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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.34 2004/06/03 20:58:34 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.55 2005/01/04 18:11:20 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.51</version>
12<date>2004-12-26</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p> 84</p>
80 85
81<p> 86<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 90</p>
87 91
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
90</pre> 101</p>
91 102
92<p> 103<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 107</p>
97 108
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
100</pre> 111</pre>
101 112
102<p> 113<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p> 116</p>
106 117
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre> 122</pre>
112 123
113<p> 124<p>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 128</p>
118 129
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 134
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
126 137
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 139</pre>
129 140
130<p> 141<p>
219your Gentoo system permanently. 230your Gentoo system permanently.
220</p> 231</p>
221 232
222<p> 233<p>
223All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
224a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
225networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
226</p> 237</p>
227 238
228<p> 239<p>
229First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 240First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
244</pre> 255</pre>
245 256
246<p> 257<p>
247If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 258If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
248to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 259to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
249If you need to setup your network manually and you're 260If you need to set up your network manually and you're
250not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 261not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
251link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 262link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
252Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 263Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
253</p> 264</p>
254 265
255<p> 266<p>
256So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 267So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
260</p> 271</p>
261 272
262<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 273<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
263<comment>(For DHCP)</comment> 274<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
264iface_eth0="dhcp" 275iface_eth0="dhcp"
276<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
277<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
278<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
279<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
280dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
281<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
282<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
283dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
265 284
266<comment>(For static IP)</comment> 285<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
267iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 286iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
268gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 287gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
269 288
286<subsection> 305<subsection>
287<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 306<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
288<body> 307<body>
289 308
290<p> 309<p>
291To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 310To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
292default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 311default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
293the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 312the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
294</p> 313</p>
295 314
296<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 315<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
335192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux 354192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
336</pre> 355</pre>
337 356
338<p> 357<p>
339If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 358If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
340resolution) a single line is sufficient: 359resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
360system <c>tux</c>:
341</p> 361</p>
342 362
343<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 363<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
344127.0.0.1 localhost 364127.0.0.1 localhost tux
345</pre> 365</pre>
346 366
347<p> 367<p>
348Save and exit the editor to continue. 368Save and exit the editor to continue.
349</p> 369</p>
363<note> 383<note>
364pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 384pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
365</note> 385</note>
366 386
367<p> 387<p>
368PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 388PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
369<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment: 389includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
390using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
391to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
370</p> 392</p>
371 393
372<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 394<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
373# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 395# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
374</pre> 396</pre>
384 406
385</body> 407</body>
386</subsection> 408</subsection>
387</section> 409</section>
388<section> 410<section>
411<title>System Information</title>
412<subsection>
413<title>Root Password</title>
414<body>
415
416<p>
417First we set the root password by typing:
418</p>
419
420<pre caption="Setting the root password">
421# <i>passwd</i>
422</pre>
423
424<p>
425If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
426<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
427</p>
428
429<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
430# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
431</pre>
432
433</body>
434</subsection>
435<subsection>
389<title>System Information</title> 436<title>System Information</title>
390<body> 437<body>
391 438
392<p> 439<p>
393Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
416to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 463to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
417</p> 464</p>
418 465
419<p> 466<p>
420When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 467When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
421continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 468continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
469Tools</uri>.
422</p> 470</p>
423 471
424</body> 472</body>
473</subsection>
425</section> 474</section>
426</sections> 475</sections>

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