/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.17 Revision 1.57
1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.17 2004/01/06 10:08:38 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.57 2005/04/07 16:12:35 swift Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section>
8<title>Timezone</title>
9<body>
10 10
11<p> 11<version>2.1</version>
12You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12<date>2005-04-07</date>
13located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
14symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
15</p>
16 13
17<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
18# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
19<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT:)</comment>
20# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
21</pre>
22
23</body>
24</section>
25<section> 14<section>
26<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
27<subsection> 16<subsection>
28<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
29<body> 18<body>
30 19
31<p> 20<p>
32Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
33<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
34(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
35(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
36etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
37</p> 26</p>
38 27
39</body> 28</body>
40</subsection> 29</subsection>
41<subsection> 30<subsection>
61 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
62</li> 51</li>
63<li> 52<li>
64 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
65 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
66 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
67 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
68</li> 57</li>
69<li> 58<li>
70 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
71 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
72</li> 61</li>
73<li> 62<li>
74 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
75 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
76 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
77 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
78</li> 67</li>
79</ul> 68</ul>
80 69
81<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
82So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
83<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
84</p> 74</p>
85 75
86<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
87# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
88</pre> 78</pre>
89 79
90<p> 80<p>
91Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
92partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
93<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
94</p> 84</p>
95 85
96<p> 86<p>
97In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
98<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
99be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
100would write down:
101</p> 90</p>
102 91
103<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
104/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
105</pre> 101</p>
106 102
107<p> 103<p>
108Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
109option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
110aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
111</p> 107</p>
112 108
113<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115</pre> 111</pre>
116 112
117<p> 113<p>
118If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
119<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
120</p> 116</p>
121 117
122<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
123/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
124/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
125/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
126</pre> 122</pre>
127 123
128<p> 124<p>
130(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
131partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
132</p> 128</p>
133 129
134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
135/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
136/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
138 134
139none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
140none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
141 137
142/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
143</pre> 139</pre>
144 140
145<p> 141<p>
148<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
149</p> 145</p>
150 146
151<p> 147<p>
152Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
153SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
154too: 151too:
155</p> 152</p>
156 153
157<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159</pre> 156</pre>
160 157
161<p> 158<p>
162If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
163</p>
164
165<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
166none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
167</pre>
168
169<p>
170Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
171</p> 160</p>
172 161
173</body> 162</body>
174</subsection> 163</subsection>
175</section> 164</section>
178<subsection> 167<subsection>
179<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
180<body> 169<body>
181 170
182<p> 171<p>
183One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
184easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
185name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
186be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
187<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
188</p> 177</p>
189 178
190<p> 179<p>
191We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
233your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
234</p> 223</p>
235 224
236<p> 225<p>
237All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
238a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
239networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
240</p> 229</p>
241 230
242<p> 231<p>
243First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
257iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 246iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
258</pre> 247</pre>
259 248
260<p> 249<p>
261If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 250If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
251to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
262to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 252If you need to set up your network manually and you're
263not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
264link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
265Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
266</p> 256</p>
267 257
268<p> 258<p>
269So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 259So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
270(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 260IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
271192.168.0.1: 261gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
262rp-pppoe usage:
272</p> 263</p>
273 264
274<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 265<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
275<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 266<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
276iface_eth0="dhcp" 267iface_eth0="dhcp"
268<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
269<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
270<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
271<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
272dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
273<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
274<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
277 276
278<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 277<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
279iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 278iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
280gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 279gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
280
281<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
282iface_eth0="up"
281</pre> 283</pre>
282 284
283<p> 285<p>
284If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 286If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
285like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 287like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
295<subsection> 297<subsection>
296<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 298<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
297<body> 299<body>
298 300
299<p> 301<p>
300To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 302To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
301default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 303default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
302the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 304the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
303</p> 305</p>
304 306
305<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 307<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
337# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 339# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
338</pre> 340</pre>
339 341
340<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 342<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
341127.0.0.1 localhost 343127.0.0.1 localhost
342192.168.0.5 jenny 344192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
343192.168.0.6 benny 345192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
344192.168.0.7 tux 346192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
345</pre> 347</pre>
346 348
347<p> 349<p>
348If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 350If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
349resolution) a single line is sufficient: 351resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
352system <c>tux</c>:
350</p> 353</p>
351 354
352<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 355<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
353127.0.0.1 localhost tux 356127.0.0.1 localhost tux
354</pre> 357</pre>
355 358
356<p> 359<p>
357Save and exit the editor to continue. 360Save and exit the editor to continue.
358</p> 361</p>
359 362
360<p> 363<p>
361If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 364If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
362link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 365link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
363following topic on PCMCIA. 366following topic on PCMCIA.
364</p> 367</p>
365 368
366</body> 369</body>
367</subsection> 370</subsection>
368<subsection> 371<subsection>
369<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 372<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
370<body> 373<body>
371 374
375<note>
376pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
377</note>
378
372<p> 379<p>
373PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 380PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
381includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
382using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
383to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
374</p> 384</p>
375 385
376<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 386<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
377# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 387# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
378</pre> 388</pre>
379 389
380<p> 390<p>
381When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 391When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
382runlevel: 392runlevel:
383</p> 393</p>
384 394
385<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the boot runlevel"> 395<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
386# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 396# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
387</pre> 397</pre>
388 398
389</body> 399</body>
390</subsection> 400</subsection>
391</section> 401</section>
392<section> 402<section>
403<title>System Information</title>
404<subsection>
405<title>Root Password</title>
406<body>
407
408<p>
409First we set the root password by typing:
410</p>
411
412<pre caption="Setting the root password">
413# <i>passwd</i>
414</pre>
415
416<p>
417If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
418<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
422# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
423</pre>
424
425</body>
426</subsection>
427<subsection>
393<title>System Information</title> 428<title>System Information</title>
394<body> 429<body>
395 430
396<p> 431<p>
397Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 432Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
408you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 443you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
409your keyboard. 444your keyboard.
410</p> 445</p>
411 446
412<note> 447<note>
413Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 448Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
414keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 449select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
415</note> 450</note>
416 451
417<p> 452<p>
453<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
454ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
455to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
456</p>
457
458<p>
418When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 459When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
419continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 460continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
461Tools</uri>.
420</p> 462</p>
421 463
422</body> 464</body>
465</subsection>
423</section> 466</section>
424</sections> 467</sections>

Legend:
Removed from v.1.17  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.57

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20