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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.41 2004/08/04 08:46:30 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.129 2013/12/19 10:48:20 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>35</version>
18<date>2013-12-19</date>
19
10<section> 20<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 22<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 24<body>
15 25
16<p> 26<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
22</p> 32</p>
23 33
24</body> 34</body>
25</subsection> 35</subsection>
26<subsection> 36<subsection>
37<li> 47<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file) 49 file)
40</li> 50</li>
41<li> 51<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted 53 mounted
44</li> 54</li>
45<li> 55<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 57</li>
48<li> 58<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
53</li> 63</li>
54<li> 64<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 67</li>
58<li> 68<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 73</li>
64</ul> 74</ul>
65 75
66<p> 76<impo>
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
69</p> 79</impo>
70 80
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 83</pre>
74 84
75<p> 85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
95</body>
96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
97
98<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 100partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 101<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
79</p>
80
81<p> 102</p>
103
104<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 105In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
84It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85</p> 108</p>
86 109
87<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
89</pre> 112</pre>
90 113
91<p> 114<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition 117substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
95every time you want to use it. 118manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
96</p>
97
98<p> 119</p>
99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 120
100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 121</body>
101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 122<body>
123
102</p> 124<p>
103 125Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
104<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 126your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
105/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 127for those too.
106</pre>
107
108<p> 128</p>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 129
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p> 130<p>
131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
132</p>
112 133
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
117</pre>
118 146
119<p> 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
120To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122partitions or drives, for those too):
123</p> 148</pre>
124 149
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
156
157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159
160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
161</pre>
162
163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 167
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
132
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 169</pre>
135 170
136<p> 171<p>
137<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
138removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
139<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 174<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
140</p> 175</p>
141 176
142<p> 177<p>
143Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
144<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
145<path>/etc/fstab</path> 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
146too: 181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
147</p> 182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
148 183makes the TRIM command work.
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<p> 184</p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre>
160 185
161<p> 186<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p> 188</p>
164 189
166</subsection> 191</subsection>
167</section> 192</section>
168<section> 193<section>
169<title>Networking Information</title> 194<title>Networking Information</title>
170<subsection> 195<subsection>
171<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 196<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
172<body> 197<body>
173 198
174<p> 199<p>
175One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 200One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
176quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 201quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
177appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 202appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
178choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 203choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
179<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 204<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
180</p> 205</p>
181 206
182<p>
183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184</p>
185
186<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the host name">
187# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
188</pre>
189 209
190<p> 210<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
191Second we set the domainname: 211hostname="<i>tux</i>"
212</pre>
213
192</p> 214<p>
215Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
219</p>
220
221<note>
222The <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file does not exist by default, so you might
223need to create it.
224</note>
193 225
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
230dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
196</pre> 231</pre>
232
233<note>
234If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
235hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
236<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
237</note>
197 238
198<p> 239<p>
199If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 240If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200one), you need to define that one too: 241one), you need to define that one too:
201</p> 242</p>
202 243
203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 244<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 245# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
205</pre>
206 246
207<p> 247<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 248nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
209</p> 249</pre>
210 250
211<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 251<note>
212# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 252For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
213</pre> 253provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
254can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
255to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
256</note>
214 257
215</body> 258</body>
216</subsection> 259</subsection>
217<subsection> 260<subsection>
218<title>Configuring your Network</title> 261<title>Configuring your Network</title>
219<body> 262<body>
220 263
221<p> 264<p>
222Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 265Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 266that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
224just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 267just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225your Gentoo system permanently. 268your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 269</p>
227 270
271<note>
272More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
273bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
274link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
275</note>
276
228<p> 277<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 278All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 279a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 280networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
232</p> 281commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
233 282<path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
234<p> 283</p>
284
285<p>
286DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
287client. This is described later in <uri
288link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
289Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
294specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 295<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
236is used in this example): 296this example):
237</p> 297</p>
238 298
239<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 299<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 300# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241</pre> 301</pre>
242 302
243<p> 303<p>
244The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 304To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
245syntax: 305to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
246</p>
247
248<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre>
251
252<p> 306</p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 307
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 308<note>
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 309This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 310very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 311the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 312the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
313<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
314</note>
315
316<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
317config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
318routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
319</pre>
320
259</p> 321<p>
260 322To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
261<p> 323</p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 324
263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 325<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 326config_eth0="dhcp"
265rp-pppoe usage: 327</pre>
328
266</p> 329<p>
267 330Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 331list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment> 332you need to set specific DHCP options.
270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
286</pre>
287
288<p> 333</p>
289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 334
290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 335<p>
291shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 336If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
337<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
292</p> 338</p>
293 339
294<p> 340<p>
295Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 341Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296</p> 342</p>
300<subsection> 346<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 347<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 348<body>
303 349
304<p> 350<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 351To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 352default runlevel.
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 353</p>
309 354
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 355<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
356# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
357# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
311# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 358# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
312</pre> 359</pre>
313 360
314<p> 361<p>
315If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 362If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
316<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 363<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
317use <c>ln</c> to do this: 364</p>
365
318</p> 366<p>
319 367If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
320<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 368currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
321# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
322# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
323# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
324</pre> 369</p>
370
371<ol>
372<li>
373update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
374instead of eth0),
375</li>
376<li>
377create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
378</li>
379<li>
380remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
381</li>
382<li>
383add the new one to the default runlevel, and
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
387</li>
388</ol>
325 389
326</body> 390</body>
327</subsection> 391</subsection>
328<subsection> 392<subsection>
329<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 393<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
330<body> 394<body>
331 395
332<p> 396<p>
333You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 397You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
334<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 398<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
335for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 399hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
336internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 400You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
337<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 401set up your own internal DNS system.
338open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
339</p> 402</p>
340 403
341<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 404<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
342# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 405# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
343</pre> 406</pre>
344 407
345<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 408<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
346127.0.0.1 localhost 409<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
410127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
411
412<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
413they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
347192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 414192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
348192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 415192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
349192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
350</pre>
351
352<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
356</p>
357
358<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
359127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
360</pre> 416</pre>
361 417
362<p> 418<p>
363Save and exit the editor to continue. 419Save and exit the editor to continue.
364</p> 420</p>
365 421
366<p> 422<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
367If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 423If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
368link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 424link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
369following topic on PCMCIA. 425following topic on PCMCIA.
370</p> 426</p>
371 427
372</body> 428</body>
373</subsection> 429</subsection>
374<subsection> 430<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
375<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 431<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
376<body> 432<body>
377 433
378<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380</note>
381
382<p> 434<p>
383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 435PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
385</p> 436</p>
386 437
387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 438<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 439# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
389</pre>
390
391<p>
392When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
393runlevel:
394</p>
395
396<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
397# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
398</pre> 440</pre>
399 441
400</body> 442</body>
401</subsection> 443</subsection>
402</section> 444</section>
403<section> 445
446<section id="sysinfo">
404<title>System Information</title> 447<title>System Information</title>
405<subsection> 448<subsection>
406<title>Root Password</title> 449<title>Root Password</title>
407<body> 450<body>
408 451
412 455
413<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 456<pre caption="Setting the root password">
414# <i>passwd</i> 457# <i>passwd</i>
415</pre> 458</pre>
416 459
417<p>
418If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
419<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
420</p>
421
422<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
423# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
424</pre>
425
426</body> 460</body>
427</subsection> 461</subsection>
428<subsection> 462<subsection>
429<title>System Information</title> 463<title>System Information</title>
430<body> 464<body>
431 465
432<p> 466<p>
433Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 467Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
434Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 468and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
469the comments in the file.
435</p> 470</p>
436 471
437<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 472<pre caption="Configuring services">
438# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 473# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
439</pre> 474</pre>
440 475
441<p> 476<p>
442As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 477When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
443configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 478</p>
444you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 479
445your keyboard.
446</p> 480<p>
481Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
482Edit it to configure your keyboard.
483</p>
447 484
448<note> 485<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
449Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 486# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
450select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 487</pre>
488
489<p>
490Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
491<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
492</p>
493
494<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
495PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
451</note> 496</note>
452 497
453<p> 498<p>
454<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
455ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 500exit.
456to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
457</p>
458
459<p> 501</p>
502
503<p>
504Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
505according to your needs.
506</p>
507
508<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
509# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
510</pre>
511
512<p>
513If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
514to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
515</p>
516
517<p>
460When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 518When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
519exit.
520</p>
521
522</body>
523</subsection>
524
525<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
526<title>Configuring the Console</title>
527<body>
528
529<p>
530If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
531<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
532</p>
533
534<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
535hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
536hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
537</pre>
538
539<p>
540You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
541listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
542</p>
543
544<p>
461continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 545You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
462Tools</uri>. 546System Tools</uri>.
463</p> 547</p>
464 548
465</body> 549</body>
466</subsection> 550</subsection>
467</section> 551</section>

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