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Enhancing information on downsides wrt multiple partitions.

This hopefully also clears up some of the confusion that is surrounding
separate /usr partitions. Yes, it now mentions that an initramfs might be
needed in that case.

And no, we do not "recommend" a separate /usr partition, nor do we
"not recommend" it.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.13 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.31 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-disk.xml,v 1.30 2011/08/23 17:35:39 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.7
11 nightmorph 1.28 <abstract>
12     To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13     This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.31 <version>7</version>
17     <date>2011-10-17</date>
18 swift 1.7
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
21 nightmorph 1.25
22 swift 1.1 <subsection>
23 nightmorph 1.25 <include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
24     </subsection>
25 swift 1.1
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Partitions</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
32     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
33 neysx 1.19 are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. These are called
34 swift 1.1 <e>partitions</e>.
35     </p>
36    
37     </body>
38     </subsection>
39     </section>
40     <section>
41     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
42     <subsection>
43     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
48     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
49     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
50 neysx 1.19 If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
51     should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good
52     choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have
53     a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The
54     reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. You will
55     definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big: not only will it contain the
56     majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes around 500 Mbyte
57     excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
58 swift 1.1 </p>
59    
60     <p>
61     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
62     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
63     </p>
64    
65     <ul>
66     <li>
67 neysx 1.2 You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
68 swift 1.1 </li>
69     <li>
70     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
71     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
72     </li>
73     <li>
74     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
75     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
76     it is with multiple partitions)
77     </li>
78     <li>
79     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
80     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
81     </li>
82     </ul>
83    
84     <p>
85 swift 1.31 However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
86     properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
87     none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
88     for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
89     require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
90     before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so YMMV.
91     </p>
92    
93     <p>
94     There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
95 swift 1.1 </p>
96    
97     </body>
98     </subsection>
99     </section>
100     <section>
101     <title>Using fdisk on MIPS to Partition your Disk</title>
102     <subsection>
103 swift 1.11 <title>SGI Machines: Creating an SGI Disk Label</title>
104 swift 1.1 <body>
105    
106     <p>
107 neysx 1.19 All disks in an SGI System require an <e>SGI Disk Label</e>, which serves a
108     similar function as Sun &amp; MS-DOS disklabels -- It stores information about
109     the disk partitions. Creating a new SGI Disk Label will create two special
110 swift 1.1 partitions on the disk:
111     </p>
112    
113     <ul>
114     <li>
115 swift 1.11 <e>SGI Volume Header</e> (9th partition): This partition is important. It
116 neysx 1.19 is where the bootloader will reside, and in some cases, it will also
117     contain the kernel images.
118 swift 1.1 </li>
119     <li>
120     <e>SGI Volume</e> (11th partition): This partition is similar in purpose to
121     the Sun Disklabel's third partition of "Whole Disk". This partition spans
122     the entire disk, and should be left untouched. It serves no special purpose
123 neysx 1.19 other than to assist the PROM in some undocumented fashion (or it is used
124     by IRIX in some way).
125 swift 1.1 </li>
126     </ul>
127    
128     <warn>
129     The SGI Volume Header <e>must</e> begin at cylinder 0. Failure to do so means
130     you won't be able to boot from the disk.
131     </warn>
132    
133     <p>
134     The following is an example excerpt from an <c>fdisk</c> session. Read and
135     tailor it to your needs...
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption="Creating an SGI Disklabel">
139     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
140    
141     Command (m for help): <i>x</i>
142    
143     Expert command (m for help): <i>m</i>
144     Command action
145     b move beginning of data in a partition
146     c change number of cylinders
147     d print the raw data in the partition table
148     e list extended partitions
149     f fix partition order
150     g create an IRIX (SGI) partition table
151     h change number of heads
152     m print this menu
153     p print the partition table
154     q quit without saving changes
155     r return to main menu
156     s change number of sectors/track
157     v verify the partition table
158     w write table to disk and exit
159    
160     Expert command (m for help): <i>g</i>
161     Building a new SGI disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
162     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
163 vanquirius 1.17 content will be irrecoverably lost.
164 swift 1.1
165     Expert command (m for help): <i>r</i>
166    
167     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
168    
169     Disk /dev/sda (SGI disk label): 64 heads, 32 sectors, 17482 cylinders
170     Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 bytes
171    
172     ----- partitions -----
173     Pt# Device Info Start End Sectors Id System
174     9: /dev/sda1 0 4 10240 0 SGI volhdr
175     11: /dev/sda2 0 17481 35803136 6 SGI volume
176     ----- Bootinfo -----
177     Bootfile: /unix
178     ----- Directory Entries -----
179    
180     Command (m for help):
181     </pre>
182    
183     <note>
184     If your disk already has an existing SGI Disklabel, then fdisk will not allow
185     the creation of a new label. There are two ways around this. One is to create a
186     Sun or MS-DOS disklabel, write the changes to disk, and restart fdisk. The
187     second is to overwrite the partition table with null data via the following
188     command: <c>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1</c>.
189     </note>
190 rane 1.16 </body>
191     </subsection>
192    
193     <subsection>
194     <title>Getting the SGI Volume Header to just the right size</title>
195     <body>
196 swift 1.1
197 rane 1.16 <impo>
198 neysx 1.19 This step is often needed, due to a bug in <c>fdisk</c>. For some reason, the
199 rane 1.16 volume header isn't created correctly, the end result being it starts and ends
200 neysx 1.19 on cylinder 0. This prevents multiple partitions from being created. To get
201 rane 1.16 around this issue... read on.
202     </impo>
203 swift 1.1
204     <p>
205     Now that an SGI Disklabel is created, partitions may now be defined. In the
206     above example, there are already two partitions defined for you. These are the
207     special partitions mentioned above and should not normally be altered. However,
208 rane 1.16 for installing Gentoo, we'll need to load a bootloader, and possibly multiple
209 neysx 1.19 kernel images (depending on system type) directly into the volume header. The
210     volume header itself can hold up to <e>eight</e> images of any size, with each
211     image allowed eight-character names.
212 swift 1.1 </p>
213    
214     <p>
215 rane 1.16 The process of making the volume header larger isn't exactly straight-forward;
216 swift 1.1 there's a bit of a trick to it. One cannot simply delete and re-add the volume
217     header due to odd fdisk behavior. In the example provided below, we'll create a
218 neysx 1.19 50MB Volume header in conjunction with a 50MB /boot partition. The actual
219     layout of your disk may vary, but this is for illustrative purposes only.
220 swift 1.1 </p>
221    
222     <pre caption="Resizing the SGI Volume Header correctly">
223     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
224     Partition number (1-16): <i>1</i>
225     First cylinder (5-8682, default 5): <i>51</i>
226     Last cylinder (51-8682, default 8682): <i>101</i>
227 swift 1.11
228 rane 1.16 <comment>(Notice how fdisk only allows Partition #1 to be re-created starting at a )
229     (minimum of cylinder 5? Had you attempted to delete &amp; re-create the SGI )
230     (Volume Header this way, this is the same issue you would have encountered. )
231     (In our example, we want /boot to be 50MB, so we start it at cylinder 51 (the )
232     (Volume Header needs to start at cylinder 0, remember?), and set its ending )
233     (cylinder to 101, which will roughly be 50MB (+/- 1-5MB). )</comment>
234 swift 1.1
235     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
236     Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
237 swift 1.11
238 swift 1.1 <comment>(Delete Partition #9 (SGI Volume Header))</comment>
239    
240     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
241     Partition number (1-16): <i>9</i>
242     First cylinder (0-50, default 0): <i>0</i>
243     Last cylinder (0-50, default 50): <i>50</i>
244 swift 1.11
245 swift 1.1 <comment>(Re-Create Partition #9, ending just before Partition #1)</comment>
246     </pre>
247 rane 1.16
248 swift 1.11 <p>
249     If you're unsure how to use <c>fdisk</c> have a look down further at the
250 neysx 1.19 instructions for partitioning on Cobalts. The concepts are exactly the same --
251 swift 1.11 just remember to leave the volume header and whole disk partitions alone.
252     </p>
253    
254 rane 1.16 <p>
255 neysx 1.19 Once this is done, you are safe to create the rest of your partitions as you
256     see fit. After all your partitions are laid out, make sure you set the
257     partition ID of your swap partition to <c>82</c>, which is Linux Swap. By
258     default, it will be <c>83</c>, Linux Native.
259 rane 1.16 </p>
260 swift 1.11
261     <p>
262 nightmorph 1.27 Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri
263 swift 1.11 link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
264     </p>
265 swift 1.1
266     </body>
267     </subsection>
268 swift 1.11
269 swift 1.1 <subsection>
270 swift 1.11 <title>Cobalt Machines: Partitioning your drive</title>
271 swift 1.1 <body>
272    
273     <p>
274 neysx 1.19 On Cobalt machines, the BOOTROM expects to see a MS-DOS MBR, so partitioning
275     the drive is relatively straightforward -- in fact, it's done the same way as
276     you'd do for an Intel x86 machine. <e>However</e> there are some things you
277     need to bear in mind.
278 swift 1.11 </p>
279    
280     <ul>
281     <li>
282 nightmorph 1.26 Cobalt firmware will expect <path>/dev/sda1</path> to be a Linux partition
283 neysx 1.19 formatted <e>EXT2 Revision 0</e>. <e>EXT2 Revision 1 partitions will NOT
284     WORK!</e> (The Cobalt BOOTROM only understands EXT2r0)
285 swift 1.11 </li>
286     <li>
287     The above said partition must contain a gzipped ELF image,
288 neysx 1.19 <path>vmlinux.gz</path> in the root of that partition, which it loads as
289     the kernel
290 swift 1.11 </li>
291     </ul>
292    
293     <p>
294     For that reason, I recommend creating a ~20MB <path>/boot</path> partition
295 neysx 1.19 formatted EXT2r0 upon which you can install CoLo &amp; your kernels. This
296 swift 1.11 allows you to run a modern filesystem (EXT3 or ReiserFS) for your root
297     filesystem.
298     </p>
299    
300     <p>
301 nightmorph 1.26 I will assume you have created <path>/dev/sda1</path> to mount later as a
302 neysx 1.19 <path>/boot</path> partition. If you wish to make this <path>/</path>, you'll
303 swift 1.11 need to keep the PROM's expectations in mind.
304     </p>
305    
306     <p>
307 nightmorph 1.26 So, continuing on... To create the partitions you type <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c> at
308 neysx 1.19 the prompt. The main commands you need to know are these:
309 swift 1.1 </p>
310    
311 swift 1.11 <ul>
312     <li>
313     <c>o</c>: Wipe out old partition table, starting with an empty MS-DOS
314     partition table
315     </li>
316     <li>
317     <c>n</c>: New Partition
318     </li>
319     <li>
320     <c>t</c>: Change Partition Type
321     <ul>
322     <li>Use type <c>82</c> for Linux Swap, <c>83</c> for Linux FS</li>
323     </ul>
324     </li>
325     <li>
326     <c>d</c>: Delete a partition
327     </li>
328     <li>
329     <c>p</c>: Display (print) Partition Table
330     </li>
331     <li>
332     <c>q</c>: Quit -- leaving old partition table as is.
333     </li>
334     <li>
335     <c>w</c>: Quit -- writing partition table in the process.
336     </li>
337     </ul>
338    
339     <pre caption="Partitioning the disk">
340 nightmorph 1.26 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
341 swift 1.11
342     The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
343     There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
344     and could in certain setups cause problems with:
345     1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
346     2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
347     (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
348    
349     <comment>(Start by clearing out any existing partitions)</comment>
350     Command (m for help): <i>o</i>
351     Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
352     until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
353     content won't be recoverable.
354    
355    
356     The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 19870.
357     There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
358     and could in certain setups cause problems with:
359     1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
360     2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
361     (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
362     Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
363    
364     <comment>(You can now verify the partition table is empty using the 'p' command)</comment>
365    
366     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
367    
368 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
369 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
370     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
371    
372     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
373    
374     <comment>(Create the /boot partition)</comment>
375    
376     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
377     Command action
378     e extended
379     p primary partition (1-4)
380     <i>p</i>
381     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
382    
383     <comment>(Just press ENTER here to accept the default)</comment>
384    
385     First cylinder (1-19870, default 1):
386     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-19870, default 19870): <i>+20M</i>
387    
388     <comment>(and now if we type 'p' again, we should see the new partition)</comment>
389     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
390    
391 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
392 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
393     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
394    
395     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
396 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 40 20128+ 83 Linux
397 swift 1.11
398     <comment>(The rest, I prefer to put in an extended partition, so I'll create that)</comment>
399    
400     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
401     Command action
402     e extended
403     p primary partition (1-4)
404     <i>e</i>
405     Partition number (1-4): <i>2</i>
406    
407     <comment>(Again, the default is fine, just press ENTER.)</comment>
408    
409     First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):
410     Using default value 41
411    
412     <comment>(We want to use the whole disk here, so just press ENTER again)</comment>
413     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870):
414     Using default value 19870
415    
416     <comment>(Now, the / partition -- I use separate partitions for /usr, /var,
417 neysx 1.19 etc... so / can be small. Adjust as per your preference.)</comment>
418 swift 1.11
419     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
420     Command action
421     l logical (5 or over)
422     p primary partition (1-4)
423     <i>l</i>
424     First cylinder (41-19870, default 41):<i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
425     Using default value 41
426     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (41-19870, default 19870): <i>+500M</i>
427    
428     <comment>(... and similar for any other partitions ...)</comment>
429    
430 neysx 1.19 <comment>(Last but not least, the swap space. I recommend at least 250MB swap,
431 swift 1.11 preferrably 1GB)</comment>
432    
433     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
434     Command action
435     l logical (5 or over)
436     p primary partition (1-4)
437     <i>l</i>
438     First cylinder (17294-19870, default 17294): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
439     Using default value 17294
440     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1011-19870, default 19870): <i>&lt;Press ENTER&gt;</i>
441     Using default value 19870
442    
443     <comment>(Now, if we check our partition table, everything should mostly be ship
444     shape except for one thing...)</comment>
445    
446     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
447    
448 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
449 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
450     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
451    
452     Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
453 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
454     /dev/sda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
455     /dev/sda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
456     /dev/sda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
457     /dev/sda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
458     /dev/sda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
459     /dev/sda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
460     /dev/sda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 83 Linux
461 swift 1.11
462     <comment>(Notice how #10, our swap partition is still type 83?)</comment>
463    
464     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
465     Partition number (1-10): <i>10</i>
466     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>82</i>
467     Changed system type of partition 10 to 82 (Linux swap)
468    
469     <comment>(That should fix it... just to verify...)</comment>
470    
471     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
472    
473 nightmorph 1.26 Disk /dev/sda: 10.2 GB, 10254827520 bytes
474 swift 1.11 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19870 cylinders
475     Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes
476    
477     Device Boot Start End Blocks ID System
478 nightmorph 1.26 /dev/sda1 1 21 10552+ 83 Linux
479     /dev/sda2 22 19870 10003896 5 Extended
480     /dev/sda5 22 1037 512032+ 83 Linux
481     /dev/sda6 1038 5101 2048224+ 83 Linux
482     /dev/sda7 5102 9165 2048224+ 83 Linux
483     /dev/sda8 9166 13229 2048224+ 83 Linux
484     /dev/sda9 13230 17293 2048224+ 83 Linux
485     /dev/sda10 17294 19870 1298776+ 82 Linux Swap
486 swift 1.11
487     <comment>(Now, we write out the new partition table.)</comment>
488    
489     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
490     The partition table has been altered!
491    
492     Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
493     Syncing disks.
494    
495     #
496     </pre>
497    
498 swift 1.1 <p>
499 neysx 1.19 And that's all there is to it. You should now be right to proceed onto the next
500     stage: <uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
501 swift 1.1 </p>
502    
503     </body>
504     </subsection>
505     </section>
506 swift 1.11
507 swift 1.1 <section id="filesystems">
508     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
509     <subsection>
510     <title>Introduction</title>
511     <body>
512    
513     <p>
514 neysx 1.19 Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
515     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we
516     use as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
517     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. Otherwise
518     read on to learn about the available filesystems...
519 swift 1.1 </p>
520    
521     </body>
522     </subsection>
523 nightmorph 1.25
524 swift 1.1 <subsection>
525 nightmorph 1.25 <include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
526     </subsection>
527 swift 1.1
528     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
529     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
530     <body>
531    
532     <p>
533 neysx 1.19 To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
534 swift 1.1 each possible filesystem:
535     </p>
536    
537     <table>
538     <tr>
539     <th>Filesystem</th>
540     <th>Creation Command</th>
541     </tr>
542     <tr>
543     <ti>ext2</ti>
544 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti>
545 swift 1.1 </tr>
546     <tr>
547     <ti>ext3</ti>
548 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti>
549 swift 1.1 </tr>
550     <tr>
551 swift 1.30 <ti>ext4</ti>
552     <ti><c>mkfs.ext4</c></ti>
553     </tr>
554     <tr>
555 swift 1.1 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
556 swift 1.29 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti>
557 swift 1.1 </tr>
558     <tr>
559     <ti>xfs</ti>
560     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
561     </tr>
562     <tr>
563     <ti>jfs</ti>
564     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
565     </tr>
566     </table>
567    
568     <p>
569     For instance, to have the boot partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our
570     example) in ext2 and the root partition (<path>/dev/sda3</path> in our example)
571     in ext3, you would use:
572     </p>
573    
574     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
575 swift 1.29 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/sda1</i>
576     # <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda3</i>
577 swift 1.1 </pre>
578    
579     <p>
580     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
581     volumes).
582     </p>
583    
584 swift 1.11 <warn>
585 nightmorph 1.26 If you're installing on a Cobalt server, remember <path>/dev/sda1</path> MUST
586 neysx 1.19 be of type <e>EXT2 revision 0</e>; Anything else (e.g. EXT2 revision 1, EXT3,
587     ReiserFS, XFS, JFS and others) <e>WILL NOT WORK!</e> You can format the
588 swift 1.29 partition using the command: <c>mkfs.ext2 -r 0 /dev/sda1</c>.
589 swift 1.11 </warn>
590    
591 swift 1.1 </body>
592     </subsection>
593     <subsection>
594     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
595     <body>
596    
597     <p>
598 neysx 1.19 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to create and initialize swap
599     partitions:
600 swift 1.1 </p>
601    
602     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
603     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda2</i>
604     </pre>
605    
606     <p>
607     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
608     </p>
609    
610     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
611     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
612     </pre>
613    
614     <p>
615 swift 1.12 Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
616 swift 1.1 </p>
617    
618     </body>
619     </subsection>
620     </section>
621     <section>
622     <title>Mounting</title>
623     <body>
624    
625     <p>
626     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
627     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
628     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
629     example we mount the root and boot partition:
630     </p>
631    
632     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
633     # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
634     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
635     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
636     </pre>
637    
638     <note>
639 neysx 1.19 If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure
640     to change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>.
641     This also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
642 swift 1.1 </note>
643    
644     <p>
645 neysx 1.19 We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
646     kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
647     partitions.
648 swift 1.1 </p>
649    
650     <p>
651 neysx 1.19 Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo Installation
652     Files</uri>.
653 swift 1.1 </p>
654    
655     </body>
656     </section>
657     </sections>

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