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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
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3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.14 2003/12/20 20:32:02 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.47 2004/10/16 20:20:25 vapier Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section>
8<title>Timezone</title>
9<body>
10
11<p>
12You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
13located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
14symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
15</p>
16
17<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
18# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
19<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT:)</comment>
20# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
21</pre>
22
23</body>
24</section>
25<section> 10<section>
26<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
27<subsection> 12<subsection>
28<title>What is fstab?</title> 13<title>What is fstab?</title>
29<body> 14<body>
30 15
31<p> 16<p>
32Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
33<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
34(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
35(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 20and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
36etc.). 21them or not, etc.)
37</p> 22</p>
38 23
39</body> 24</body>
40</subsection> 25</subsection>
41<subsection> 26<subsection>
42<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 27<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
43<body> 28<body>
44 29
45<p> 30<p>
46<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 31<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
47fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 32fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
48its own meaning: 33its own meaning:
49</p> 34</p>
50 35
51<ul> 36<ul>
69<li> 54<li>
70 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
71 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
72</li> 57</li>
73<li> 58<li>
74 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
75 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
76 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
77 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 62 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
78</li> 63</li>
79</ul> 64</ul>
80 65
81<p> 66<p>
67The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
82So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 68file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
83<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 69<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
84</p> 70</p>
85 71
86<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 72<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
87# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 73# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
88</pre> 74</pre>
89 75
90<p> 76<p>
91Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 77Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
92partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 78partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
93<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 79<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
94</p> 80</p>
95 81
96<p> 82<p>
97In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 83In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
98<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 84<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
99be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 85It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
100would write down:
101</p> 86</p>
102 87
103<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
104/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
90</pre>
91
92<p>
93Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
94automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
95substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
96manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
105</pre> 97</p>
106 98
107<p> 99<p>
108Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 100Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
109option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 101option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
110aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 102aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
111</p> 103</p>
112 104
113<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 105<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 106/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115</pre> 107</pre>
116 108
117<p> 109<p>
118If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
119<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
120</p> 112</p>
121 113
122<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 114<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
123/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 115/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
124/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 116/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
125/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 117/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
126</pre> 118</pre>
127 119
128<p> 120<p>
130(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 122(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
131partitions or drives, for those too): 123partitions or drives, for those too):
132</p> 124</p>
133 125
134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 126<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
135/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 127/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
136/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 128/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 129/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
138 130
139none /proc proc defaults 0 0 131none /proc proc defaults 0 0
140none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 132none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
141 133
142/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 134/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
143</pre> 135</pre>
144 136
145<p> 137<p>
148<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 140<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
149</p> 141</p>
150 142
151<p> 143<p>
152Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 144Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
153SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 145<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
146<path>/etc/fstab</path>
154too: 147too:
155</p> 148</p>
156 149
157<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 150<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 151none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
165<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 158<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
166none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0 159none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
167</pre> 160</pre>
168 161
169<p> 162<p>
170Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 163Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
171</p> 164</p>
172 165
173</body> 166</body>
174</subsection> 167</subsection>
175</section> 168</section>
178<subsection> 171<subsection>
179<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 172<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
180<body> 173<body>
181 174
182<p> 175<p>
183One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 176One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
184easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 177quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
185name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 178appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
186be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 179choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
187<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 180<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
188</p> 181</p>
189 182
190<p> 183<p>
191We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 184We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
257iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 250iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
258</pre> 251</pre>
259 252
260<p> 253<p>
261If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 254If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
255to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
262to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 256If you need to setup your network manually and you're
263not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 257not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
264link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 258link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
265Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 259Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
266</p> 260</p>
267 261
268<p> 262<p>
269So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 263So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
270(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 264IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
271192.168.0.1: 265gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
266rp-pppoe usage:
272</p> 267</p>
273 268
274<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 269<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
275<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 270<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
276iface_eth0="dhcp" 271iface_eth0="dhcp"
272<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
277 280
278<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 281<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
279iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
280gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284
285<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
286iface_eth0="up"
281</pre> 287</pre>
282 288
283<p> 289<p>
284If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 290If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
285like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 291like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
295<subsection> 301<subsection>
296<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 302<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
297<body> 303<body>
298 304
299<p> 305<p>
300To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 306To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
301default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 307default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
302the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 308the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
303</p> 309</p>
304 310
305<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 311<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
337# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 343# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
338</pre> 344</pre>
339 345
340<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 346<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
341127.0.0.1 localhost 347127.0.0.1 localhost
342192.168.0.5 jenny 348192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
343192.168.0.6 benny 349192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
344192.168.0.7 tux 350192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
345</pre> 351</pre>
346 352
347<p> 353<p>
348If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 354If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
349resolution) a single line is sufficient: 355resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
350</p> 357</p>
351 358
352<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 359<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
353127.0.0.1 localhost tux 360127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
354</pre> 361</pre>
355 362
356<p> 363<p>
357Save and exit the editor to continue. 364Save and exit the editor to continue.
358</p> 365</p>
359 366
360<p> 367<p>
361If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 368If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
362link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 369link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
363following topic on PCMCIA. 370following topic on PCMCIA.
364</p> 371</p>
365 372
366</body> 373</body>
367</subsection> 374</subsection>
368<subsection> 375<subsection>
369<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 376<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
370<body> 377<body>
371 378
379<note>
380pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381</note>
382
372<p> 383<p>
373PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 384PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
385includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
386using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
387to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
374</p> 388</p>
375 389
376<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 390<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
377# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 391# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
378</pre> 392</pre>
379 393
380<p> 394<p>
381When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 395When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
382runlevel: 396runlevel:
383</p> 397</p>
384 398
385<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the boot runlevel"> 399<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
386# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 400# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
387</pre> 401</pre>
388 402
389</body> 403</body>
390</subsection> 404</subsection>
391</section> 405</section>
392<section> 406<section>
393<title>System Information</title> 407<title>System Information</title>
408<subsection>
409<title>Root Password</title>
410<body>
411
412<p>
413First we set the root password by typing:
414</p>
415
416<pre caption="Setting the root password">
417# <i>passwd</i>
418</pre>
419
420<p>
421If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
422<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
426# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
427</pre>
428
429</body>
430</subsection>
431<subsection>
432<title>System Information</title>
394<body> 433<body>
395 434
396<p> 435<p>
397Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 436Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
398Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 437Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
402# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 441# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
403</pre> 442</pre>
404 443
405<p> 444<p>
406As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 445As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
407configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 446configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
408<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 447you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
448your keyboard.
449</p>
450
451<note>
452Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
453select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
454</note>
455
409</p> 456<p>
457<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
458ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
459to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
460</p>
410 461
462<p>
463When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
464continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
465Tools</uri>.
466</p>
467
411</body> 468</body>
469</subsection>
412</section> 470</section>
413</sections> 471</sections>

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