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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.49 2004/10/23 11:04:27 swift Exp $ -->
8
4<sections> 9<sections>
5<section>
6<title>Timezone</title>
7<body>
8
9<p>
10You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
11located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
12symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
13</p>
14
15<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
16# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
17<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18# <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
19</pre>
20
21</body>
22</section>
23<section> 10<section>
24<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
25<subsection> 12<subsection>
26<title>What is fstab?</title> 13<title>What is fstab?</title>
27<body> 14<body>
28 15
29<p> 16<p>
30Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
32(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 20and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
34etc.). 21them or not, etc.)
35</p> 22</p>
36 23
37</body> 24</body>
38</subsection> 25</subsection>
39<subsection> 26<subsection>
40<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 27<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41<body> 28<body>
42 29
43<p> 30<p>
44<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 31<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
45fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 32fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46its own meaning: 33its own meaning:
47</p> 34</p>
48 35
49<ul> 36<ul>
50<li> 37<li>
59 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
60</li> 47</li>
61<li> 48<li>
62 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
64 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 51 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
66</li> 53</li>
67<li> 54<li>
68 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70</li> 57</li>
71<li> 58<li>
72 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
73 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
74 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
75 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 62 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76</li> 63</li>
77</ul> 64</ul>
78 65
79<p> 66<p>
67The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
80So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 68file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
81<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 69<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
82</p> 70</p>
83 71
84<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 72<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 73# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86</pre> 74</pre>
87 75
88<p> 76<p>
89Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 77Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 78partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
91<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 79<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
92</p> 80</p>
93 81
94<p> 82<p>
95In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 83In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
96<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 84<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
97be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 85It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98would write down:
99</p> 86</p>
100 87
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
90</pre>
91
92<p>
93Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
94automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
95substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
96manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
103</pre> 97</p>
104 98
105<p> 99<p>
106Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 100Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 101option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 102aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109</p> 103</p>
110 104
111<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 105<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
112/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 106/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
113</pre> 107</pre>
114 108
115<p> 109<p>
116If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
117<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
118</p> 112</p>
119 113
120<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 114<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
121/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 115/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
122/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 116/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
123/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 117/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124</pre> 118</pre>
125 119
126<p> 120<p>
127To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> 121To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
128(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other 122(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
129partitions or drives, for those too): 123partitions or drives, for those too):
130</p> 124</p>
131 125
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 126<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
133/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 127/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
134/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 128/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 129/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136 130
137none /proc proc defaults 0 0 131none /proc proc defaults 0 0
138none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 132none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
139 133
140/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 134/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141</pre> 135</pre>
142 136
143<p> 137<p>
146<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 140<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147</p> 141</p>
148 142
149<p> 143<p>
150Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 144Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
151SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 145<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
146<path>/etc/fstab</path>
152too: 147too:
153</p> 148</p>
154 149
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 150<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 151none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157</pre> 152</pre>
158 153
154<p>
155If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
159<p> 156</p>
157
158<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
159none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
160</pre>
161
162<p>
160Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 163Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161</p> 164</p>
162 165
163</body> 166</body>
164</subsection> 167</subsection>
165</section> 168</section>
168<subsection> 171<subsection>
169<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 172<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
170<body> 173<body>
171 174
172<p> 175<p>
173One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 176One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
174easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 177quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
175name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 178appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
176be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 179choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 180<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178</p> 181</p>
179 182
180<p> 183<p>
181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 184We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
198one), you need to define that one too: 201one), you need to define that one too:
199</p> 202</p>
200 203
201<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 204<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
202# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 205# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
206</pre>
207
208<p>
209Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
210</p>
211
212<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
213# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
203</pre> 214</pre>
204 215
205</body> 216</body>
206</subsection> 217</subsection>
207<subsection> 218<subsection>
215your Gentoo system permanently. 226your Gentoo system permanently.
216</p> 227</p>
217 228
218<p> 229<p>
219All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 230All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
220a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 231a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
221networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 232networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
222</p> 233</p>
223 234
224<p> 235<p>
225First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 236First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
239iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 250iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
240</pre> 251</pre>
241 252
242<p> 253<p>
243If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 254If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
255to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
244to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 256If you need to set up your network manually and you're
245not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 257not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
246link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 258link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
247Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 259Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
248</p> 260</p>
249 261
250<p> 262<p>
251So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 263So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
252(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 264IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
253192.168.0.1: 265gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
266rp-pppoe usage:
254</p> 267</p>
255 268
256<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 269<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
257<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 270<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
258iface_eth0="dhcp" 271iface_eth0="dhcp"
272<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
259 280
260<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 281<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
261iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
262gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284
285<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
286iface_eth0="up"
263</pre> 287</pre>
264 288
265<p> 289<p>
266If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 290If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
267like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 291like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
277<subsection> 301<subsection>
278<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 302<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
279<body> 303<body>
280 304
281<p> 305<p>
282To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 306To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
283default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 307default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
284the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 308the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
285</p> 309</p>
286 310
287<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 311<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
309<p> 333<p>
310You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 334You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
311<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 335<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
312for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 336for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
313internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 337internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
314<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 338<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
315open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 339open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
316</p> 340</p>
317 341
318<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 342<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
319# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 343# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
320</pre> 344</pre>
321 345
322<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 346<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
323127.0.0.1 localhost tux 347127.0.0.1 localhost
324192.168.0.5 jenny 348192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
325192.168.0.56 benny 349192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
350192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
326</pre> 351</pre>
327 352
328<p> 353<p>
329If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 354If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
330resolution) a single line is sufficient: 355resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
331</p> 357</p>
332 358
333<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 359<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
334127.0.0.1 localhost tux 360127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
335</pre> 361</pre>
336 362
337<p> 363<p>
338Save and exit the editor to continue. 364Save and exit the editor to continue.
339</p> 365</p>
340 366
341<p> 367<p>
342If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 368If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
343link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 369link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
344following topic on PCMCIA. 370following topic on PCMCIA.
345</p> 371</p>
346 372
347</body> 373</body>
348</subsection> 374</subsection>
349<subsection> 375<subsection>
350<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 376<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
351<body> 377<body>
352 378
379<note>
380pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381</note>
382
353<p> 383<p>
354PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 384PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
385includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
386using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
387to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
355</p> 388</p>
356 389
357<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 390<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
358# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 391# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
359</pre> 392</pre>
360 393
361<p> 394<p>
362When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 395When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
363runlevel: 396runlevel:
364</p> 397</p>
365 398
366<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 399<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
367# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 400# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
368</pre> 401</pre>
369 402
370</body> 403</body>
371</subsection> 404</subsection>
372</section> 405</section>
373<section> 406<section>
374<title>System Information</title> 407<title>System Information</title>
408<subsection>
409<title>Root Password</title>
410<body>
411
412<p>
413First we set the root password by typing:
414</p>
415
416<pre caption="Setting the root password">
417# <i>passwd</i>
418</pre>
419
420<p>
421If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
422<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
426# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
427</pre>
428
429</body>
430</subsection>
431<subsection>
432<title>System Information</title>
375<body> 433<body>
376 434
377<p> 435<p>
378Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 436Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
379Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 437Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
383# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 441# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
384</pre> 442</pre>
385 443
386<p> 444<p>
387As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 445As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
388configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 446configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
389<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 447you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
448your keyboard.
449</p>
450
451<note>
452Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
453select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
454</note>
455
390</p> 456<p>
457<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
458ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
459to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
460</p>
391 461
462<p>
463When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
464continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
465Tools</uri>.
466</p>
467
392</body> 468</body>
469</subsection>
393</section> 470</section>
394</sections> 471</sections>

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