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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.57 2005/04/07 16:12:35 swift Exp $ -->
8
1<sections> 9<sections>
2<section>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5 10
6<p> 11<version>2.1</version>
7You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12<date>2005-04-07</date>
8located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
9symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
10</p>
11 13
12<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
13# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
14<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
15# <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
16</pre>
17
18</body>
19</section>
20<section> 14<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 16<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
24<body> 18<body>
25 19
26<p> 20<p>
27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
32</p> 26</p>
33 27
34</body> 28</body>
35</subsection> 29</subsection>
36<subsection> 30<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 31<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body> 32<body>
39 33
40<p> 34<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 35<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 36fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning: 37its own meaning:
44</p> 38</p>
45 39
46<ul> 40<ul>
47<li> 41<li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57</li> 51</li>
58<li> 52<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
63</li> 57</li>
64<li> 58<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li> 61</li>
68<li> 62<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li> 67</li>
74</ul> 68</ul>
75 69
76<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
77So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
78<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
79</p> 74</p>
80 75
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre> 78</pre>
84 79
85<p> 80<p>
86Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
87partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
88<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
89</p> 84</p>
90 85
91<p> 86<p>
92In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
93<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
94be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
95would write down:
96</p> 90</p>
97 91
98<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
100</pre> 101</p>
101 102
102<p> 103<p>
103Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
104option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
105aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
106</p> 107</p>
107 108
108<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
109/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
110</pre> 111</pre>
111 112
112<p> 113<p>
113If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
114<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
115</p> 116</p>
116 117
117<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
118/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
119/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
120/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
121</pre> 122</pre>
122 123
123<p> 124<p>
124To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> 125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
125(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
126partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
127</p> 128</p>
128 129
129<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
130/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
131/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
132/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
133 134
134none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
135none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
136 137
137/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre> 139</pre>
139 140
140<p> 141<p>
143<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
144</p> 145</p>
145 146
146<p> 147<p>
147Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
148SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
149too: 151too:
150</p> 152</p>
151 153
152<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
153none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
154</pre> 156</pre>
155 157
156<p> 158<p>
157Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
158</p> 160</p>
159 161
160</body> 162</body>
161</subsection> 163</subsection>
162</section> 164</section>
165<subsection> 167<subsection>
166<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
167<body> 169<body>
168 170
169<p> 171<p>
170One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
171easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
172name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
173be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
174<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
175</p> 177</p>
176 178
177<p> 179<p>
178We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
195one), you need to define that one too: 197one), you need to define that one too:
196</p> 198</p>
197 199
198<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 200<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
199# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 201# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
200</pre> 210</pre>
201 211
202</body> 212</body>
203</subsection> 213</subsection>
204<subsection> 214<subsection>
212your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
213</p> 223</p>
214 224
215<p> 225<p>
216All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
217a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
218networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
219</p> 229</p>
220 230
221<p> 231<p>
222First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
236iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 246iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
237</pre> 247</pre>
238 248
239<p> 249<p>
240If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 250If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
251to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
241to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 252If you need to set up your network manually and you're
242not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
243link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
244Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
245</p> 256</p>
246 257
247<p> 258<p>
248So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 259So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
249(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 260IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
250192.168.0.1: 261gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
262rp-pppoe usage:
251</p> 263</p>
252 264
253<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 265<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
254<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 266<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
255iface_eth0="dhcp" 267iface_eth0="dhcp"
268<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
269<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
270<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
271<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
272dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
273<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
274<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
256 276
257<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 277<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
258iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 278iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
259gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 279gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
280
281<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
282iface_eth0="up"
260</pre> 283</pre>
261 284
262<p> 285<p>
263If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 286If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
264like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 287like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
274<subsection> 297<subsection>
275<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 298<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
276<body> 299<body>
277 300
278<p> 301<p>
279To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 302To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
280default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 303default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
281the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 304the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
282</p> 305</p>
283 306
284<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 307<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
306<p> 329<p>
307You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 330You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
308<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 331<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
309for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 332for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
310internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 333internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
311<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 334<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
312open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 335open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
313</p> 336</p>
314 337
315<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 338<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 339# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
317</pre> 340</pre>
318 341
319<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 342<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
320127.0.0.1 localhost tux 343127.0.0.1 localhost
321192.168.0.5 jenny 344192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
322192.168.0.56 benny 345192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
346192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
323</pre> 347</pre>
324 348
325<p> 349<p>
326If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 350If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
327resolution) a single line is sufficient: 351resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
352system <c>tux</c>:
328</p> 353</p>
329 354
330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 355<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
331127.0.0.1 localhost tux 356127.0.0.1 localhost tux
332</pre> 357</pre>
333 358
334<p> 359<p>
335Save and exit the editor to continue. 360Save and exit the editor to continue.
336</p> 361</p>
337 362
338<p> 363<p>
339If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 364If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
340link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 365link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
341following topic on PCMCIA. 366following topic on PCMCIA.
342</p> 367</p>
343 368
344</body> 369</body>
345</subsection> 370</subsection>
346<subsection> 371<subsection>
347<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 372<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
348<body> 373<body>
349 374
375<note>
376pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
377</note>
378
350<p> 379<p>
351PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 380PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
381includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
382using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
383to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
352</p> 384</p>
353 385
354<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 386<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
355# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 387# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
356</pre> 388</pre>
357 389
358<p> 390<p>
359When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 391When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
360runlevel: 392runlevel:
361</p> 393</p>
362 394
363<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 395<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
364# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 396# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
365</pre> 397</pre>
366 398
367</body> 399</body>
368</subsection> 400</subsection>
369</section> 401</section>
370<section> 402<section>
371<title>System Information</title> 403<title>System Information</title>
404<subsection>
405<title>Root Password</title>
406<body>
407
408<p>
409First we set the root password by typing:
410</p>
411
412<pre caption="Setting the root password">
413# <i>passwd</i>
414</pre>
415
416<p>
417If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
418<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
422# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
423</pre>
424
425</body>
426</subsection>
427<subsection>
428<title>System Information</title>
372<body> 429<body>
373 430
374<p> 431<p>
375Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 432Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
376Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 433Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
380# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 437# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
381</pre> 438</pre>
382 439
383<p> 440<p>
384As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 441As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
385configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 442configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
386<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 443you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
444your keyboard.
445</p>
446
447<note>
448Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
449select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
450</note>
451
387</p> 452<p>
453<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
454ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
455to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
456</p>
388 457
458<p>
459When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
460continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
461Tools</uri>.
462</p>
463
389</body> 464</body>
465</subsection>
390</section> 466</section>
391</sections> 467</sections>

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