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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.79 2006/08/02 21:28:12 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.128 2013/12/18 10:13:54 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>2.20</version> 17<version>34</version>
12<date>2006-07-28</date> 18<date>2013-12-18</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<impo> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73</impo> 79</impo>
74 80
75<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77</pre> 83</pre>
84
85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
78 94
79</body> 95</body>
80<body test="func:keyval('/boot')"> 96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
81 97
82<p> 98<p>
83Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 100partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 101<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86</p> 102</p>
87 103
88<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93</p> 104<p>
94
95<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 105In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 108</p>
100 109
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
103</pre> 112</pre>
104 113
105<p> 114<p>
106Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
107automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
110</p> 119</p>
111 120
112</body> 121</body>
113<body> 122<body>
114 123
115<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 124<p>
116Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 125Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119</p>
120
121<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 126your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
127for those too.
125</p> 128</p>
126 129
127<p> 130<p>
128Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129</p> 132</p>
130 133
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'"> 134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
132<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
135
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138 138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre> 140</pre>
141 141
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
146
147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
148</pre>
149
150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
156
157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159
160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
161</pre>
162
163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
144/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146
147none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157
158none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160
161/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162</pre>
163
164<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170
171none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174
175/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176</pre>
177
178<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180adapt the following example to your system.
181</note>
182
183<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
184/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
185/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191</pre>
192
193<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196
197none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199 167
200/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201</pre> 169</pre>
202 170
203<p> 171<p>
207</p> 175</p>
208 176
209<p> 177<p>
210To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
211mount option, which results in a faster system since access times 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
212aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
183makes the TRIM command work.
213</p> 184</p>
214 185
215<p> 186<p>
216Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
217</p> 188</p>
220</subsection> 191</subsection>
221</section> 192</section>
222<section> 193<section>
223<title>Networking Information</title> 194<title>Networking Information</title>
224<subsection> 195<subsection>
225<title>Host name</title> 196<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
226<body> 197<body>
227 198
228<p> 199<p>
229One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 200One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 201quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
234</p> 205</p>
235 206
236<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 207<pre caption="Setting the host name">
237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238 209
239<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 210<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
240HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 211hostname="<i>tux</i>"
212</pre>
213
214<p>
215Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
241</pre> 219</p>
220
221<note>
222The <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file does not exist by default, so you might
223need to create it.
224</note>
225
226<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
230dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
231</pre>
232
233<note>
234If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
235hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
236<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
237</note>
238
239<p>
240If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
241one), you need to define that one too:
242</p>
243
244<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
245# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
246
247<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
248nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
249</pre>
250
251<note>
252For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
253provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
254can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
255to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
256</note>
242 257
243</body> 258</body>
244</subsection> 259</subsection>
245<subsection> 260<subsection>
246<title>Configuring your Network</title> 261<title>Configuring your Network</title>
262<p> 277<p>
263All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 278All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
264a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 279a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
265networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 280networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
266commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 281commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
267<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 282<path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
268</p>
269
270<p> 283</p>
271DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration. 284
285<p>
286DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
287client. This is described later in <uri
288link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
289Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272</p> 290</p>
273 291
274<p> 292<p>
275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need 293If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open 294specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
281<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 299<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
282# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 300# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
283</pre> 301</pre>
284 302
285<p> 303<p>
286You will see the following file:
287</p>
288
289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
292# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
293# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294</pre>
295
296<p>
297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 304To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 305to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
299</p> 306</p>
300 307
308<note>
309This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
310very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
311the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
312the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
313<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
314</note>
315
301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 316<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
302config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 317config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
303routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 318routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
304</pre> 319</pre>
305 320
306<p> 321<p>
307To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 322To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
308<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
309</p> 323</p>
310 324
311<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 325<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
312config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 326config_eth0="dhcp"
313dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
314</pre> 327</pre>
315 328
316<p> 329<p>
317Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 330Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
318options. 331list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
332you need to set specific DHCP options.
319</p> 333</p>
320 334
321<p> 335<p>
322If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 336If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
323<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 337<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
333<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 347<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
334<body> 348<body>
335 349
336<p> 350<p>
337To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 351To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
338default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 352default runlevel.
339the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
340</p> 353</p>
341 354
342<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 355<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
356# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
357# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 358# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
344</pre> 359</pre>
345 360
346<p> 361<p>
347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 362If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 363<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
349use <c>ln</c> to do this: 364</p>
365
350</p> 366<p>
351 367If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
352<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 368currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
355# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
356</pre> 369</p>
370
371<ol>
372<li>
373update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
374instead of eth0),
375</li>
376<li>
377create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
378</li>
379<li>
380remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
381</li>
382<li>
383add the new one to the default runlevel, and
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
387</li>
388</ol>
357 389
358</body> 390</body>
359</subsection> 391</subsection>
360<subsection> 392<subsection>
361<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 393<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
398<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 430<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
399<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 431<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
400<body> 432<body>
401 433
402<p> 434<p>
403PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 435PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
404includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
405using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
406to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
407</p> 436</p>
408 437
409<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 438<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
410# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 439# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
411</pre>
412
413<p>
414When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
415runlevel:
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
419# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
420</pre> 440</pre>
421 441
422</body> 442</body>
423</subsection> 443</subsection>
424</section> 444</section>
435 455
436<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 456<pre caption="Setting the root password">
437# <i>passwd</i> 457# <i>passwd</i>
438</pre> 458</pre>
439 459
440<p>
441If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
442<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
446# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
447</pre>
448
449</body> 460</body>
450</subsection> 461</subsection>
451<subsection> 462<subsection>
452<title>System Information</title> 463<title>System Information</title>
453<body> 464<body>
454 465
455<p> 466<p>
456Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 467Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
457Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 468and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
469the comments in the file.
458</p> 470</p>
459 471
460<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 472<pre caption="Configuring services">
461# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 473# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
462</pre> 474</pre>
463 475
464<p> 476<p>
465When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 477When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
466</p>
467
468<p>
469As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
470configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
471define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
472</p> 478</p>
473 479
474<p> 480<p>
475Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 481Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
476Edit it to configure your keyboard. 482Edit it to configure your keyboard.
479<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 485<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
480# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 486# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
481</pre> 487</pre>
482 488
483<p> 489<p>
484Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 490Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
485<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 491<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
486</p> 492</p>
487
488<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
489Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
490keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
491</note>
492 493
493<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 494<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
494PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 495PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
495keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
496set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
497</note> 496</note>
498 497
499<p> 498<p>
500When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
501exit. 500exit.
502</p> 501</p>
503 502
504<p> 503<p>
505Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 504Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
506according to your needs. 505according to your needs.
507</p> 506</p>
508 507
509<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 508<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
510# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 509# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
511</pre> 510</pre>
512 511
513<p> 512<p>
514If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to 513If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
515the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows 514to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
516assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
517you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
518</p>
519
520<p> 515</p>
516
517<p>
521When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 518When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
522exit. 519exit.
520</p>
521
522</body>
523</subsection>
524
525<subsection>
526<title>Configure locales</title>
527<body>
528
529<p>
530You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
531specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
532</p>
533
534<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
535# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
536</pre>
537
538<p>
539The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
540German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
541</p>
542
543<pre caption="Specify your locales">
544en_US ISO-8859-1
545en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
546de_DE ISO-8859-1
547de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
548</pre>
549
550<note>
551You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
552</note>
553
554<warn>
555We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
556applications may require it.
557</warn>
558
559<p>
560The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
561have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
562</p>
563
564<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
565# <i>locale-gen</i>
566</pre>
567
568<p>
569You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale -a</c>.
570</p>
571
572<p>
573Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings.
574With <c>eselect locale list</c>, the available targets are displayed:
575</p>
576
577<pre caption="Displaying the available LANG settings">
578# <i>eselect locale list</i>
579Available targets for the LANG variable:
580 [1] C
581 [2] POSIX
582 [3] en_US
583 [4] en_US.iso88591
584 [5] en_US.utf8
585 [6] de_DE
586 [7] de_DE.iso88591
587 [8] de_DE.iso885915
588 [9] de_DE.utf8
589 [ ] (free form)
590</pre>
591
592<p>
593With <c>eselect locale set &lt;value&gt;</c> the correct locale can be set:
594</p>
595
596<pre caption="Setting the LANG variable">
597# <i>eselect locale set 9</i>
598</pre>
599
600<p>
601Manually, this can still be accomplished through the
602<path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
603</p>
604
605<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
606LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
607LC_COLLATE="C"
608</pre>
609
610<p>
611Don't forget to reload your environment:
612</p>
613
614<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
615# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
616</pre>
617
618<p>
619We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
620Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
621<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
622informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
523</p> 623</p>
524 624
525<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 625<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
526Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 626Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
527Tools</uri>. 627Tools</uri>.

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