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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.30 2004/03/21 10:21:35 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.125 2013/12/17 10:01:35 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>31</version>
18<date>2013-12-17</date>
19
10<section> 20<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 22<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 24<body>
15 25
16<p> 26<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
22</p> 32</p>
23 33
24</body> 34</body>
25</subsection> 35</subsection>
26<subsection> 36<subsection>
37<li> 47<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file) 49 file)
40</li> 50</li>
41<li> 51<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted 53 mounted
44</li> 54</li>
45<li> 55<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 57</li>
48<li> 58<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
53</li> 63</li>
54<li> 64<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 67</li>
58<li> 68<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 73</li>
64</ul> 74</ul>
65 75
66<p> 76<impo>
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
69</p> 79</impo>
70 80
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 83</pre>
74 84
75<p> 85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
95</body>
96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
97
98<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 100partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as PPC), don't copy it verbatim. 101<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
79</p>
80
81<p> 102</p>
103
104<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 105In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 108</p>
87 109
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
90</pre> 112</pre>
91 113
92<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 114<p>
97 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 117substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100</pre> 118manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101
102<p> 119</p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 120
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 121</body>
122<body>
123
105</p> 124<p>
125Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
126your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
127for those too.
128</p>
106 129
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 130<p>
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
132</p>
133
134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
111</pre>
112 146
113<p> 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
114To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 148</pre>
118 149
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
156
157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159
160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
161</pre>
162
163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 167
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 169</pre>
129 170
130<p> 171<p>
131<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 174<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134</p> 175</p>
135 176
136<p> 177<p>
137Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
138SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
139too: 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
140</p> 181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
141 182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
142<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 183makes the TRIM command work.
143none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144</pre>
145
146<p> 184</p>
147If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 185
148</p> 186<p>
149
150<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152</pre>
153
154<p>
155Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156</p> 188</p>
157 189
158</body> 190</body>
159</subsection> 191</subsection>
160</section> 192</section>
161<section> 193<section>
162<title>Networking Information</title> 194<title>Networking Information</title>
163<subsection> 195<subsection>
164<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 196<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
165<body> 197<body>
166 198
167<p> 199<p>
168One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 200One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
169easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 201quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
170name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 202appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
171be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 203choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 204<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173</p> 205</p>
174 206
175<p>
176We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
177</p>
178
179<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the host name">
180# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
181</pre>
182 209
210<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
211hostname="<i>tux</i>"
212</pre>
213
183<p> 214<p>
184Second we set the domainname: 215Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
185</p> 219</p>
186 220
187<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 221<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
188# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 222# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
223
224<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
225dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
189</pre> 226</pre>
227
228<note>
229If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
230hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
231<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
232</note>
190 233
191<p> 234<p>
192If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 235If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
193one), you need to define that one too: 236one), you need to define that one too:
194</p> 237</p>
195 238
196<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 239<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
197# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
198</pre>
199 241
200<p> 242<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
201Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 243nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
202</p> 244</pre>
203 245
204<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 246<note>
205# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 247For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
206</pre> 248provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
249can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
250to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
251</note>
207 252
208</body> 253</body>
209</subsection> 254</subsection>
210<subsection> 255<subsection>
211<title>Configuring your Network</title> 256<title>Configuring your Network</title>
212<body> 257<body>
213 258
214<p> 259<p>
215Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 260Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
216that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 261that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
217just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 262just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
218your Gentoo system permanently. 263your Gentoo system permanently.
219</p> 264</p>
220 265
266<note>
267More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
268bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
269link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
270</note>
271
221<p> 272<p>
222All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 273All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 274a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
224networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 275networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
225</p> 276commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
226 277<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
227<p> 278</p>
279
280<p>
281DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
282client. This is described later in <uri
283link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
284Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
285</p>
286
287<p>
288If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
289specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
228First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 290<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
229is used in this example): 291this example):
230</p> 292</p>
231 293
232<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 294<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 295# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234</pre> 296</pre>
235 297
236<p> 298<p>
237The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 299You will see the following file:
238syntax:
239</p>
240
241<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243</pre>
244
245<p> 300</p>
246If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 301
247to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 302<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
248If you need to setup your network manually and you're 303# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
249not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 304# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
250link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 305# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
251Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 306# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
307</pre>
308
252</p> 309<p>
253 310To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
311to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
254<p> 312</p>
255So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 313
256IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 314<note>
257gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 315This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
258rp-pppoe usage: 316very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
317the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
318the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
319<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
320</note>
321
322<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
323config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
324routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
325</pre>
326
259</p> 327<p>
260 328To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
261<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
262<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
263iface_eth0="dhcp"
264
265<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
266iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
267gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
268
269<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
270iface_eth0="up"
271</pre>
272
273<p> 329</p>
274If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 330
275like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 331<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
276shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 332config_eth0="dhcp"
333</pre>
334
335<p>
336Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
337list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
338you need to set specific DHCP options.
339</p>
340
341<p>
342If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
343<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
277</p> 344</p>
278 345
279<p> 346<p>
280Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 347Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281</p> 348</p>
285<subsection> 352<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 353<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body> 354<body>
288 355
289<p> 356<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 357To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 358default runlevel.
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p> 359</p>
294 360
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 361<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
362# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
363# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
296# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 364# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
297</pre> 365</pre>
298 366
299<p> 367<p>
300If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 368If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
301<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 369<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
302use <c>ln</c> to do this: 370</p>
371
303</p> 372<p>
304 373If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
305<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 374currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
306# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
307# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
308# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
309</pre> 375</p>
376
377<ol>
378<li>
379update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
380instead of eth0),
381</li>
382<li>
383create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
387</li>
388<li>
389add the new one to the default runlevel, and
390</li>
391<li>
392remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
393</li>
394</ol>
310 395
311</body> 396</body>
312</subsection> 397</subsection>
313<subsection> 398<subsection>
314<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 399<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
315<body> 400<body>
316 401
317<p> 402<p>
318You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 403You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 404<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
320for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 405hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
321internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 406You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
322<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 407set up your own internal DNS system.
323open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324</p> 408</p>
325 409
326<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 410<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 411# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328</pre> 412</pre>
329 413
330<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 414<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331127.0.0.1 localhost 415<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
416127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
417
418<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
419they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
332192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 420192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
333192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 421192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
334192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
335</pre>
336
337<p>
338If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
339resolution) a single line is sufficient:
340</p>
341
342<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
343127.0.0.1 localhost
344</pre> 422</pre>
345 423
346<p> 424<p>
347Save and exit the editor to continue. 425Save and exit the editor to continue.
348</p> 426</p>
349 427
350<p> 428<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
351If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 429If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
352link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 430link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
353following topic on PCMCIA. 431following topic on PCMCIA.
354</p> 432</p>
355 433
356</body> 434</body>
357</subsection> 435</subsection>
358<subsection> 436<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
359<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 437<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
360<body> 438<body>
361 439
362<p> 440<p>
363PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 441PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
364<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment:
365</p> 442</p>
366 443
367<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 444<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
368# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 445# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
369</pre>
370
371<p>
372When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
373runlevel:
374</p>
375
376<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
377# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
378</pre> 446</pre>
379 447
380</body> 448</body>
381</subsection> 449</subsection>
382</section> 450</section>
383<section> 451
452<section id="sysinfo">
384<title>System Information</title> 453<title>System Information</title>
454<subsection>
455<title>Root Password</title>
456<body>
457
458<p>
459First we set the root password by typing:
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Setting the root password">
463# <i>passwd</i>
464</pre>
465
385<body> 466</body>
467</subsection>
468<subsection>
469<title>System Information</title>
470<body>
386 471
387<p>
388Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
389Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
390</p> 472<p>
473Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
474and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
475the comments in the file.
476</p>
391 477
392<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 478<pre caption="Configuring services">
393# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
394</pre> 480</pre>
395 481
396<p> 482<p>
397As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 483When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
398configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 484</p>
399you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 485
400your keyboard.
401</p> 486<p>
487Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
488Edit it to configure your keyboard.
489</p>
490
491<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
492# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
493</pre>
494
495<p>
496Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
497<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
498</p>
499
500<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
501PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
502</note>
503
504<p>
505When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
506exit.
507</p>
508
509<p>
510Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
511according to your needs.
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
515# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
516</pre>
517
518<p>
519If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
520to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
521</p>
522
523<p>
524When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
525exit.
526</p>
527
528</body>
529</subsection>
530
531<subsection>
532<title>Configure locales</title>
533<body>
534
535<p>
536You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
537specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
538</p>
539
540<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
541# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
542</pre>
543
544<p>
545The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
546German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
547</p>
548
549<pre caption="Specify your locales">
550en_US ISO-8859-1
551en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
552de_DE ISO-8859-1
553de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
554</pre>
402 555
403<note> 556<note>
404Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 557You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
405keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
406</note> 558</note>
407 559
408<p> 560<warn>
409PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 561We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
410keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to 562applications may require it.
411set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 563</warn>
564
412</p> 565<p>
413 566The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
567have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
414<p> 568</p>
415When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 569
416continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 570<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
571# <i>locale-gen</i>
572</pre>
573
417</p> 574<p>
575You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale -a</c>.
576</p>
418 577
578<p>
579Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings.
580With <c>eselect locale list</c>, the available targets are displayed:
581</p>
582
583<pre caption="Displaying the available LANG settings">
584# <i>eselect locale list</i>
585Available targets for the LANG variable:
586 [1] C
587 [2] POSIX
588 [3] en_US
589 [4] en_US.iso88591
590 [5] en_US.utf8
591 [6] de_DE
592 [7] de_DE.iso88591
593 [8] de_DE.iso885915
594 [9] de_DE.utf8
595 [ ] (free form)
596</pre>
597
598<p>
599With <c>eselect locale set &lt;value&gt;</c> the correct locale can be set:
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Setting the LANG variable">
603# <i>eselect locale set 9</i>
604</pre>
605
606<p>
607Manually, this can still be accomplished through the
608<path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
609</p>
610
611<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
612LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
613LC_COLLATE="C"
614</pre>
615
616<p>
617Don't forget to reload your environment:
618</p>
619
620<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
621# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
622</pre>
623
624<p>
625We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
626Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
627<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
628informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
629</p>
630
631<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
632Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
633Tools</uri>.
634</p>
635
636</body>
637</subsection>
638<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
639<title>Configuring the Console</title>
419</body> 640<body>
641
642<p>
643If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
644<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
645</p>
646
647<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
648hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
649hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
650</pre>
651
652<p>
653You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
654listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
655</p>
656
657<p>
658You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
659System Tools</uri>.
660</p>
661
662</body>
663</subsection>
420</section> 664</section>
421</sections> 665</sections>

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