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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-filesystems.xml,v 1.6 2009/06/14 10:16:24 nightmorph Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-filesystems.xml,v 1.11 2012/04/22 11:00:49 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE included SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE included SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<included> 5<included>
6 6
7<version>4</version> 7<version>9</version>
8<date>2009-06-14</date> 8<date>2012-04-22</date>
9 9
10<section id="filesystemsdesc"> 10<section id="filesystemsdesc">
11<title>Filesystems</title> 11<title>Filesystems</title>
12<body> 12<body>
13 13
14<p test="contains('x86 Alpha',func:keyval('arch'))"> 14<p test="contains('x86 Alpha',func:keyval('arch'))">
15The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain ext2, ext3, 15The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain ext2, ext3, ext4,
16ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on Linux 16ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on Linux
17systems. 17systems.
18</p> 18</p>
19 19
20<p test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'"> 20<p test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
21The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain vfat, ext2, ext3, 21The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain vfat, ext2, ext3,
22ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on Linux 22ext4, ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on
23systems. 23Linux systems.
24</p> 24</p>
25 25
26<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 26<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
27Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the amd64 27Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the amd64
28architecture, others aren't. The following filesystems are found to be stable: 28architecture, others aren't. The following filesystems are found to be stable:
29ext2, ext3 and XFS. JFS and ReiserFS may work but need more testing. If you're 29ext2, ext3, ext4 and XFS. JFS and ReiserFS may work but need more testing. If
30really adventurous you can try the other filesystems. 30you're really adventurous you can try the other filesystems.
31</p> 31</p>
32 32
33<p test="func:keyval('arch')='arm'"> 33<p test="func:keyval('arch')='arm'">
34Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the arm 34Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the arm
35architecture, others aren't. ext2 and ext3 are found to be stable. JFS, XFS and 35architecture, others aren't. ext2, ext3 and ext4 are found to be stable. JFS,
36ReiserFS may work but need more testing. If you're really adventurous you can 36XFS and ReiserFS may work but need more testing. If you're really adventurous
37try the other filesystems. 37you can try the other filesystems.
38</p> 38</p>
39 39
40<p test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 40<p test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
41Several filesystems are available. Ext2, ext3, XFS and reiserfs are found 41Several filesystems are available. Ext2, ext3, ext4, XFS and reiserfs are found
42stable on the HPPA architecture. The others are very experimental. 42stable on the HPPA architecture. The others are very experimental.
43</p> 43</p>
44 44
45<p test="func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 45<p test="func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
46Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2 and EXT3 are found stable on 46Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2, EXT3 and EXT4 are found
47the MIPS architectures, others are experimental. 47stable on the MIPS architectures, others are experimental.
48</p> 48</p>
49 49
50<p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 50<p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
51Several filesystems are available for use on the PowerPC architecture including 51Several filesystems are available for use on the PowerPC architecture including
52ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS, each with their strengths and faults. 52ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS, each with their strengths and faults.
58modules. 58modules.
59</note> 59</note>
60 60
61<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 61<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
62Several filesystems are available, some are known to be stable on the 62Several filesystems are available, some are known to be stable on the
63SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well. 63SPARC architecture. Ext2, ext3 and ext4, for example, are known to work well.
64Alternate filesystems may not function correctly. 64Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
65</p> 65</p>
66 66
67<note test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha'"> 67<note test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha'">
68<c>aboot</c> only supports booting from <b>ext2</b> and <b>ext3</b> 68<c>aboot</c> only supports booting from <b>ext2</b> and <b>ext3</b>
86journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are 86journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
87thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled 87thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
88filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem 88filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
89happens to be in an inconsistent state. If you intend to install Gentoo on a 89happens to be in an inconsistent state. If you intend to install Gentoo on a
90very small disk (less than 4GB), then you'll need to tell ext2 to reserve enough 90very small disk (less than 4GB), then you'll need to tell ext2 to reserve enough
91inodes when you create the filesystem by running <c>mke2fs -T small 91inodes when you create the filesystem. The <c>mke2fs</c> application uses the
92/dev/&lt;device&gt;</c>. 92"bytes-per-inode" setting to calculate how many inodes a file system should have.
93By running <c>mke2fs -T small /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c> the number of inodes will
94generally quadruple for a given file system as its "bytes-per-inode" reduces from
95one every 16kB to one every 4kB. You can tune this even further by using
96<c>mke2fs -i &lt;ratio&gt; /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c>.
93</p> 97</p>
94 98
95<p> 99<p>
96<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 100<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
97journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 101journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
98full data and ordered data journaling. It uses an HTree index that enables high 102full data and ordered data journaling. It uses an HTree index that enables high
99performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very good and 103performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very good and
100reliable filesystem. Ext3 is the recommended all-purpose all-platform 104reliable filesystem. Ext3 is the recommended all-purpose all-platform
101filesystem. If you intend to install Gentoo on a very small disk (less than 105filesystem. If you intend to install Gentoo on a
1024GB), then you'll need to tell ext3 to reserve enough inodes when you create the 106very small disk (less than 4GB), then you'll need to tell ext3 to reserve enough
103filesystem by running <c>mke2fs -j -T small /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c>. 107inodes when you create the filesystem. The <c>mke2fs</c> application uses the
108"bytes-per-inode" setting to calculate how many inodes a file system should have.
109By running <c>mke2fs -j -T small /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c> the number of inodes will
110generally quadruple for a given file system as its "bytes-per-inode" reduces from
111one every 16kB to one every 4kB. You can tune this even further by using
112<c>mke2fs -j -i &lt;ratio&gt; /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c>.
113</p>
114
115<p test="contains('x86 Alpha MIPS AMD64 arm IA64 SPARC HPPA',func:keyval('arch'))">
116<b>ext4</b> is a filesystem created as a fork of ext3 bringing new features,
117performance improvements and removal of size limits with moderate changes
118to the on-disk format. It can span volumes up to 1 EB and with maximum file
119size of 16 TB. Instead of the classic ext2/3 bitmap block allocation ext4 uses
120<uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extent_%28file_systems%29">extents</uri>,
121which improve large file performance and reduce fragmentation. Ext4 also provides
122more sophisticated block allocation algorithms (delayed allocation and multiblock
123allocation) giving the filesystem driver more ways to optimise the layout of data
124on the disk. The ext4 filesystem is a compromise between production-grade code
125stability and the desire to introduce extensions to an almost decade old
126filesystem.
104</p> 127</p>
105 128
106</body> 129</body>
107<body test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 130<body test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
108 131

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