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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.79 2006/08/02 21:28:12 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.123 2013/12/17 09:34:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>2.20</version> 17<version>29</version>
12<date>2006-07-28</date> 18<date>2013-12-17</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<impo> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73</impo> 79</impo>
74 80
75<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77</pre> 83</pre>
83Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86</p> 92</p>
87 93
88<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93</p> 94<p>
94
95<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 98</p>
100 99
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
103</pre> 102</pre>
104 103
105<p> 104<p>
106Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
107automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
110</p> 109</p>
111 110
112</body> 111</body>
113<body> 112<body>
114 113
115<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
116Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119</p>
120
121<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p> 120<p>
128Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129</p> 122</p>
130 123
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
132<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
135
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138 128
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre> 130</pre>
141 131
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
136
137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre>
139
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
144/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146
147none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157
158none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160
161/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162</pre>
163
164<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170
171none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174
175/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176</pre>
177
178<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180adapt the following example to your system.
181</note>
182
183<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
184/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
185/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191</pre>
192
193<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196
197none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199 157
200/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201</pre> 159</pre>
202 160
203<p> 161<p>
207</p> 165</p>
208 166
209<p> 167<p>
210To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
211mount option, which results in a faster system since access times 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
212aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
171recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
172the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
173makes the TRIM command work.
213</p> 174</p>
214 175
215<p> 176<p>
216Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 177Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
217</p> 178</p>
220</subsection> 181</subsection>
221</section> 182</section>
222<section> 183<section>
223<title>Networking Information</title> 184<title>Networking Information</title>
224<subsection> 185<subsection>
225<title>Host name</title> 186<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
226<body> 187<body>
227 188
228<p> 189<p>
229One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 190One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 191quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
234</p> 195</p>
235 196
236<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 197<pre caption="Setting the host name">
237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 198# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238 199
239<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 200<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
240HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 201hostname="<i>tux</i>"
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
206You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
207have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
208domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
241</pre> 209</p>
210
211<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
212# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
213
214<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
215dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
216</pre>
217
218<note>
219If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
220hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
221<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
222</note>
223
224<p>
225If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
226one), you need to define that one too:
227</p>
228
229<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
230# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
231
232<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
233nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
234</pre>
235
236<note>
237For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
238provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
239can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
240to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
241</note>
242 242
243</body> 243</body>
244</subsection> 244</subsection>
245<subsection> 245<subsection>
246<title>Configuring your Network</title> 246<title>Configuring your Network</title>
262<p> 262<p>
263All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 263All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
264a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 264a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
265networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 265networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
266commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 266commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
267<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 267<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
268</p>
269
270<p> 268</p>
271DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration. 269
270<p>
271DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
272client. This is described later in <uri
273link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
274Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272</p> 275</p>
273 276
274<p> 277<p>
275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need 278If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open 279specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
287</p> 290</p>
288 291
289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 292<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 293# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 294# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
292# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 295# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
293# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 296# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294</pre> 297</pre>
295 298
296<p> 299<p>
297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 300To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 301to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
299</p> 302</p>
300 303
304<note>
305This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
306very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
307the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
308the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
309<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
310</note>
311
301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
302config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 313config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
303routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 314routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
304</pre> 315</pre>
305 316
306<p> 317<p>
307To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 318To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
308<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
309</p> 319</p>
310 320
311<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
312config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 322config_eth0="dhcp"
313dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
314</pre> 323</pre>
315 324
316<p> 325<p>
317Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 326Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
318options. 327list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
328you need to set specific DHCP options.
319</p> 329</p>
320 330
321<p> 331<p>
322If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
323<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
333<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 343<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
334<body> 344<body>
335 345
336<p> 346<p>
337To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 347To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
338default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 348default runlevel.
339the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
340</p> 349</p>
341 350
342<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 351<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
352# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
353# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
344</pre> 355</pre>
345 356
346<p> 357<p>
347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 359<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
349use <c>ln</c> to do this: 360</p>
361
350</p> 362<p>
351 363If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
352<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 364currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
355# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
356</pre> 365</p>
366
367<ol>
368<li>
369update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
370instead of eth0),
371</li>
372<li>
373create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
374</li>
375<li>
376remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
377</li>
378<li>
379add the new one to the default runlevel, and
380</li>
381<li>
382remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
383</li>
384</ol>
357 385
358</body> 386</body>
359</subsection> 387</subsection>
360<subsection> 388<subsection>
361<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 389<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
398<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 426<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
399<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 427<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
400<body> 428<body>
401 429
402<p> 430<p>
403PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 431PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
404includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
405using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
406to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
407</p> 432</p>
408 433
409<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 434<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
410# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 435# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
411</pre>
412
413<p>
414When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
415runlevel:
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
419# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
420</pre> 436</pre>
421 437
422</body> 438</body>
423</subsection> 439</subsection>
424</section> 440</section>
435 451
436<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 452<pre caption="Setting the root password">
437# <i>passwd</i> 453# <i>passwd</i>
438</pre> 454</pre>
439 455
440<p>
441If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
442<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
446# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
447</pre>
448
449</body> 456</body>
450</subsection> 457</subsection>
451<subsection> 458<subsection>
452<title>System Information</title> 459<title>System Information</title>
453<body> 460<body>
454 461
455<p> 462<p>
456Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 463Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
457Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 464and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
465the comments in the file.
458</p> 466</p>
459 467
460<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 468<pre caption="Configuring services">
461# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 469# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
462</pre> 470</pre>
463 471
464<p> 472<p>
465When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 473When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
466</p>
467
468<p>
469As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
470configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
471define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
472</p> 474</p>
473 475
474<p> 476<p>
475Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 477Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
476Edit it to configure your keyboard. 478Edit it to configure your keyboard.
479<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 481<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
480# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 482# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
481</pre> 483</pre>
482 484
483<p> 485<p>
484Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 486Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
485<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 487<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
486</p> 488</p>
487
488<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
489Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
490keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
491</note>
492 489
493<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 490<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
494PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 491PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
495keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
496set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
497</note> 492</note>
498 493
499<p> 494<p>
500When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 495When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
501exit. 496exit.
502</p> 497</p>
503 498
504<p> 499<p>
505Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 500Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
506according to your needs. 501according to your needs.
507</p> 502</p>
508 503
509<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 504<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
510# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 505# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
511</pre> 506</pre>
512 507
513<p> 508<p>
514If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to 509If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
515the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows 510to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
516assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
517you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
518</p>
519
520<p> 511</p>
512
513<p>
521When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 514When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
522exit. 515exit.
516</p>
517
518</body>
519</subsection>
520
521<subsection>
522<title>Configure locales</title>
523<body>
524
525<p>
526You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
527specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
528</p>
529
530<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
531# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
532</pre>
533
534<p>
535The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
536German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
537</p>
538
539<pre caption="Specify your locales">
540en_US ISO-8859-1
541en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
542de_DE ISO-8859-1
543de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
544</pre>
545
546<note>
547You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
548</note>
549
550<warn>
551We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
552applications may require it.
553</warn>
554
555<p>
556The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
557have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
558</p>
559
560<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
561# <i>locale-gen</i>
562</pre>
563
564<p>
565Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
566in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
567</p>
568
569<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
570LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
571LC_COLLATE="C"
572</pre>
573
574<p>
575And reload your environment:
576</p>
577
578<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
579# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
580</pre>
581
582<p>
583We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
584Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
585<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
586informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
523</p> 587</p>
524 588
525<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 589<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
526Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 590Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
527Tools</uri>. 591Tools</uri>.

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