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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.125 2013/12/17 10:01:35 swift Exp $ -->
8
1<sections> 9<sections>
2<section>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5 10
6<p> 11<abstract>
7You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
8located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
9symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>: 14proceed.
10</p> 15</abstract>
11 16
12<pre caption="Setting the timezone information"> 17<version>31</version>
13# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i> 18<date>2013-12-17</date>
14<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
15# <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
16</pre>
17 19
18</body>
19</section>
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
24<body> 24<body>
25 25
26<p> 26<p>
27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
32</p> 32</p>
33 33
34</body> 34</body>
35</subsection> 35</subsection>
36<subsection> 36<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body> 38<body>
39 39
40<p> 40<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 42fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning: 43its own meaning:
44</p> 44</p>
45 45
46<ul> 46<ul>
47<li> 47<li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file) 49 file)
50</li> 50</li>
51<li> 51<li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted 53 mounted
54</li> 54</li>
55<li> 55<li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57</li> 57</li>
58<li> 58<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
63</li> 63</li>
64<li> 64<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li> 67</li>
68<li> 68<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li> 73</li>
74</ul> 74</ul>
75 75
76<p> 76<impo>
77So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79</p> 79</impo>
80 80
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre> 83</pre>
84 84
85<p> 85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
95</body>
96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
97
98<p>
86Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
87partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 100partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
88<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 101<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
89</p>
90
91<p> 102</p>
103
104<p>
92In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 105In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
93<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
94be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
95would write down:
96</p> 108</p>
97 109
98<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
100</pre> 112</pre>
101 113
102<p>
103Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
104option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
105aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
106</p> 114<p>
107 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
108<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
109/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 117substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
110</pre> 118manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
111
112<p> 119</p>
113If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 120
114<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 121</body>
122<body>
123
115</p> 124<p>
125Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
126your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
127for those too.
128</p>
116 129
117<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 130<p>
118/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
132</p>
133
134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
119/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
120/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
121</pre>
122 146
123<p> 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
124To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
125(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other
126partitions or drives, for those too):
127</p> 148</pre>
128 149
129<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
130/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
156
157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159
160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
161</pre>
162
163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
131/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
132/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
133 167
134none /proc proc defaults 0 0
135none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
136
137/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre> 169</pre>
139 170
140<p> 171<p>
141<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
142removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
143<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 174<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
144</p> 175</p>
145 176
146<p> 177<p>
147Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
148SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
149too: 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
150</p> 181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
151 182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
152<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 183makes the TRIM command work.
153none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
154</pre>
155
156<p> 184</p>
185
186<p>
157Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
158</p> 188</p>
159 189
160</body> 190</body>
161</subsection> 191</subsection>
162</section> 192</section>
163<section> 193<section>
164<title>Networking Information</title> 194<title>Networking Information</title>
165<subsection> 195<subsection>
166<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 196<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
167<body> 197<body>
168 198
169<p> 199<p>
170One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 200One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
171easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 201quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
172name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 202appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
173be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 203choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
174<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 204<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
175</p> 205</p>
176 206
177<p>
178We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
179</p>
180
181<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the host name">
182# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
183</pre>
184 209
210<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
211hostname="<i>tux</i>"
212</pre>
213
185<p> 214<p>
186Second we set the domainname: 215Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
187</p> 219</p>
188 220
189<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 221<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
190# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 222# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
223
224<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
225dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
191</pre> 226</pre>
227
228<note>
229If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
230hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
231<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
232</note>
192 233
193<p> 234<p>
194If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 235If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
195one), you need to define that one too: 236one), you need to define that one too:
196</p> 237</p>
197 238
198<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 239<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
199# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241
242<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
243nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
200</pre> 244</pre>
245
246<note>
247For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
248provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
249can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
250to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
251</note>
201 252
202</body> 253</body>
203</subsection> 254</subsection>
204<subsection> 255<subsection>
205<title>Configuring your Network</title> 256<title>Configuring your Network</title>
206<body> 257<body>
207 258
208<p> 259<p>
209Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 260Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
210that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 261that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
211just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 262just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
212your Gentoo system permanently. 263your Gentoo system permanently.
213</p> 264</p>
214 265
266<note>
267More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
268bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
269link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
270</note>
271
215<p> 272<p>
216All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 273All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
217a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 274a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
218networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 275networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
219</p> 276commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
220 277<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
221<p> 278</p>
279
280<p>
281DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
282client. This is described later in <uri
283link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
284Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
285</p>
286
287<p>
288If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
289specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
222First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 290<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
223is used in this example): 291this example):
224</p> 292</p>
225 293
226<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 294<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 295# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228</pre> 296</pre>
229 297
230<p> 298<p>
231The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 299You will see the following file:
232syntax:
233</p>
234
235<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
236iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
237</pre>
238
239<p> 300</p>
240If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 301
241to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 302<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
242not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 303# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
243link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 304# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
244Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 305# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
306# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
307</pre>
308
245</p> 309<p>
246 310To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
311to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
247<p> 312</p>
248So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 313
249(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 314<note>
250192.168.0.1: 315This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
316very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
317the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
318the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
319<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
320</note>
321
322<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
323config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
324routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
325</pre>
326
251</p> 327<p>
252 328To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
253<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
254<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
255iface_eth0="dhcp"
256
257<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
258iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
259gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
260</pre>
261
262<p> 329</p>
263If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 330
264like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 331<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
265shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 332config_eth0="dhcp"
333</pre>
334
335<p>
336Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
337list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
338you need to set specific DHCP options.
339</p>
340
341<p>
342If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
343<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
266</p> 344</p>
267 345
268<p> 346<p>
269Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 347Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
270</p> 348</p>
274<subsection> 352<subsection>
275<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 353<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
276<body> 354<body>
277 355
278<p> 356<p>
279To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 357To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
280default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 358default runlevel.
281the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
282</p> 359</p>
283 360
284<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 361<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
362# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
363# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
285# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 364# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
286</pre> 365</pre>
287 366
288<p> 367<p>
289If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 368If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
290<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 369<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
291use <c>ln</c> to do this: 370</p>
371
292</p> 372<p>
293 373If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
294<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 374currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
295# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
296# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
297# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
298</pre> 375</p>
376
377<ol>
378<li>
379update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
380instead of eth0),
381</li>
382<li>
383create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
387</li>
388<li>
389add the new one to the default runlevel, and
390</li>
391<li>
392remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
393</li>
394</ol>
299 395
300</body> 396</body>
301</subsection> 397</subsection>
302<subsection> 398<subsection>
303<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 399<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
304<body> 400<body>
305 401
306<p> 402<p>
307You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 403You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
308<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 404<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
309for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 405hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
310internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 406You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
311<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 407set up your own internal DNS system.
312open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
313</p> 408</p>
314 409
315<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 410<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 411# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
317</pre> 412</pre>
318 413
319<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 414<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
320127.0.0.1 localhost tux 415<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
321192.168.0.5 jenny 416127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
322192.168.0.56 benny
323</pre>
324 417
325<p> 418<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
326If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 419they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
327resolution) a single line is sufficient: 420192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
328</p> 421192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
329
330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
331127.0.0.1 localhost tux
332</pre> 422</pre>
333 423
334<p> 424<p>
335Save and exit the editor to continue. 425Save and exit the editor to continue.
336</p> 426</p>
337 427
338<p> 428<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
339If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 429If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
340link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 430link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
341following topic on PCMCIA. 431following topic on PCMCIA.
342</p> 432</p>
343 433
344</body> 434</body>
345</subsection> 435</subsection>
346<subsection> 436<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
347<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 437<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
348<body> 438<body>
349 439
350<p> 440<p>
351PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 441PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
352</p> 442</p>
353 443
354<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 444<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
355# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 445# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
356</pre>
357
358<p>
359When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
360runlevel:
361</p>
362
363<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
364# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
365</pre> 446</pre>
366 447
367</body> 448</body>
368</subsection> 449</subsection>
369</section> 450</section>
370<section> 451
452<section id="sysinfo">
371<title>System Information</title> 453<title>System Information</title>
454<subsection>
455<title>Root Password</title>
456<body>
457
458<p>
459First we set the root password by typing:
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Setting the root password">
463# <i>passwd</i>
464</pre>
465
372<body> 466</body>
467</subsection>
468<subsection>
469<title>System Information</title>
470<body>
373 471
374<p>
375Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
376Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
377</p> 472<p>
473Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
474and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
475the comments in the file.
476</p>
378 477
379<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 478<pre caption="Configuring services">
380# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
381</pre> 480</pre>
382 481
383<p> 482<p>
384As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 483When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
385configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 484</p>
386<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 485
387</p> 486<p>
487Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
488Edit it to configure your keyboard.
489</p>
388 490
491<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
492# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
493</pre>
494
495<p>
496Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
497<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
498</p>
499
500<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
501PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
502</note>
503
504<p>
505When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
506exit.
507</p>
508
509<p>
510Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
511according to your needs.
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
515# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
516</pre>
517
518<p>
519If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
520to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
521</p>
522
523<p>
524When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
525exit.
526</p>
527
528</body>
529</subsection>
530
531<subsection>
532<title>Configure locales</title>
389</body> 533<body>
534
535<p>
536You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
537specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
538</p>
539
540<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
541# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
542</pre>
543
544<p>
545The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
546German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
547</p>
548
549<pre caption="Specify your locales">
550en_US ISO-8859-1
551en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
552de_DE ISO-8859-1
553de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
554</pre>
555
556<note>
557You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
558</note>
559
560<warn>
561We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
562applications may require it.
563</warn>
564
565<p>
566The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
567have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
568</p>
569
570<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
571# <i>locale-gen</i>
572</pre>
573
574<p>
575You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale -a</c>.
576</p>
577
578<p>
579Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings.
580With <c>eselect locale list</c>, the available targets are displayed:
581</p>
582
583<pre caption="Displaying the available LANG settings">
584# <i>eselect locale list</i>
585Available targets for the LANG variable:
586 [1] C
587 [2] POSIX
588 [3] en_US
589 [4] en_US.iso88591
590 [5] en_US.utf8
591 [6] de_DE
592 [7] de_DE.iso88591
593 [8] de_DE.iso885915
594 [9] de_DE.utf8
595 [ ] (free form)
596</pre>
597
598<p>
599With <c>eselect locale set &lt;value&gt;</c> the correct locale can be set:
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Setting the LANG variable">
603# <i>eselect locale set 9</i>
604</pre>
605
606<p>
607Manually, this can still be accomplished through the
608<path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
609</p>
610
611<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
612LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
613LC_COLLATE="C"
614</pre>
615
616<p>
617Don't forget to reload your environment:
618</p>
619
620<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
621# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
622</pre>
623
624<p>
625We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
626Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
627<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
628informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
629</p>
630
631<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
632Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
633Tools</uri>.
634</p>
635
636</body>
637</subsection>
638<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
639<title>Configuring the Console</title>
640<body>
641
642<p>
643If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
644<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
645</p>
646
647<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
648hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
649hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
650</pre>
651
652<p>
653You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
654listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
655</p>
656
657<p>
658You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
659System Tools</uri>.
660</p>
661
662</body>
663</subsection>
390</section> 664</section>
391</sections> 665</sections>

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