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1 vapier 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 swift 1.29 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ia64-kernel.xml,v 1.28 2012/11/13 06:06:43 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 vapier 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 swift 1.29 <version>19</version>
12     <date>2013-03-16</date>
13 vapier 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Installing the Sources</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
22     layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
23     users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
24     available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
25     Guide</uri>.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29 nightmorph 1.20 For <keyval id="arch"/> systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains
30     additional patches for extra features).
31 vapier 1.1 </p>
32    
33     <p>
34 nightmorph 1.3 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
35 vapier 1.1 </p>
36    
37     <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
38 nightmorph 1.3 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
39 vapier 1.1 </pre>
40    
41     <p>
42     When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
43     <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
44     kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
45     Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
46     </p>
47    
48     <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
49     # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
50     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
51     </pre>
52    
53     <p>
54     Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
55     <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
56     Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
57     the best way to optimize your environment.
58     </p>
59    
60     <p>
61     If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
62     link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
63     <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
64     genkernel</uri> instead.
65     </p>
66    
67     </body>
68     </subsection>
69     </section>
70     <section id="manual">
71     <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
72     <subsection>
73     <title>Introduction</title>
74     <body>
75    
76     <p>
77     Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
78     Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
79     couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
80     </p>
81    
82     <p>
83     However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
84     configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
85     pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
86     be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
87     ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
88     /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
89     <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
90     You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
91     uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
92     </p>
93    
94     <p>
95     Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
96     will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
97     </p>
98    
99     <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
100     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
101     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
102     </pre>
103    
104     <p>
105     You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
106     options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
107     properly without additional tweaks).
108     </p>
109    
110     </body>
111     </subsection>
112     <subsection>
113     <title>Activating Required Options</title>
114     <body>
115    
116     <p>
117     Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
118     SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
119     otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
120     </p>
121    
122     <p>
123     Now select the correct system type and processor type. If you don't know what
124     kind of IA64 system type you have, <c>DIG-compliant</c> is a good default
125     choice. If you are installing on an SGI system make sure you select the
126     SGI system type, your kernel may just lock up and refuse to boot otherwise.
127     </p>
128    
129     <pre caption="Selecting correct system type">
130     System type ---&gt;
131     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
132     <i>DIG-compliant</i>
133     Processor type ---&gt;
134     <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
135     <i>Itanium 2</i>
136     </pre>
137    
138     <p>
139     Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
140     <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
141     able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
142     file system</c>.
143     </p>
144    
145     <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
146     File systems ---&gt;
147     Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
148     [*] /proc file system support
149     [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
150    
151     <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
152     &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
153     &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
154     &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
155     &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
156     &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
157    
158     <comment>(Be sure to enable VFAT support for the EFI partition)</comment>
159 swift 1.24 DOS/FAT/NT Filesystems ---&gt;
160     &lt;*&gt; VFAT (Windows-95) fs support
161    
162     <comment>(Enable GPT partition label support if you used that previously</comment>
163 nightmorph 1.28 -*- Enable the block layer --->
164     ...
165     Partition Types --->
166 swift 1.24 [*] Advanced partition selection
167     ...
168     [*] EFI GUID Partition support
169 vapier 1.1 </pre>
170    
171     <p>
172     If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
173     modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
174     </p>
175    
176     <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
177     Device Drivers ---&gt;
178 swift 1.26 Network device support ---&gt;
179 vapier 1.1 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
180     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
181     &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
182     </pre>
183    
184     <p>
185     The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
186 nightmorph 1.5 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
187     when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
188 vapier 1.1 </p>
189    
190     <p>
191     If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
192     ethernet card.
193     </p>
194    
195     <p>
196     If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
197     multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
198     </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
201     Processor type and features ---&gt;
202     [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
203     </pre>
204    
205     <p>
206     If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
207     those as well:
208     </p>
209    
210     <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
211     Device Drivers ---&gt;
212 nightmorph 1.18 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
213 vapier 1.1 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
214     </pre>
215    
216     <p>
217     When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
218     link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
219     </p>
220    
221     </body>
222     </subsection>
223     <subsection id="compiling">
224     <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
225     <body>
226    
227     <p>
228     Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
229     the configuration and start the compilation process:
230     </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
233     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
234     </pre>
235    
236     <p>
237 nightmorph 1.27 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to <path>/</path>.
238     Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel choice and remember it
239     as you will need it later on when you configure your bootloader. Remember to
240     replace <c>vmlinuz</c> with the name and version of your kernel.
241 vapier 1.1 </p>
242    
243     <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
244 nightmorph 1.27 # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/vmlinuz</i>
245     </pre>
246    
247     </body>
248     </subsection>
249     <subsection id="initramfs">
250     <title>(Optional) Building an Initramfs</title>
251     <body>
252    
253     <p>
254     If you use a specific partition layout where important file system locations
255     (like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path>) are on separate partitions, then
256     you will need to setup an initramfs so that this partition can be mounted before
257     it is needed.
258     </p>
259    
260     <p>
261     Without an initramfs, you risk that the system will not boot up properly as the
262     tools that are responsible for mounting the file systems need information that
263     resides on those file systems. An initramfs will pull in the necessary files
264     into an archive which is used right after the kernel boots, but before the
265     control is handed over to the <c>init</c> tool. Scripts on the initramfs will
266     then make sure that the partitions are properly mounted before the system
267     continues booting.
268     </p>
269    
270     <p>
271     To install an initramfs, install <c>genkernel</c> first, then have it
272     generate an initramfs for you.
273     </p>
274    
275     <pre caption="Building an initramfs">
276     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
277     # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot --install initramfs</i>
278     </pre>
279    
280     <p>
281     If you need specific support in the initramfs, such as lvm or raid, add in the
282     appropriate options to genkernel. See <c>genkernel --help</c> for more
283     information, or the next example which enables support for LVM and software raid
284     (mdadm):
285     </p>
286    
287     <pre caption="Building an initramfs with support for LVM and software raid">
288     # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot --lvm --mdadm --install initramfs</i>
289     </pre>
290    
291     <p>
292     The initramfs will be stored in <path>/</path>. You can find the file by simply
293     listing the files starting with <path>initramfs</path>:
294     </p>
295    
296     <pre caption="Checking the initramfs file name">
297     # <i>ls /initramfs*</i>
298 vapier 1.1 </pre>
299    
300     <p>
301     Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
302     </p>
303    
304     </body>
305     </subsection>
306     </section>
307     <section id="genkernel">
308     <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
309     <body>
310    
311     <p>
312     If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
313     script to configure your kernel for you.
314     </p>
315    
316     <p>
317     Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
318     kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
319     you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
320     way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
321     <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
322     your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
323     genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
324     solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
325     </p>
326    
327     <p>
328     Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
329     </p>
330    
331     <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
332     # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
333     </pre>
334    
335     <p>
336 nightmorph 1.27 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>. Be aware
337 nightmorph 1.19 though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware,
338     this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
339 vapier 1.1 </p>
340    
341     <note>
342 swift 1.23 Users of LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--lvm2</c> to the genkernel
343     command-line.
344 vapier 1.1 </note>
345    
346     <pre caption="Running genkernel">
347 nightmorph 1.27 # <i>genkernel --bootdir=/. --no-mountboot all</i>
348 vapier 1.1 </pre>
349    
350     <p>
351     Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
352 swift 1.22 <e>initial ram disk</e> (initramfs) will be created. We will use the kernel
353 vapier 1.1 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
354     down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
355     the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
356     booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
357     before your "real" system starts up.
358     </p>
359    
360     <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
361 nightmorph 1.27 # <i>ls /kernel* /initramfs*</i>
362 vapier 1.1 </pre>
363    
364     </body>
365     </section>
366     <section id="kernel_modules">
367     <title>Kernel Modules</title>
368 nightmorph 1.16
369 vapier 1.1 <subsection>
370 nightmorph 1.16 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
371     </subsection>
372 vapier 1.1
373     </section>
374     </sections>

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