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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.79 2006/08/02 21:28:12 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.122 2013/07/24 20:40:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>2.20</version> 17<version>28</version>
12<date>2006-07-28</date> 18<date>2013-07-24</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<impo> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73</impo> 79</impo>
74 80
75<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77</pre> 83</pre>
83Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86</p> 92</p>
87 93
88<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93</p> 94<p>
94
95<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 98</p>
100 99
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
103</pre> 102</pre>
104 103
105<p> 104<p>
106Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
107automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
110</p> 109</p>
111 110
112</body> 111</body>
113<body> 112<body>
114 113
115<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
116Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119</p>
120
121<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p> 120<p>
128Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129</p> 122</p>
130 123
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
132<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
135
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138 128
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre> 130</pre>
141 131
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
136
137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre>
139
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
144/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146
147none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157
158none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160
161/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162</pre>
163
164<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170
171none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174
175/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176</pre>
177
178<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180adapt the following example to your system.
181</note>
182
183<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
184/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
185/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191</pre>
192
193<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196
197none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199 157
200/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201</pre> 159</pre>
202 160
203<p> 161<p>
220</subsection> 178</subsection>
221</section> 179</section>
222<section> 180<section>
223<title>Networking Information</title> 181<title>Networking Information</title>
224<subsection> 182<subsection>
225<title>Host name</title> 183<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
226<body> 184<body>
227 185
228<p> 186<p>
229One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 187One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 188quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
234</p> 192</p>
235 193
236<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238 196
239<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
240HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre>
200
201<p>
202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
241</pre> 206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210
211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
213</pre>
214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
220
221<p>
222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
223one), you need to define that one too:
224</p>
225
226<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
231</pre>
232
233<note>
234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
238</note>
242 239
243</body> 240</body>
244</subsection> 241</subsection>
245<subsection> 242<subsection>
246<title>Configuring your Network</title> 243<title>Configuring your Network</title>
262<p> 259<p>
263All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
264a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
265networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
266commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
267<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
268</p>
269
270<p> 265</p>
271DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration. 266
267<p>
268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
269client. This is described later in <uri
270link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
271Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272</p> 272</p>
273 273
274<p> 274<p>
275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need 275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open 276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
287</p> 287</p>
288 288
289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
292# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
293# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294</pre> 294</pre>
295 295
296<p> 296<p>
297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
299</p> 299</p>
300 300
301<note>
302This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
303very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
306<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
307</note>
308
301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 309<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
302config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 310config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
303routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 311routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
304</pre> 312</pre>
305 313
306<p> 314<p>
307To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 315To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
308<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
309</p> 316</p>
310 317
311<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 318<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
312config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 319config_eth0="dhcp"
313dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
314</pre> 320</pre>
315 321
316<p> 322<p>
317Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 323Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
318options. 324list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
325you need to set specific DHCP options.
319</p> 326</p>
320 327
321<p> 328<p>
322If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 329If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
323<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 330<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
333<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 340<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
334<body> 341<body>
335 342
336<p> 343<p>
337To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 344To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
338default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 345default runlevel.
339the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
340</p> 346</p>
341 347
342<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 348<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
349# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 351# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
344</pre> 352</pre>
345 353
346<p> 354<p>
347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 355If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 356<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
349use <c>ln</c> to do this: 357</p>
358
350</p> 359<p>
351 360If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
352<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 361currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
355# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
356</pre> 362</p>
363
364<ol>
365<li>
366update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
367instead of eth0),
368</li>
369<li>
370create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
371</li>
372<li>
373remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
374</li>
375<li>
376add the new one to the default runlevel, and
377</li>
378<li>
379remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
380</li>
381</ol>
357 382
358</body> 383</body>
359</subsection> 384</subsection>
360<subsection> 385<subsection>
361<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 386<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
398<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 423<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
399<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 424<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
400<body> 425<body>
401 426
402<p> 427<p>
403PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 428PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
404includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
405using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
406to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
407</p> 429</p>
408 430
409<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 431<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
410# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 432# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
411</pre>
412
413<p>
414When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
415runlevel:
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
419# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
420</pre> 433</pre>
421 434
422</body> 435</body>
423</subsection> 436</subsection>
424</section> 437</section>
435 448
436<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 449<pre caption="Setting the root password">
437# <i>passwd</i> 450# <i>passwd</i>
438</pre> 451</pre>
439 452
440<p>
441If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
442<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
446# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
447</pre>
448
449</body> 453</body>
450</subsection> 454</subsection>
451<subsection> 455<subsection>
452<title>System Information</title> 456<title>System Information</title>
453<body> 457<body>
454 458
455<p> 459<p>
456Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
457Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 461and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
462the comments in the file.
458</p> 463</p>
459 464
460<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 465<pre caption="Configuring services">
461# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 466# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
462</pre> 467</pre>
463 468
464<p> 469<p>
465When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 470When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
466</p>
467
468<p>
469As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
470configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
471define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
472</p> 471</p>
473 472
474<p> 473<p>
475Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
476Edit it to configure your keyboard. 475Edit it to configure your keyboard.
479<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 478<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
480# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
481</pre> 480</pre>
482 481
483<p> 482<p>
484Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 483Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
485<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 484<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
486</p> 485</p>
487
488<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
489Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
490keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
491</note>
492 486
493<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 487<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
494PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 488PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
495keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
496set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
497</note> 489</note>
498 490
499<p> 491<p>
500When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
501exit. 493exit.
502</p> 494</p>
503 495
504<p> 496<p>
505Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 497Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
506according to your needs. 498according to your needs.
507</p> 499</p>
508 500
509<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 501<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
510# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 502# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
511</pre> 503</pre>
512 504
513<p> 505<p>
514If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to 506If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
515the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows 507to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
516assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
517you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
518</p>
519
520<p> 508</p>
509
510<p>
521When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 511When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
522exit. 512exit.
513</p>
514
515</body>
516</subsection>
517
518<subsection>
519<title>Configure locales</title>
520<body>
521
522<p>
523You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
524specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
528# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
533German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="Specify your locales">
537en_US ISO-8859-1
538en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
539de_DE ISO-8859-1
540de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
541</pre>
542
543<note>
544You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
545</note>
546
547<warn>
548We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
549applications may require it.
550</warn>
551
552<p>
553The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
554have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
555</p>
556
557<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
558# <i>locale-gen</i>
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
563in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
564</p>
565
566<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
567LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
568LC_COLLATE="C"
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572And reload your environment:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
576# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
581Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
582<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
583informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
523</p> 584</p>
524 585
525<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 586<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
526Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 587Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
527Tools</uri>. 588Tools</uri>.

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