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3 3
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.71 2005/08/13 21:03:21 jkt Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.123 2013/12/17 09:34:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>2.12</version> 17<version>29</version>
12<date>2005-08-13</date> 18<date>2013-12-17</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body> 24<body>
19 25
20<p> 26<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.) 31them or not, etc.)
26</p> 32</p>
27 33
41<li> 47<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file) 49 file)
44</li> 50</li>
45<li> 51<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted 53 mounted
48</li> 54</li>
49<li> 55<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li> 57</li>
52<li> 58<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57</li> 63</li>
58<li> 64<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li> 67</li>
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<p> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 79</impo>
74</p>
75 80
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 83</pre>
79 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
80<p> 88<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
84</p>
85
86<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90</p> 98</p>
91 99
92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
94</pre> 102</pre>
95 103
96<p> 104<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it. 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101</p> 109</p>
102 110
103<p> 111</body>
104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 112<body>
105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 113
106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107</p> 114<p>
108 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 117for those too.
111</pre>
112
113<p> 118</p>
114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 119
115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116</p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
117 123
118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
122</pre>
123 128
124<p> 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127partitions or drives, for those too):
128</p> 130</pre>
129 131
130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
134 136
135none /proc proc defaults 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 138</pre>
137 139
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
157
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139</pre> 159</pre>
140 160
141<p> 161<p>
142<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145</p> 165</p>
146 166
147<p> 167<p>
148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
150<path>/etc/fstab</path> 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
151too: 171recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
152</p> 172the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
153 173makes the TRIM command work.
154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156</pre> 174</p>
157 175
158<p> 176<p>
159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 177Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160</p> 178</p>
161 179
163</subsection> 181</subsection>
164</section> 182</section>
165<section> 183<section>
166<title>Networking Information</title> 184<title>Networking Information</title>
167<subsection> 185<subsection>
168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 186<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
169<body> 187<body>
170 188
171<p> 189<p>
172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 190One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 191quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 192appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 193choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 194<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177</p> 195</p>
178 196
179<p>
180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181</p>
182
183<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 197<pre caption="Setting the host name">
184# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 198# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185 199
186<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment> 200<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
187HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 201hostname="<i>tux</i>"
188</pre> 202</pre>
189 203
190<p> 204<p>
191Second we set the domainname: 205Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
206You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
207have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
208domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
192</p> 209</p>
193 210
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 211<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i> 212# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
196 213
197<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment> 214<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
198DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>" 215dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
199</pre> 216</pre>
217
218<note>
219If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
220hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
221<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
222</note>
200 223
201<p> 224<p>
202If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 225If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
203one), you need to define that one too: 226one), you need to define that one too:
204</p> 227</p>
205 228
206<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 229<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i> 230# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
208 231
209<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment> 232<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 233nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
211</pre>
212
213<p>
214Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
215</p> 234</pre>
216 235
217<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 236<note>
218# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 237For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
219</pre> 238provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
239can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
240to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
241</note>
220 242
221</body> 243</body>
222</subsection> 244</subsection>
223<subsection> 245<subsection>
224<title>Configuring your Network</title> 246<title>Configuring your Network</title>
231your Gentoo system permanently. 253your Gentoo system permanently.
232</p> 254</p>
233 255
234<note> 256<note>
235More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like 257More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri 258bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section. 259link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238</note> 260</note>
239 261
240<p> 262<p>
241All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 263All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
242a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 264a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
243networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 265networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
244commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 266commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
245<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 267<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
246</p>
247
248<p> 268</p>
249DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration. 269
270<p>
271DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
272client. This is described later in <uri
273link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
274Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
250</p> 275</p>
251 276
252<p> 277<p>
253If you need to configure your network connection either because you need 278If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
254specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open 279specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
265</p> 290</p>
266 291
267<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 292<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
268# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 293# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
269# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 294# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
270# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 295# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
271# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 296# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
272</pre> 297</pre>
273 298
274<p> 299<p>
275To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 300To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
276to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 301to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
277</p> 302</p>
278 303
304<note>
305This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
306very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
307the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
308the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
309<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
310</note>
311
279<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
280config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" ) 313config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
281routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 314routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
282</pre> 315</pre>
283 316
284<p> 317<p>
285To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 318To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
286<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
287</p> 319</p>
288 320
289<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
290config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 322config_eth0="dhcp"
291dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
292</pre> 323</pre>
293 324
294<p> 325<p>
295Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 326Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
296options. 327list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
328you need to set specific DHCP options.
297</p> 329</p>
298 330
299<p> 331<p>
300If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
301<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
311<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 343<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
312<body> 344<body>
313 345
314<p> 346<p>
315To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 347To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
316default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 348default runlevel.
317the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
318</p> 349</p>
319 350
320<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 351<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
352# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
353# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
321# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
322</pre> 355</pre>
323 356
324<p> 357<p>
325If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
326<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 359<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
327use <c>ln</c> to do this: 360</p>
361
328</p> 362<p>
329 363If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
330<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 364currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
331# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
332# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
333# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
334</pre> 365</p>
366
367<ol>
368<li>
369update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
370instead of eth0),
371</li>
372<li>
373create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
374</li>
375<li>
376remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
377</li>
378<li>
379add the new one to the default runlevel, and
380</li>
381<li>
382remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
383</li>
384</ol>
335 385
336</body> 386</body>
337</subsection> 387</subsection>
338<subsection> 388<subsection>
339<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 389<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
340<body> 390<body>
341 391
342<p> 392<p>
343You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 393You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
344<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 394<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
345for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 395hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
346internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 396You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
347<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 397set up your own internal DNS system.
348open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
349</p> 398</p>
350 399
351<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 400<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
352# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 401# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
353</pre> 402</pre>
354 403
355<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 404<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
356127.0.0.1 localhost 405<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
406127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
407
408<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
409they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
357192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 410192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
358192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 411192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
359192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
360</pre>
361
362<p>
363If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
364resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
365system <c>tux</c>:
366</p>
367
368<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
369127.0.0.1 localhost tux
370</pre> 412</pre>
371 413
372<p> 414<p>
373Save and exit the editor to continue. 415Save and exit the editor to continue.
374</p> 416</p>
375 417
376<p> 418<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
377If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 419If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
378link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 420link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
379following topic on PCMCIA. 421following topic on PCMCIA.
380</p> 422</p>
381 423
382</body> 424</body>
383</subsection> 425</subsection>
384<subsection> 426<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
385<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 427<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
386<body> 428<body>
387 429
388<note>
389pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
390</note>
391
392<p> 430<p>
393PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 431PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
394includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
395using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
396to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
397</p> 432</p>
398 433
399<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 434<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
400# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 435# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
401</pre>
402
403<p>
404When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
405runlevel:
406</p>
407
408<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
409# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
410</pre> 436</pre>
411 437
412</body> 438</body>
413</subsection> 439</subsection>
414</section> 440</section>
415<section> 441
442<section id="sysinfo">
416<title>System Information</title> 443<title>System Information</title>
417<subsection> 444<subsection>
418<title>Root Password</title> 445<title>Root Password</title>
419<body> 446<body>
420 447
424 451
425<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 452<pre caption="Setting the root password">
426# <i>passwd</i> 453# <i>passwd</i>
427</pre> 454</pre>
428 455
429<p>
430If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
431<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
432</p>
433
434<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
435# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
436</pre>
437
438</body> 456</body>
439</subsection> 457</subsection>
440<subsection> 458<subsection>
441<title>System Information</title> 459<title>System Information</title>
442<body> 460<body>
443 461
444<p> 462<p>
445Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 463Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
446Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 464and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
465the comments in the file.
447</p> 466</p>
448 467
449<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 468<pre caption="Configuring services">
450# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 469# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
451</pre> 470</pre>
452 471
453<p> 472<p>
454When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 473When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
455</p>
456
457<p>
458As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
459configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
460define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
461</p> 474</p>
462 475
463<p> 476<p>
464Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 477Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
465Edit it to configure your keyboard. 478Edit it to configure your keyboard.
468<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 481<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
469# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 482# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
470</pre> 483</pre>
471 484
472<p> 485<p>
473Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 486Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
474<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 487<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
475</p> 488</p>
476 489
477<note> 490<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
478Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 491PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
479select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
480keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
481have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
482keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
483</note> 492</note>
484 493
485<p> 494<p>
486When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 495When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
487exit. 496exit.
488</p> 497</p>
489 498
490<p> 499<p>
491Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 500Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
492according to your needs. 501according to your needs.
493</p> 502</p>
494 503
495<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 504<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
496# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 505# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
497</pre> 506</pre>
498 507
499<p> 508<p>
500If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to 509If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
501the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 510to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
502</p>
503
504<p> 511</p>
512
513<p>
505When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 514When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
506exit. 515exit.
507</p> 516</p>
508 517
509<p>
510If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
511<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
512</p>
513
514</body> 518</body>
515</subsection>
516<subsection> 519</subsection>
520
521<subsection>
522<title>Configure locales</title>
523<body>
524
525<p>
526You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
527specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
528</p>
529
530<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
531# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
532</pre>
533
534<p>
535The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
536German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
537</p>
538
539<pre caption="Specify your locales">
540en_US ISO-8859-1
541en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
542de_DE ISO-8859-1
543de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
544</pre>
545
546<note>
547You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
548</note>
549
550<warn>
551We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
552applications may require it.
553</warn>
554
555<p>
556The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
557have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
558</p>
559
560<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
561# <i>locale-gen</i>
562</pre>
563
564<p>
565Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
566in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
567</p>
568
569<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
570LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
571LC_COLLATE="C"
572</pre>
573
574<p>
575And reload your environment:
576</p>
577
578<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
579# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
580</pre>
581
582<p>
583We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
584Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
585<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
586informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
587</p>
588
589<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
590Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
591Tools</uri>.
592</p>
593
594</body>
595</subsection>
596<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
517<title>Configuring the Console</title> 597<title>Configuring the Console</title>
518<body> 598<body>
519 599
520<note>
521The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
522</note>
523
524<p> 600<p>
525If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console 601If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
526you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the 602<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
527virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
528</p> 603</p>
529 604
530<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab"> 605<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
531hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0 606hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
532hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0 607hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0

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