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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.65 2005/06/11 19:45:37 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
1<sections> 9<sections>
2<section>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5 10
6<p> 11<version>2.7</version>
7You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12<date>2005-06-11</date>
8located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
9symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
10</p>
11 13
12<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
13# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
14<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
15# <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
16</pre>
17
18</body>
19</section>
20<section> 14<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 16<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
24<body> 18<body>
25 19
26<p> 20<p>
27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
32</p> 26</p>
33 27
34</body> 28</body>
35</subsection> 29</subsection>
36<subsection> 30<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 31<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body> 32<body>
39 33
40<p> 34<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 35<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 36fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning: 37its own meaning:
44</p> 38</p>
45 39
46<ul> 40<ul>
47<li> 41<li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57</li> 51</li>
58<li> 52<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
63</li> 57</li>
64<li> 58<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li> 61</li>
68<li> 62<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li> 67</li>
74</ul> 68</ul>
75 69
76<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
77So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
78<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
79</p> 74</p>
80 75
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre> 78</pre>
84 79
85<p> 80<p>
86Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
87partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
88<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
89</p> 84</p>
90 85
91<p> 86<p>
92In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
93<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
94be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
95would write down:
96</p> 90</p>
97 91
98<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
100</pre> 101</p>
101 102
102<p> 103<p>
103Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
104option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
105aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
106</p> 107</p>
107 108
108<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
109/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
110</pre> 111</pre>
111 112
112<p> 113<p>
113If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
114<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
115</p> 116</p>
116 117
117<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
118/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
119/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
120/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
121</pre> 122</pre>
122 123
123<p> 124<p>
124To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> 125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
125(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
126partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
127</p> 128</p>
128 129
129<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
130/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
131/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
132/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
133 134
134none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
135none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
136 137
137/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre> 139</pre>
139 140
140<p> 141<p>
143<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
144</p> 145</p>
145 146
146<p> 147<p>
147Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
148SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
149too: 151too:
150</p> 152</p>
151 153
152<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
153none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
154</pre> 156</pre>
155 157
156<p> 158<p>
157Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
158</p> 160</p>
159 161
160</body> 162</body>
161</subsection> 163</subsection>
162</section> 164</section>
165<subsection> 167<subsection>
166<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
167<body> 169<body>
168 170
169<p> 171<p>
170One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
171easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
172name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
173be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
174<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
175</p> 177</p>
176 178
177<p> 179<p>
178We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
195one), you need to define that one too: 197one), you need to define that one too:
196</p> 198</p>
197 199
198<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 200<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
199# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 201# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
200</pre> 210</pre>
201 211
202</body> 212</body>
203</subsection> 213</subsection>
204<subsection> 214<subsection>
210that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 220that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
211just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 221just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
212your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
213</p> 223</p>
214 224
225<note>
226More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
227bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
228link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
229</note>
230
215<p> 231<p>
216All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 232All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
217a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 233a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
218networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 234networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
219</p> 235</p>
220 236
221<p> 237<p>
222First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 238First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
226<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 242<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228</pre> 244</pre>
229 245
230<p> 246<p>
231The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 247The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
232syntax: 248imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
233</p> 249needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
234 250like so:
235<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
236iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
237</pre>
238
239<p> 251</p>
240If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 252
241to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 253<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
242not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 254config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
243link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 255</pre>
244Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 256
245</p> 257<p>
246 258However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
259to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
247<p> 260</p>
248So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 261
249(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 262<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
250192.168.0.1: 263config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
264routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
265</pre>
266
251</p> 267<p>
252 268If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
253<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 269<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
254<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
255iface_eth0="dhcp"
256
257<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
258iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
259gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
260</pre>
261
262<p>
263If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
264like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
265shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
266</p> 270</p>
267 271
268<p> 272<p>
269Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 273Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
270</p> 274</p>
274<subsection> 278<subsection>
275<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 279<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
276<body> 280<body>
277 281
278<p> 282<p>
279To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 283To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
280default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 284default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
281the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 285the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
282</p> 286</p>
283 287
284<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 288<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
306<p> 310<p>
307You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 311You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
308<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 312<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
309for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 313for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
310internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 314internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
311<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 315<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
312open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 316open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
313</p> 317</p>
314 318
315<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 319<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 320# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
317</pre> 321</pre>
318 322
319<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 323<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
320127.0.0.1 localhost tux 324127.0.0.1 localhost
321192.168.0.5 jenny 325192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
322192.168.0.56 benny 326192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
327192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
323</pre> 328</pre>
324 329
325<p> 330<p>
326If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 331If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
327resolution) a single line is sufficient: 332resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
333system <c>tux</c>:
328</p> 334</p>
329 335
330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 336<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
331127.0.0.1 localhost tux 337127.0.0.1 localhost tux
332</pre> 338</pre>
333 339
334<p> 340<p>
335Save and exit the editor to continue. 341Save and exit the editor to continue.
336</p> 342</p>
337 343
338<p> 344<p>
339If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 345If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
340link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 346link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
341following topic on PCMCIA. 347following topic on PCMCIA.
342</p> 348</p>
343 349
344</body> 350</body>
345</subsection> 351</subsection>
346<subsection> 352<subsection>
347<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 353<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
348<body> 354<body>
349 355
356<note>
357pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
358</note>
359
350<p> 360<p>
351PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 361PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
362includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
363using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
364to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
352</p> 365</p>
353 366
354<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 367<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
355# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 368# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
356</pre> 369</pre>
357 370
358<p> 371<p>
359When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 372When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
360runlevel: 373runlevel:
361</p> 374</p>
362 375
363<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 376<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
364# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 377# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
365</pre> 378</pre>
366 379
367</body> 380</body>
368</subsection> 381</subsection>
369</section> 382</section>
370<section> 383<section>
371<title>System Information</title> 384<title>System Information</title>
385<subsection>
386<title>Root Password</title>
387<body>
388
389<p>
390First we set the root password by typing:
391</p>
392
393<pre caption="Setting the root password">
394# <i>passwd</i>
395</pre>
396
397<p>
398If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
399<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
400</p>
401
402<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
403# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
404</pre>
405
406</body>
407</subsection>
408<subsection>
409<title>System Information</title>
372<body> 410<body>
373 411
374<p> 412<p>
375Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 413Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
376Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 414Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
380# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 418# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
381</pre> 419</pre>
382 420
383<p> 421<p>
384As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 422As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
385configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 423configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
386<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 424you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
425your keyboard.
426</p>
427
428<note>
429Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
430select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
431</note>
432
387</p> 433<p>
434<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
435ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
436to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
437</p>
388 438
439<p>
440If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
441the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
442</p>
443
444<p>
445When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
446</p>
447
448<p>
449If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
450<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
451</p>
452
453</body>
454</subsection>
455<subsection>
456<title>Configuring the Console</title>
389</body> 457<body>
458
459<note>
460The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
461</note>
462
463<p>
464If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
465the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
466</p>
467
468<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
469hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
474System Tools</uri>.
475</p>
476
477</body>
478</subsection>
390</section> 479</section>
391</sections> 480</sections>

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