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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.94 2007/06/02 10:04:41 rane Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.122 2013/07/24 20:40:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>8.2</version> 17<version>28</version>
18<date>2007-06-02</date> 18<date>2013-07-24</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p> 92</p>
93 93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 94<p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105</p> 98</p>
106 99
107<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
108<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
109</pre> 102</pre>
110 103
111<p> 104<p>
112Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
113automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
116</p> 109</p>
117 110
118</body> 111</body>
119<body> 112<body>
120 113
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
124you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125</p>
126
127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
130drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
131</p> 118</p>
132 119
133<p> 120<p>
134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135</p> 122</p>
136 123
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
141
142proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144 128
145/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146</pre> 130</pre>
147 131
148<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
149<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
136
137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre>
139
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
150/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
151/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
152
153proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
154shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
155
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157</pre>
158
159<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
160<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
161/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
162/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
163
164proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
165shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
166
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168</pre>
169
170<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
171/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
172/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
173/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
174/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
175/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
176
177openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
178proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
179shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180
181/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
182</pre>
183
184<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
185There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
186adapt the following example to your system.
187</note>
188
189<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
190/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
191/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
192
193proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
194shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
195
196/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
197</pre>
198
199<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
200/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
201/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
202
203proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
204shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
205 157
206/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
207</pre> 159</pre>
208 160
209<p> 161<p>
240</p> 192</p>
241 193
242<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
244 196
245<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
246HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
247</pre> 199</pre>
248 200
249<p> 201<p>
250Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
251You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
278nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
279</pre> 231</pre>
280 232
281<note> 233<note>
282For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
283provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
284<c>resolvconf-gentoo</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
285</note> 238</note>
286 239
287</body> 240</body>
288</subsection> 241</subsection>
289<subsection> 242<subsection>
306<p> 259<p>
307All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
308a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
309networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
310commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
311<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
312</p> 265</p>
313 266
314<p> 267<p>
315DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
316client. This is described later in <uri 269client. This is described later in <uri
334</p> 287</p>
335 288
336<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
337# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
338# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
339# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
340# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
341</pre> 294</pre>
342 295
343<p> 296<p>
344To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
345to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
346</p> 299</p>
347 300
301<note>
302This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
303very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
306<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
307</note>
308
348<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 309<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
349config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 310config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
350routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 311routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
351</pre> 312</pre>
352 313
353<p> 314<p>
354To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 315To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
355<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
356</p> 316</p>
357 317
358<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 318<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
359config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 319config_eth0="dhcp"
360dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
361</pre> 320</pre>
362 321
363<p> 322<p>
364Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 323Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
365options. 324list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
325you need to set specific DHCP options.
366</p> 326</p>
367 327
368<p> 328<p>
369If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 329If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
370<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 330<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
384To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 344To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
385default runlevel. 345default runlevel.
386</p> 346</p>
387 347
388<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 348<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
349# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
389# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 351# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
390</pre> 352</pre>
391 353
392<p> 354<p>
393If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 355If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
394<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 356<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
395use <c>ln</c> to do this: 357</p>
358
396</p> 359<p>
397 360If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
398<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 361currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
399# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
400# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
401# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
402</pre> 362</p>
363
364<ol>
365<li>
366update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
367instead of eth0),
368</li>
369<li>
370create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
371</li>
372<li>
373remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
374</li>
375<li>
376add the new one to the default runlevel, and
377</li>
378<li>
379remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
380</li>
381</ol>
403 382
404</body> 383</body>
405</subsection> 384</subsection>
406<subsection> 385<subsection>
407<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 386<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
476<subsection> 455<subsection>
477<title>System Information</title> 456<title>System Information</title>
478<body> 457<body>
479 458
480<p> 459<p>
481Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
482Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 461and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
462the comments in the file.
483</p> 463</p>
484 464
485<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 465<pre caption="Configuring services">
486# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 466# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
487</pre> 467</pre>
488 468
489<p> 469<p>
490When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 470When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
491</p>
492
493<p>
494As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
495configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
496define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
497</p> 471</p>
498 472
499<p> 473<p>
500Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
501Edit it to configure your keyboard. 475Edit it to configure your keyboard.
504<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 478<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
505# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
506</pre> 480</pre>
507 481
508<p> 482<p>
509Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 483Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
510<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 484<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
511</p> 485</p>
512 486
513<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 487<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
514PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 488PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
515keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
516set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
517</note> 489</note>
518 490
519<p> 491<p>
520When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
521exit. 493exit.
522</p> 494</p>
523 495
524<p> 496<p>
525Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 497Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
526according to your needs. 498according to your needs.
527</p> 499</p>
528 500
529<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 501<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
530# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 502# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
531</pre> 503</pre>
532 504
533<p> 505<p>
534If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 506If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
535to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 507to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
536</p> 508</p>
537 509
538<p> 510<p>
539You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
540<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
541<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
542automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
543<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
544</p>
545
546<p>
547When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 511When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
548exit. 512exit.
513</p>
514
515</body>
516</subsection>
517
518<subsection>
519<title>Configure locales</title>
520<body>
521
522<p>
523You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
524specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
528# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
533German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="Specify your locales">
537en_US ISO-8859-1
538en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
539de_DE ISO-8859-1
540de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
541</pre>
542
543<note>
544You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
545</note>
546
547<warn>
548We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
549applications may require it.
550</warn>
551
552<p>
553The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
554have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
555</p>
556
557<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
558# <i>locale-gen</i>
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
563in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
564</p>
565
566<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
567LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
568LC_COLLATE="C"
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572And reload your environment:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
576# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
581Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
582<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
583informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
549</p> 584</p>
550 585
551<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 586<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
552Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 587Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
553Tools</uri>. 588Tools</uri>.

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