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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.107 2011/09/11 08:53:34 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.123 2013/12/17 09:34:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>14</version> 17<version>29</version>
18<date>2011-09-11</date> 18<date>2013-12-17</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p> 98</p>
99 99
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
102</pre> 102</pre>
103 103
104<p> 104<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
120<p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p> 122</p>
123 123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128 128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre> 130</pre>
134 131
135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
139 136
140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144</pre> 138</pre>
145 139
146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
152 146
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment> 147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
155 149
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157
158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160</pre> 151</pre>
161 152
162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or 153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
166 157
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
171</pre> 159</pre>
172 160
173<p> 161<p>
174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
177</p> 165</p>
178 166
179<p> 167<p>
180To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
181mount option, which results in a faster system since access times 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
182aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
171recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
172the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
173makes the TRIM command work.
183</p> 174</p>
184 175
185<p> 176<p>
186Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 177Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
187</p> 178</p>
242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 233nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
243</pre> 234</pre>
244 235
245<note> 236<note>
246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 237For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
247provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 238provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
239can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
248<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 240to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
249</note> 241</note>
250 242
251</body> 243</body>
252</subsection> 244</subsection>
253<subsection> 245<subsection>
270<p> 262<p>
271All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 263All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
272a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 264a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
273networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 265networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
274commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 266commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
275<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 267<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
276</p> 268</p>
277 269
278<p> 270<p>
279DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 271DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
280client. This is described later in <uri 272client. This is described later in <uri
298</p> 290</p>
299 291
300<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 292<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
301# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 293# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
302# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 294# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
303# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 295# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
304# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 296# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
305</pre> 297</pre>
306 298
307<p> 299<p>
308To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 300To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
309to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 301to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
310</p> 302</p>
303
304<note>
305This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
306very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
307the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
308the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
309<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
310</note>
311 311
312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
313config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" 313config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
314routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1" 314routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
315</pre> 315</pre>
321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
322config_eth0="dhcp" 322config_eth0="dhcp"
323</pre> 323</pre>
324 324
325<p> 325<p>
326Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 326Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
327options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set 327list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
328specific DHCP options. 328you need to set specific DHCP options.
329</p> 329</p>
330 330
331<p> 331<p>
332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
355</pre> 355</pre>
356 356
357<p> 357<p>
358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
359<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with 359<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
360<path>net.eth0</path>. 360</p>
361
361</p> 362<p>
363If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
364currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
365</p>
366
367<ol>
368<li>
369update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
370instead of eth0),
371</li>
372<li>
373create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
374</li>
375<li>
376remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
377</li>
378<li>
379add the new one to the default runlevel, and
380</li>
381<li>
382remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
383</li>
384</ol>
362 385
363</body> 386</body>
364</subsection> 387</subsection>
365<subsection> 388<subsection>
366<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 389<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
435<subsection> 458<subsection>
436<title>System Information</title> 459<title>System Information</title>
437<body> 460<body>
438 461
439<p> 462<p>
440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 463Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
441Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 464and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
465the comments in the file.
442</p> 466</p>
443 467
444<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 468<pre caption="Configuring services">
445# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 469# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446</pre> 470</pre>
447 471
448<p> 472<p>
449When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 473When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
450</p>
451
452<p>
453As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
454configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
455define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
456</p> 474</p>
457 475
458<p> 476<p>
459Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 477Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
460Edit it to configure your keyboard. 478Edit it to configure your keyboard.
495<p> 513<p>
496When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and 514When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
497exit. 515exit.
498</p> 516</p>
499 517
518</body>
519</subsection>
520
521<subsection>
522<title>Configure locales</title>
523<body>
524
525<p>
526You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
527specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
500<p> 528</p>
501You should define the timezone that you previously copied to 529
502<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that 530<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
503further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update 531# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
504<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT 532</pre>
505timezone, you would write <c>GMT</c> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file. 533
534<p>
535The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
536German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
537</p>
538
539<pre caption="Specify your locales">
540en_US ISO-8859-1
541en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
542de_DE ISO-8859-1
543de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
544</pre>
545
546<note>
547You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
548</note>
549
550<warn>
551We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
552applications may require it.
553</warn>
554
555<p>
556The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
557have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
558</p>
559
560<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
561# <i>locale-gen</i>
562</pre>
563
564<p>
565Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
566in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
567</p>
568
569<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
570LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
571LC_COLLATE="C"
572</pre>
573
574<p>
575And reload your environment:
576</p>
577
578<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
579# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
580</pre>
581
582<p>
583We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
584Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
585<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
586informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
506</p> 587</p>
507 588
508<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 589<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
509Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 590Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
510Tools</uri>. 591Tools</uri>.

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