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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.19 2004/01/09 20:59:21 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.128 2013/12/18 10:13:54 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10<section>
11<title>Timezone</title>
12<body>
13 10
14<p> 11<abstract>
15You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
16located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
17symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>: 14proceed.
18</p> 15</abstract>
19 16
20<pre caption="Setting the timezone information"> 17<version>34</version>
21# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i> 18<date>2013-12-18</date>
22<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT:)</comment>
23# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24</pre>
25 19
26</body>
27</section>
28<section> 20<section>
29<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
30<subsection> 22<subsection>
31<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
32<body> 24<body>
33 25
34<p> 26<p>
35Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
36<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
37(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
38(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
39etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
40</p> 32</p>
41 33
42</body> 34</body>
43</subsection> 35</subsection>
44<subsection> 36<subsection>
55<li> 47<li>
56 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
57 file) 49 file)
58</li> 50</li>
59<li> 51<li>
60 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
61 mounted 53 mounted
62</li> 54</li>
63<li> 55<li>
64 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
65</li> 57</li>
66<li> 58<li>
67 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
68 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
69 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
70 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
71</li> 63</li>
72<li> 64<li>
73 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
74 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
75</li> 67</li>
76<li> 68<li>
77 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
78 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
79 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
80 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
81</li> 73</li>
82</ul> 74</ul>
83 75
84<p> 76<impo>
85So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
86<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
87</p> 79</impo>
88 80
89<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
90# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
91</pre> 83</pre>
92 84
93<p> 85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
95</body>
96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
97
98<p>
94Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
95partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 100partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
96<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 101<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
97</p>
98
99<p> 102</p>
103
104<p>
100In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 105In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
101<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
102be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
103would write down:
104</p> 108</p>
105 109
106<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
107/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
108</pre> 112</pre>
109 113
110<p>
111Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
112option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
113aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
114</p> 114<p>
115 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
116<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
117/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 117substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
118</pre> 118manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
119
120<p> 119</p>
121If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 120
122<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 121</body>
122<body>
123
123</p> 124<p>
125Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
126your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
127for those too.
128</p>
124 129
125<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 130<p>
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
132</p>
133
134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
129</pre>
130 146
131<p> 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
132To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
133(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
134partitions or drives, for those too):
135</p> 148</pre>
136 149
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
138/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
156
157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159
160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
161</pre>
162
163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141 167
142none /proc proc defaults 0 0
143none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
144
145/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146</pre> 169</pre>
147 170
148<p> 171<p>
149<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
150removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
151<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 174<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
152</p> 175</p>
153 176
154<p> 177<p>
155Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
156SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
157too: 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
158</p> 181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
159 182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
160<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 183makes the TRIM command work.
161none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
162</pre>
163
164<p> 184</p>
165If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 185
166</p> 186<p>
167
168<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
169none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
170</pre>
171
172<p>
173Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
174</p> 188</p>
175 189
176</body> 190</body>
177</subsection> 191</subsection>
178</section> 192</section>
179<section> 193<section>
180<title>Networking Information</title> 194<title>Networking Information</title>
181<subsection> 195<subsection>
182<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 196<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
183<body> 197<body>
184 198
185<p> 199<p>
186One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 200One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
187easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 201quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
188name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 202appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
189be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 203choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
190<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 204<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
191</p> 205</p>
192 206
193<p>
194We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
195</p>
196
197<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the host name">
198# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
199</pre>
200 209
201<p> 210<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
202Second we set the domainname: 211hostname="<i>tux</i>"
212</pre>
213
203</p> 214<p>
215Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
219</p>
220
221<note>
222The <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file does not exist by default, so you might
223need to create it.
224</note>
204 225
205<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
206# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
230dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
207</pre> 231</pre>
232
233<note>
234If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
235hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
236<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
237</note>
208 238
209<p> 239<p>
210If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 240If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
211one), you need to define that one too: 241one), you need to define that one too:
212</p> 242</p>
213 243
214<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 244<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
215# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 245# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
216</pre>
217 246
218<p> 247<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
219Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 248nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
220</p> 249</pre>
221 250
222<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 251<note>
223# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 252For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
224</pre> 253provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
254can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
255to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
256</note>
225 257
226</body> 258</body>
227</subsection> 259</subsection>
228<subsection> 260<subsection>
229<title>Configuring your Network</title> 261<title>Configuring your Network</title>
230<body> 262<body>
231 263
232<p> 264<p>
233Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 265Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
234that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 266that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
235just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 267just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
236your Gentoo system permanently. 268your Gentoo system permanently.
237</p> 269</p>
238 270
271<note>
272More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
273bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
274link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
275</note>
276
239<p> 277<p>
240All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 278All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
241a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 279a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
242networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 280networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
243</p> 281commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
244 282<path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
245<p> 283</p>
284
285<p>
286DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
287client. This is described later in <uri
288link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
289Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
294specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
246First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 295<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
247is used in this example): 296this example):
248</p> 297</p>
249 298
250<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 299<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
251# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 300# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
252</pre> 301</pre>
253 302
254<p> 303<p>
255The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 304To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
256syntax: 305to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
257</p>
258
259<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
260iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
261</pre>
262
263<p> 306</p>
264If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 307
265to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 308<note>
266not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 309This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
267link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 310very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
268Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 311the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
312the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
313<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
314</note>
315
316<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
317config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
318routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
319</pre>
320
269</p> 321<p>
270 322To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
271<p> 323</p>
272So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 324
273(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 325<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
274192.168.0.1: 326config_eth0="dhcp"
327</pre>
328
275</p> 329<p>
276 330Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
277<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 331list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
278<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 332you need to set specific DHCP options.
279iface_eth0="dhcp"
280
281<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284</pre>
285
286<p> 333</p>
287If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 334
288like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 335<p>
289shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 336If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
337<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
290</p> 338</p>
291 339
292<p> 340<p>
293Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 341Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
294</p> 342</p>
298<subsection> 346<subsection>
299<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 347<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
300<body> 348<body>
301 349
302<p> 350<p>
303To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 351To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
304default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 352default runlevel.
305the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
306</p> 353</p>
307 354
308<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 355<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
356# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
357# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
309# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 358# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
310</pre> 359</pre>
311 360
312<p> 361<p>
313If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 362If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
314<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 363<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
315use <c>ln</c> to do this: 364</p>
365
316</p> 366<p>
317 367If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
318<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 368currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
319# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
320# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
321# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
322</pre> 369</p>
370
371<ol>
372<li>
373update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
374instead of eth0),
375</li>
376<li>
377create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
378</li>
379<li>
380remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
381</li>
382<li>
383add the new one to the default runlevel, and
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
387</li>
388</ol>
323 389
324</body> 390</body>
325</subsection> 391</subsection>
326<subsection> 392<subsection>
327<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 393<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
328<body> 394<body>
329 395
330<p> 396<p>
331You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 397You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
332<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 398<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
333for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 399hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
334internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 400You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
335<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 401set up your own internal DNS system.
336open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
337</p> 402</p>
338 403
339<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 404<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
340# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 405# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
341</pre> 406</pre>
342 407
343<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 408<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
344127.0.0.1 localhost 409<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
345192.168.0.5 jenny 410127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
346192.168.0.6 benny
347192.168.0.7 tux
348</pre>
349 411
350<p> 412<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
351If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 413they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
352resolution) a single line is sufficient: 414192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
353</p> 415192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
354
355<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
356127.0.0.1 localhost tux
357</pre> 416</pre>
358 417
359<p> 418<p>
360Save and exit the editor to continue. 419Save and exit the editor to continue.
361</p> 420</p>
362 421
363<p> 422<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
364If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 423If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
365link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 424link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
366following topic on PCMCIA. 425following topic on PCMCIA.
367</p> 426</p>
368 427
369</body> 428</body>
370</subsection> 429</subsection>
371<subsection> 430<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
372<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 431<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
373<body> 432<body>
374 433
375<p> 434<p>
376PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 435PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
377</p> 436</p>
378 437
379<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 438<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
380# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 439# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
381</pre>
382
383<p>
384When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
385runlevel:
386</p>
387
388<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
389# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
390</pre> 440</pre>
391 441
392</body> 442</body>
393</subsection> 443</subsection>
394</section> 444</section>
395<section> 445
446<section id="sysinfo">
396<title>System Information</title> 447<title>System Information</title>
448<subsection>
449<title>Root Password</title>
450<body>
451
452<p>
453First we set the root password by typing:
454</p>
455
456<pre caption="Setting the root password">
457# <i>passwd</i>
458</pre>
459
397<body> 460</body>
461</subsection>
462<subsection>
463<title>System Information</title>
464<body>
398 465
399<p>
400Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
401Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
402</p> 466<p>
467Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
468and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
469the comments in the file.
470</p>
403 471
404<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 472<pre caption="Configuring services">
405# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 473# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
406</pre> 474</pre>
407 475
408<p> 476<p>
409As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 477When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
410configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 478</p>
411you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 479
412your keyboard.
413</p> 480<p>
481Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
482Edit it to configure your keyboard.
483</p>
484
485<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
486# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
487</pre>
488
489<p>
490Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
491<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
492</p>
493
494<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
495PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
496</note>
497
498<p>
499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
500exit.
501</p>
502
503<p>
504Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
505according to your needs.
506</p>
507
508<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
509# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
510</pre>
511
512<p>
513If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
514to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
515</p>
516
517<p>
518When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
519exit.
520</p>
521
522</body>
523</subsection>
524
525<subsection>
526<title>Configure locales</title>
527<body>
528
529<p>
530You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
531specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
532</p>
533
534<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
535# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
536</pre>
537
538<p>
539The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
540German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
541</p>
542
543<pre caption="Specify your locales">
544en_US ISO-8859-1
545en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
546de_DE ISO-8859-1
547de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
548</pre>
414 549
415<note> 550<note>
416Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 551You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
417keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
418</note> 552</note>
419 553
420<p> 554<warn>
421When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 555We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
422continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 556applications may require it.
557</warn>
558
423</p> 559<p>
560The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
561have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
562</p>
424 563
564<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
565# <i>locale-gen</i>
566</pre>
567
568<p>
569You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale -a</c>.
570</p>
571
572<p>
573Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings.
574With <c>eselect locale list</c>, the available targets are displayed:
575</p>
576
577<pre caption="Displaying the available LANG settings">
578# <i>eselect locale list</i>
579Available targets for the LANG variable:
580 [1] C
581 [2] POSIX
582 [3] en_US
583 [4] en_US.iso88591
584 [5] en_US.utf8
585 [6] de_DE
586 [7] de_DE.iso88591
587 [8] de_DE.iso885915
588 [9] de_DE.utf8
589 [ ] (free form)
590</pre>
591
592<p>
593With <c>eselect locale set &lt;value&gt;</c> the correct locale can be set:
594</p>
595
596<pre caption="Setting the LANG variable">
597# <i>eselect locale set 9</i>
598</pre>
599
600<p>
601Manually, this can still be accomplished through the
602<path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
603</p>
604
605<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
606LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
607LC_COLLATE="C"
608</pre>
609
610<p>
611Don't forget to reload your environment:
612</p>
613
614<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
615# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
616</pre>
617
618<p>
619We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
620Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
621<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
622informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
623</p>
624
625<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
626Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
627Tools</uri>.
628</p>
629
630</body>
631</subsection>
632<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
633<title>Configuring the Console</title>
425</body> 634<body>
635
636<p>
637If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
638<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
639</p>
640
641<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
642hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
643hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
644</pre>
645
646<p>
647You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
648listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
649</p>
650
651<p>
652You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
653System Tools</uri>.
654</p>
655
656</body>
657</subsection>
426</section> 658</section>
427</sections> 659</sections>

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