
212</pre>
213
214<p>
215Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
216</p> 231</pre>
217 232
218<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 233<note>
219# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
220</pre> 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
238</note>
221 239
222</body> 240</body>
223</subsection> 241</subsection>
224<subsection> 242<subsection>
225<title>Configuring your Network</title> 243<title>Configuring your Network</title>
241<p> 259<p>
242All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
243a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
244networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
245commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
246<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
247</p>
248
249<p> 265</p>
250DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration. 266
267<p>
268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
269client. This is described later in <uri
270link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
271Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
251</p> 272</p>
252 273
253<p> 274<p>
254If you need to configure your network connection either because you need 275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
255specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open 276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
266</p> 287</p>
267 288
268<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
269# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
270# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
271# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
272# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
273</pre> 294</pre>
274 295
275<p> 296<p>
276To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
277to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
278</p> 299</p>
279 300
301<note>
302This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
303very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
306<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
307</note>
308
280<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 309<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
281config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 310config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
282routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 311routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
283</pre> 312</pre>
284 313
285<p> 314<p>
286To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 315To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
287<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
288</p> 316</p>
289 317
290<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 318<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
291config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 319config_eth0="dhcp"
292dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
293</pre> 320</pre>
294 321
295<p> 322<p>
296Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 323Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
297options. 324list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
325you need to set specific DHCP options.
298</p> 326</p>
299 327
300<p> 328<p>
301If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 329If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
302<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 330<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
312<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 340<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
313<body> 341<body>
314 342
315<p> 343<p>
316To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 344To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
317default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 345default runlevel.
318the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
319</p> 346</p>
320 347
321<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 348<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
349# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
322# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 351# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
323</pre> 352</pre>
324 353
325<p> 354<p>
326If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 355If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
327<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 356<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
328use <c>ln</c> to do this: 357</p>
358
329</p> 359<p>
330 360If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
331<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 361currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
332# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
333# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
334# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
335</pre> 362</p>
363
364<ol>
365<li>
366update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
367instead of eth0),
368</li>
369<li>
370create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
371</li>
372<li>
373remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
374</li>
375<li>
376add the new one to the default runlevel, and
377</li>
378<li>
379remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
380</li>
381</ol>
336 382
337</body> 383</body>
338</subsection> 384</subsection>
339<subsection> 385<subsection>
340<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 386<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
341<body> 387<body>
342 388
343<p> 389<p>
344You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 390You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
345<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 391<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
346for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 392hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
347internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 393You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
348<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 394set up your own internal DNS system.
349open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
350</p> 395</p>
351 396
352<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 397<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
353# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 398# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
354</pre> 399</pre>
355 400
356<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 401<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
357127.0.0.1 localhost 402<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
403127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
404
405<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
406they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
358192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 407192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
359192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 408192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
360192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
361</pre>
362
363<p>
364If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
365resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
366system <c>tux</c>:
367</p>
368
369<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
370127.0.0.1 localhost tux
371</pre> 409</pre>
372 410
373<p> 411<p>
374Save and exit the editor to continue. 412Save and exit the editor to continue.
375</p> 413</p>
376 414
377<p> 415<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
378If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 416If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
379link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 417link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
380following topic on PCMCIA. 418following topic on PCMCIA.
381</p> 419</p>
382 420
383</body> 421</body>
384</subsection> 422</subsection>
385<subsection> 423<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
386<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 424<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
387<body> 425<body>
388 426
389<note>
390pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
391</note>
392
393<p> 427<p>
394PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 428PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
395includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
396using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
397to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
398</p> 429</p>
399 430
400<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 431<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
401# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 432# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
402</pre>
403
404<p>
405When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
406runlevel:
407</p>
408
409<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
410# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
411</pre> 433</pre>
412 434
413</body> 435</body>
414</subsection> 436</subsection>
415</section> 437</section>
416<section> 438
439<section id="sysinfo">
417<title>System Information</title> 440<title>System Information</title>
418<subsection> 441<subsection>
419<title>Root Password</title> 442<title>Root Password</title>
420<body> 443<body>
421 444
425 448
426<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 449<pre caption="Setting the root password">
427# <i>passwd</i> 450# <i>passwd</i>
428</pre> 451</pre>
429 452
430<p>
431If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
432<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
433</p>
434
435<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
436# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
437</pre>
438
439</body> 453</body>
440</subsection> 454</subsection>
441<subsection> 455<subsection>
442<title>System Information</title> 456<title>System Information</title>
443<body> 457<body>
444 458
445<p> 459<p>
446Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
447Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 461and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
462the comments in the file.
448</p> 463</p>
449 464
450<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 465<pre caption="Configuring services">
451# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 466# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
452</pre> 467</pre>
453 468
454<p> 469<p>
455When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 470When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
456</p>
457
458<p>
459As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
460configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
461define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
462</p> 471</p>
463 472
464<p> 473<p>
465Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
466Edit it to configure your keyboard. 475Edit it to configure your keyboard.
469<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 478<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
470# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
471</pre> 480</pre>
472 481
473<p> 482<p>
474Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 483Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
475<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 484<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
476</p> 485</p>
477 486
478<note> 487<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
479Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 488PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
480select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
481keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
482have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
483keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
484</note> 489</note>
485 490
486<p> 491<p>
487When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
488exit. 493exit.
489</p> 494</p>
490 495
491<p> 496<p>
492Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 497Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
493according to your needs. 498according to your needs.
494</p> 499</p>
495 500
496<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 501<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
497# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 502# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
498</pre> 503</pre>
499 504
500<p> 505<p>
501If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to 506If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
502the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows 507to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
503assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
504you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
505</p>
506
507<p> 508</p>
509
510<p>
508When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 511When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
509exit. 512exit.
510</p> 513</p>
511 514
512<p>
513If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
514<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
515</p>
516
517</body> 515</body>
518</subsection>
519<subsection> 516</subsection>
517
518<subsection>
519<title>Configure locales</title>
520<body>
521
522<p>
523You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
524specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
528# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
533German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="Specify your locales">
537en_US ISO-8859-1
538en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
539de_DE ISO-8859-1
540de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
541</pre>
542
543<note>
544You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
545</note>
546
547<warn>
548We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
549applications may require it.
550</warn>
551
552<p>
553The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
554have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
555</p>
556
557<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
558# <i>locale-gen</i>
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
563in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
564</p>
565
566<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
567LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
568LC_COLLATE="C"
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572And reload your environment:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
576# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
581Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
582<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
583informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
584</p>
585
586<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
587Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
588Tools</uri>.
589</p>
590
591</body>
592</subsection>
593<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
520<title>Configuring the Console</title> 594<title>Configuring the Console</title>
521<body> 595<body>
522 596
523<note>
524The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
525</note>
526
527<p> 597<p>
528If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console 598If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
529you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the 599<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
530virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
531</p> 600</p>
532 601
533<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab"> 602<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
534hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0 603hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
535hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0 604hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0

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