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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-filesystems.xml,v 1.6 2009/06/14 10:16:24 nightmorph Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-filesystems.xml,v 1.15 2014/01/23 19:16:03 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE included SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE included SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<included> 5<included>
6 6
7<version>4</version> 7<version>13</version>
8<date>2009-06-14</date> 8<date>2014-01-23</date>
9 9
10<section id="filesystemsdesc"> 10<section id="filesystemsdesc">
11<title>Filesystems</title> 11<title>Filesystems</title>
12<body> 12<body>
13 13
14<p test="contains('x86 Alpha',func:keyval('arch'))"> 14<p test="contains('x86 Alpha',func:keyval('arch'))">
15The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain ext2, ext3, 15The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain ext2, ext3, ext4,
16ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on Linux 16ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on Linux
17systems. 17systems.
18</p> 18</p>
19 19
20<p test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'"> 20<p test="func:keyval('arch')='IA64'">
21The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain vfat, ext2, ext3, 21The Linux kernel supports various filesystems. We'll explain vfat, ext2, ext3,
22ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on Linux 22ext4, ReiserFS, XFS and JFS as these are the most commonly used filesystems on
23systems. 23Linux systems.
24</p> 24</p>
25 25
26<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 26<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
27Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the amd64 27Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the amd64
28architecture, others aren't. The following filesystems are found to be stable: 28architecture, others aren't. The following filesystems are found to be stable:
29ext2, ext3 and XFS. JFS and ReiserFS may work but need more testing. If you're 29ext2, ext3, ext4 and XFS. JFS and ReiserFS may work but need more testing. If
30really adventurous you can try the other filesystems. 30you're really adventurous you can try the other filesystems.
31</p> 31</p>
32 32
33<p test="func:keyval('arch')='arm'"> 33<p test="func:keyval('arch')='arm'">
34Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the arm 34Several filesystems are available. Some of them are found stable on the arm
35architecture, others aren't. ext2 and ext3 are found to be stable. JFS, XFS and 35architecture, others aren't. ext2, ext3 and ext4 are found to be stable. JFS,
36ReiserFS may work but need more testing. If you're really adventurous you can 36XFS and ReiserFS may work but need more testing. If you're really adventurous
37try the other filesystems. 37you can try the other filesystems.
38</p> 38</p>
39 39
40<p test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 40<p test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
41Several filesystems are available. Ext2, ext3, XFS and reiserfs are found 41Several filesystems are available. Ext2, ext3, ext4, XFS and reiserfs are found
42stable on the HPPA architecture. The others are very experimental. 42stable on the HPPA architecture. The others are very experimental.
43</p> 43</p>
44 44
45<p test="func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 45<p test="func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
46Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2 and EXT3 are found stable on 46Several filesystems are available. ReiserFS, EXT2, EXT3 and EXT4 are found
47the MIPS architectures, others are experimental. 47stable on the MIPS architectures, others are experimental.
48</p> 48</p>
49 49
50<p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 50<p test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
51Several filesystems are available for use on the PowerPC architecture including 51Several filesystems are available for use on the PowerPC architecture including
52ext2, ext3, ReiserFS and XFS, each with their strengths and faults. 52ext2, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS and XFS, each with their strengths and faults.
53</p> 53</p>
54 54
55<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 55<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
56Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3 and ReiserFS support is built in 56Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, ext4 and ReiserFS support is built in
57the Installation CD kernels. JFS and XFS support is available through kernel 57the Installation CD kernels. JFS and XFS support is available through kernel
58modules. 58modules.
59</note> 59</note>
60 60
61<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 61<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
62Several filesystems are available, some are known to be stable on the 62Several filesystems are available, some are known to be stable on the
63SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well. 63SPARC architecture. Ext2, ext3 and ext4, for example, are known to work well.
64Alternate filesystems may not function correctly. 64Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
65</p> 65</p>
66 66
67<note test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha'"> 67<note test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha'">
68<c>aboot</c> only supports booting from <b>ext2</b> and <b>ext3</b> 68<c>aboot</c> only supports booting from <b>ext2</b> and <b>ext3</b>
84journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 84journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
85be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation 85be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
86journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are 86journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
87thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled 87thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
88filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem 88filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
89happens to be in an inconsistent state. If you intend to install Gentoo on a 89happens to be in an inconsistent state.
90very small disk (less than 4GB), then you'll need to tell ext2 to reserve enough
91inodes when you create the filesystem by running <c>mke2fs -T small
92/dev/&lt;device&gt;</c>.
93</p> 90</p>
94 91
95<p> 92<p>
96<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 93<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
97journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 94journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
98full data and ordered data journaling. It uses an HTree index that enables high 95full data and ordered data journaling. It uses an HTree index that enables high
99performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very good and 96performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is a very good and
97reliable filesystem.
98</p>
99
100<p test="contains('x86 Alpha MIPS AMD64 arm IA64 SPARC HPPA PPC PPC64',func:keyval('arch'))">
101<b>ext4</b> is a filesystem created as a fork of ext3 bringing new features,
102performance improvements and removal of size limits with moderate changes
103to the on-disk format. It can span volumes up to 1 EB and with maximum file
104size of 16 TB. Instead of the classic ext2/3 bitmap block allocation ext4 uses
105<uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extent_%28file_systems%29">extents</uri>,
106which improve large file performance and reduce fragmentation. Ext4 also provides
107more sophisticated block allocation algorithms (delayed allocation and multiblock
108allocation) giving the filesystem driver more ways to optimise the layout of data
109on the disk. The ext4 filesystem is a compromise between production-grade code
110stability and the desire to introduce extensions to an almost decade old
100reliable filesystem. Ext3 is the recommended all-purpose all-platform 111filesystem. Ext4 is the recommended all-purpose all-platform filesystem.
101filesystem. If you intend to install Gentoo on a very small disk (less than 112</p>
1024GB), then you'll need to tell ext3 to reserve enough inodes when you create the 113
103filesystem by running <c>mke2fs -j -T small /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c>. 114<p>
115If you intend to install Gentoo on a small partition (less than 8GB), then you'll
116need to tell ext2, ext3 or ext4 (if available) to reserve enough inodes when you
117create the filesystem. The <c>mke2fs</c> application uses the "bytes-per-inode"
118setting to calculate how many inodes a file system should have. By running
119<c>mke2fs -T small /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c> (ext2) or <c>mke2fs -j -T small
120/dev/&lt;device&gt;</c> (ext3/ext4) the number of inodes will generally
121quadruple for a given file system as its "bytes-per-inode" reduces from
122one every 16kB to one every 4kB. You can tune this even further by using
123<c>mke2fs -i &lt;ratio&gt; /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c> (ext2) or <c>mke2fs -j
124-i &lt;ratio&gt; /dev/&lt;device&gt;</c> (ext3/ext4).
104</p> 125</p>
105 126
106</body> 127</body>
107<body test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 128<body test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
108 129

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