/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.27 Revision 1.123
1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.27 2004/03/01 05:43:41 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.123 2013/12/17 09:34:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>29</version>
18<date>2013-12-17</date>
19
10<section> 20<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 22<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 24<body>
15 25
16<p> 26<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
22</p> 32</p>
23 33
24</body> 34</body>
25</subsection> 35</subsection>
26<subsection> 36<subsection>
37<li> 47<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file) 49 file)
40</li> 50</li>
41<li> 51<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted 53 mounted
44</li> 54</li>
45<li> 55<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 57</li>
48<li> 58<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
53</li> 63</li>
54<li> 64<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 67</li>
58<li> 68<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 73</li>
64</ul> 74</ul>
65 75
66<p> 76<impo>
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
69</p> 79</impo>
70 80
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 83</pre>
74 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
75<p> 88<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
78<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
79</p>
80
81<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 98</p>
87 99
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
90</pre> 102</pre>
91 103
92<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 104<p>
97 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100</pre> 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101
102<p> 109</p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111</body>
112<body>
113
105</p> 114<p>
115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
118</p>
106 119
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 120<p>
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130</pre>
131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
111</pre>
112 136
113<p> 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
114To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 138</pre>
118 139
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 157
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 159</pre>
129 160
130<p> 161<p>
131<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134</p> 165</p>
135 166
136<p> 167<p>
137Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
138SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
139too: 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
140</p> 171recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
141 172the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
142<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 173makes the TRIM command work.
143none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144</pre>
145
146<p> 174</p>
147If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 175
148</p> 176<p>
149
150<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152</pre>
153
154<p>
155Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 177Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156</p> 178</p>
157 179
158</body> 180</body>
159</subsection> 181</subsection>
160</section> 182</section>
161<section> 183<section>
162<title>Networking Information</title> 184<title>Networking Information</title>
163<subsection> 185<subsection>
164<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 186<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
165<body> 187<body>
166 188
167<p> 189<p>
168One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 190One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
169easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 191quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
170name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 192appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
171be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 193choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 194<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173</p> 195</p>
174 196
175<p>
176We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
177</p>
178
179<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 197<pre caption="Setting the host name">
180# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 198# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
181</pre>
182 199
200<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
201hostname="<i>tux</i>"
202</pre>
203
183<p> 204<p>
184Second we set the domainname: 205Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
206You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
207have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
208domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
185</p> 209</p>
186 210
187<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 211<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
188# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 212# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
213
214<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
215dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
189</pre> 216</pre>
217
218<note>
219If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
220hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
221<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
222</note>
190 223
191<p> 224<p>
192If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 225If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
193one), you need to define that one too: 226one), you need to define that one too:
194</p> 227</p>
195 228
196<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 229<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
197# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 230# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
198</pre>
199 231
200<p> 232<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
201Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 233nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
202</p> 234</pre>
203 235
204<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 236<note>
205# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 237For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
206</pre> 238provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
239can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
240to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
241</note>
207 242
208</body> 243</body>
209</subsection> 244</subsection>
210<subsection> 245<subsection>
211<title>Configuring your Network</title> 246<title>Configuring your Network</title>
212<body> 247<body>
213 248
214<p> 249<p>
215Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 250Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
216that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 251that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
217just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 252just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
218your Gentoo system permanently. 253your Gentoo system permanently.
219</p> 254</p>
220 255
256<note>
257More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
258bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
259link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
260</note>
261
221<p> 262<p>
222All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 263All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 264a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
224networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 265networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
225</p> 266commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
226 267<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
227<p> 268</p>
269
270<p>
271DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
272client. This is described later in <uri
273link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
274Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
275</p>
276
277<p>
278If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
279specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
228First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 280<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
229is used in this example): 281this example):
230</p> 282</p>
231 283
232<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 284<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 285# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234</pre> 286</pre>
235 287
236<p> 288<p>
237The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 289You will see the following file:
238syntax:
239</p>
240
241<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243</pre>
244
245<p> 290</p>
246If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 291
247to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 292<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
248If you need to setup your network manually and you're 293# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
249not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 294# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
250link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 295# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
251Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 296# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
297</pre>
298
252</p> 299<p>
253 300To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
301to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
254<p> 302</p>
255So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 303
256IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 304<note>
257gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 305This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
258rp-pppoe usage: 306very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
307the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
308the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
309<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
310</note>
311
312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
313config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
314routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
315</pre>
316
259</p> 317<p>
260 318To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
261<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
262<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
263iface_eth0="dhcp"
264
265<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
266iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
267gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
268
269<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
270iface_eth0="up"
271</pre>
272
273<p> 319</p>
274If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 320
275like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
276shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 322config_eth0="dhcp"
323</pre>
324
325<p>
326Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
327list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
328you need to set specific DHCP options.
329</p>
330
331<p>
332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
277</p> 334</p>
278 335
279<p> 336<p>
280Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 337Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281</p> 338</p>
285<subsection> 342<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 343<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body> 344<body>
288 345
289<p> 346<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 347To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 348default runlevel.
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p> 349</p>
294 350
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 351<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
352# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
353# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
296# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
297</pre> 355</pre>
298 356
299<p> 357<p>
300If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
301<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 359<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
302use <c>ln</c> to do this: 360</p>
361
303</p> 362<p>
304 363If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
305<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 364currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
306# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
307# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
308# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
309</pre> 365</p>
366
367<ol>
368<li>
369update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
370instead of eth0),
371</li>
372<li>
373create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
374</li>
375<li>
376remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
377</li>
378<li>
379add the new one to the default runlevel, and
380</li>
381<li>
382remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
383</li>
384</ol>
310 385
311</body> 386</body>
312</subsection> 387</subsection>
313<subsection> 388<subsection>
314<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 389<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
315<body> 390<body>
316 391
317<p> 392<p>
318You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 393You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 394<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
320for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 395hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
321internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 396You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
322<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 397set up your own internal DNS system.
323open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324</p> 398</p>
325 399
326<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 400<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 401# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328</pre> 402</pre>
329 403
330<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 404<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331127.0.0.1 localhost 405<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
406127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
407
408<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
409they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
332192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 410192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
333192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 411192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
334192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
335</pre>
336
337<p>
338If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
339resolution) a single line is sufficient:
340</p>
341
342<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
343127.0.0.1 localhost tux
344</pre> 412</pre>
345 413
346<p> 414<p>
347Save and exit the editor to continue. 415Save and exit the editor to continue.
348</p> 416</p>
349 417
350<p> 418<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
351If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 419If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
352link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 420link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
353following topic on PCMCIA. 421following topic on PCMCIA.
354</p> 422</p>
355 423
356</body> 424</body>
357</subsection> 425</subsection>
358<subsection> 426<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
359<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 427<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
360<body> 428<body>
361 429
362<p> 430<p>
363PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 431PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
364</p> 432</p>
365 433
366<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 434<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
367# <i>emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 435# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
368</pre>
369
370<p>
371When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
372runlevel:
373</p>
374
375<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
376# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
377</pre> 436</pre>
378 437
379</body> 438</body>
380</subsection> 439</subsection>
381</section> 440</section>
382<section> 441
442<section id="sysinfo">
383<title>System Information</title> 443<title>System Information</title>
444<subsection>
445<title>Root Password</title>
446<body>
447
448<p>
449First we set the root password by typing:
450</p>
451
452<pre caption="Setting the root password">
453# <i>passwd</i>
454</pre>
455
384<body> 456</body>
457</subsection>
458<subsection>
459<title>System Information</title>
460<body>
385 461
386<p>
387Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
388Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
389</p> 462<p>
463Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
464and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
465the comments in the file.
466</p>
390 467
391<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 468<pre caption="Configuring services">
392# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 469# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
393</pre> 470</pre>
394 471
395<p> 472<p>
396As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 473When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
397configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 474</p>
398you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 475
399your keyboard.
400</p> 476<p>
477Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
478Edit it to configure your keyboard.
479</p>
480
481<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
482# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
483</pre>
484
485<p>
486Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
487<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
488</p>
489
490<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
491PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
492</note>
493
494<p>
495When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
496exit.
497</p>
498
499<p>
500Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
501according to your needs.
502</p>
503
504<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
505# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
506</pre>
507
508<p>
509If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
510to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
511</p>
512
513<p>
514When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
515exit.
516</p>
517
518</body>
519</subsection>
520
521<subsection>
522<title>Configure locales</title>
523<body>
524
525<p>
526You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
527specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
528</p>
529
530<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
531# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
532</pre>
533
534<p>
535The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
536German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
537</p>
538
539<pre caption="Specify your locales">
540en_US ISO-8859-1
541en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
542de_DE ISO-8859-1
543de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
544</pre>
401 545
402<note> 546<note>
403Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 547You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
404keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
405</note> 548</note>
406 549
407<p> 550<warn>
408When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 551We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
409continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 552applications may require it.
553</warn>
554
410</p> 555<p>
556The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
557have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
558</p>
411 559
560<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
561# <i>locale-gen</i>
562</pre>
563
564<p>
565Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
566in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
567</p>
568
569<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
570LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
571LC_COLLATE="C"
572</pre>
573
574<p>
575And reload your environment:
576</p>
577
578<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
579# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
580</pre>
581
582<p>
583We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
584Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
585<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
586informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
587</p>
588
589<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
590Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
591Tools</uri>.
592</p>
593
594</body>
595</subsection>
596<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
597<title>Configuring the Console</title>
412</body> 598<body>
599
600<p>
601If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
602<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
603</p>
604
605<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
606hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
607hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
608</pre>
609
610<p>
611You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
612listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
613</p>
614
615<p>
616You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
617System Tools</uri>.
618</p>
619
620</body>
621</subsection>
413</section> 622</section>
414</sections> 623</sections>

Legend:
Removed from v.1.27  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.123

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20