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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.20 2004/11/09 13:01:52 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.51 2012/10/06 19:54:14 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>1.19</version> 16<version>12</version>
12<date>November 2, 2004</date> 17<date>2012-10-06</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 20<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title>
18<body>
19 21
20<p>
21We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p>
27
28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
32drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
33</p>
34
35<p>
36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
38about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
39simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
40randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
41</p>
42
43</body>
44</subsection> 22<subsection>
23<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
45<subsection> 24</subsection>
25
26<subsection>
46<title>Partitions and Slices</title> 27<title>Partitions</title>
47<body> 28<body>
48 29
49<p> 30<p>
50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux 31Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices 32system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, 33are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
53these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique, 34these are called <e>partitions</e>.
54called <e>slices</e>.
55</p> 35</p>
56 36
57</body> 37</body>
58</subsection> 38</subsection>
59</section> 39</section>
63<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title> 43<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
64<body> 44<body>
65 45
66<p> 46<p>
67If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system, 47If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
68you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book: 48you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book. Choose the
49filesystem layout that best matches the type of PowerPC system you are
50installing on.
51</p>
52
53</body>
54</subsection>
55<subsection>
56<title>Apple New World</title>
57<body>
58
69</p> 59<p>
60Apple New World machines are fairly straightforward to configure. The first
61partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track of
62the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. The next partition
63should always be a bootstrap partition. This partition contains a small (800k)
64HFS filesystem that holds a copy of the bootloader Yaboot and its configuration
65file. This partition is <e>not</e> the same as a <path>/boot</path> partition as
66found on other architectures. After the boot partition, the usual Linux
67filesystems are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a
68temporary storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The
69root partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on. If you
70wish to dual boot, the OSX partition can go anywhere after the bootstrap
71partition to insure that yaboot starts first.
72</p>
73
74<note>
75There may be "Disk Driver" partitions on your disk such as
76<path>Apple_Driver63</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>,
77<path>Apple_FWDriver</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and
78<path>Apple_Patches</path>. These are used to boot MacOS, so if you have no need
79for this, you can remove them by initializing the disk with <c>mac-fdisk</c>'s
80<c>i</c> option. This will completely erase the disk! If you are in doubt, just
81let them be.
82</note>
83
84<note>
85If you partitioned this disk with Apple's Disk Utility, there may be
86128Mb spaces between partitions which Apple reserves for "future use". You
87can safely remove these.
88</note>
70 89
71<table> 90<table>
72<tr> 91<tr>
73 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
74 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
75 <th>Partition Pegasos</th> 92 <th>Partition</th>
93 <th>Size</th>
76 <th>Filesystem</th> 94 <th>Filesystem</th>
95 <th>Description</th>
96</tr>
97<tr>
98 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
99 <ti>32k</ti>
100 <ti>None</ti>
101 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
102</tr>
103<tr>
104 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
105 <ti>800k</ti>
106 <ti>HFS</ti>
107 <ti>Apple Bootstrap</ti>
108</tr>
109<tr>
110 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
111 <ti>512Mb</ti>
112 <ti>Swap</ti>
113 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
114</tr>
115<tr>
116 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
117 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
118 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
119 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
120</tr>
121</table>
122
123</body>
124</subsection>
125<subsection>
126<title>Apple Old World</title>
127<body>
128
129<p>
130Apple Old World machines are a bit more complicated to configure. The first
131partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
132of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. If you are using
133BootX, the configuration below assumes that MacOS is installed on a seperate
134disk. If this is not the case, there will be additional partitions for "Apple
135Disk Drivers" such as <path>Apple_Driver63, Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver,
136Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path> and the MacOS install. If you are
137using Quik, you will need to create a boot partition to hold the kernel, unlike
138other Apple boot methods. After the boot partition, the usual Linux filesystems
139are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a temporary
140storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The root
141partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on.
142</p>
143
144<note>
145If you are using an OldWorld machine, you will need to keep MacOS available.
146The layout here assumes MacOS is installed on a separate drive.
147</note>
148
149<table>
150<tr>
151 <th>Partition</th>
77 <th>Size</th> 152 <th>Size</th>
153 <th>Filesystem</th>
78 <th>Description</th> 154 <th>Description</th>
79</tr> 155</tr>
80<tr> 156<tr>
81 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 157 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
82 <ti>/dev/hda1</ti>
83 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
84 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
85 <ti>32k</ti> 158 <ti>32k</ti>
159 <ti>None</ti>
86 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 160 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
87</tr>
88<tr> 161</tr>
162<tr>
89 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 163 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
90 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 164 <ti>32Mb</ti>
91 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 165 <ti>ext2</ti>
92 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 166 <ti>Quik Boot Partition (quik only)</ti>
167</tr>
168<tr>
169 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
170 <ti>512Mb</ti>
171 <ti>Swap</ti>
172 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
173</tr>
174<tr>
175 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
176 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
177 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
178 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
179</tr>
180</table>
181
182</body>
183</subsection>
184<subsection>
185<title>Pegasos</title>
186<body>
187
188<p>
189The Pegasos partition layout is quite simple compared to the Apple layouts.
190The first partition is a Boot Partition, which contains kernels to be booted,
191along with an Open Firmware script that presents a menu on boot. After the boot
192partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
193below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
194runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
195that Gentoo is installed on.
196</p>
197
198<table>
199<tr>
200 <th>Partition</th>
201 <th>Size</th>
202 <th>Filesystem</th>
203 <th>Description</th>
204</tr>
205<tr>
206 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
207 <ti>32Mb</ti>
208 <ti>affs1 or ext2</ti>
209 <ti>Boot Partition</ti>
210</tr>
211<tr>
212 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
213 <ti>512Mb</ti>
214 <ti>Swap</ti>
215 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
216</tr>
217<tr>
218 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
219 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
220 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
221 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
222</tr>
223</table>
224
225</body>
226</subsection>
227<subsection>
228<title>IBM PReP (RS/6000)</title>
229<body>
230
231<p>
232The IBM PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) requires a small PReP boot partition
233on the disk's first partition, followed by the swap and root partitions.
234</p>
235
236<table>
237<tr>
238 <th>Partition</th>
239 <th>Size</th>
240 <th>Filesystem</th>
241 <th>Description</th>
242</tr>
243<tr>
244 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
93 <ti>800k</ti> 245 <ti>800k</ti>
94 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 246 <ti>None</ti>
95</tr> 247 <ti>PReP Boot Partition (Type 0x41)</ti>
96<tr> 248</tr>
97 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 249<tr>
98 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 250 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
99 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
100 <ti>(swap)</ti>
101 <ti>512M</ti> 251 <ti>512Mb</ti>
102 <ti>Swap partition</ti> 252 <ti>Swap</ti>
103</tr> 253 <ti>Linux Swap (Type 0x82)</ti>
104<tr> 254</tr>
105 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 255<tr>
106 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti> 256 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
107 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
108 <ti>ext3</ti>
109 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 257 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
110 <ti>Root partition</ti> 258 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
259 <ti>Linux Root (Type 0x83)</ti>
111</tr> 260</tr>
112</table> 261</table>
113<note> 262
114There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43, 263<warn>
115Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, 264<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately there
116Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can 265may be issues with resizing HFS+ journaled filesystems, so, for the best
117delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them. 266results, switch off journaling in Mac OS X before resizing. Remember that any
118You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet. 267resizing operation is dangerous, so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always
119</note> 268have a backup of your data before resizing!
269</warn>
270
120<p> 271<p>
121If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how 272If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
122many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with 273partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
123<uri link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your 274<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
124Disk</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to 275</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
125Partition your Disk</uri>. 276Partition your Disk</uri>.
126</p> 277</p>
127 278
128</body> 279</body>
129</subsection> 280</subsection>
133 284
134<p> 285<p>
135The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 286The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
136if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 287if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
137<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 288<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
138If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your 289If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
139<path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside 290should be separate as all received mail is stored in <path>/var</path>. A good
140<path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your 291choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Game servers should
141performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming 292have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most game servers are installed there. The
142servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: 293reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. Whatever layout
143security and backups. 294you chose, you will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> large: not only
295will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes
296more than 500Mb excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
144</p> 297</p>
145 298
146<p> 299<p>
147As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 300As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
148partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 301partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
160 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can 313 If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
161 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than 314 be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
162 it is with multiple partitions) 315 it is with multiple partitions)
163</li> 316</li>
164<li> 317<li>
165 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only, 318 Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
166 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc. 319 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
167</li> 320</li>
168</ul> 321</ul>
169 322
170<p> 323<p>
171However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured 324However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
172properly, you might result in having a system with lots 325properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
173of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition 326none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
174limit for SCSI and SATA. 327for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
328require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
329before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so your
330results may vary.
331</p>
332
333<p>
334There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
175</p> 335</p>
176 336
177</body> 337</body>
178</subsection> 338</subsection>
179</section> 339</section>
180<section id="fdisk"> 340<section id="mac-fdisk">
181<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) Partition your Disk</title> 341<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
182<body> 342<body>
183 343
184<p> 344<p>
185At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 345At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
186</p> 346</p>
187 347
188<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk"> 348<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
189# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/hda</i> 349# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
190</pre> 350</pre>
191 351
192<p> 352<p>
353If you used Apple's Disk Utility to leave space for Linux, first delete the
193First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 354partitions you have created previously to make room for your new install. Use
194Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 355<c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). It will ask for the
195It will ask for the partition number to delete. 356partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on NewWorld machines
357(Apple_partition_map) cannot be deleted. If you would like to start with a
358clean disk, you can simply initialize the disk by pressing <c>i</c>. This
359will completely erase the disk, so use this with caution.
196</p> 360</p>
197 361
198<p> 362<p>
199Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 363Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
200ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 364ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
201partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>1p</c>. 365partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
202</p> 366</p>
203 367
204<note> 368<note>
205This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all; 369This partition is <e>not</e> a <path>/boot</path> partition. It is not used by
206you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC 370Linux at all; you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never
207users don't need a an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>. 371mount it. Apple users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
208</note> 372</note>
209 373
210<p> 374<p>
211Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 375Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
212ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>1</c> 376ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
213before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 377before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
214<c>2p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 378<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
215you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 379you want -- a minimum of 512MB is recommended, but 2 times your physical memory
216(mandatory). 380is the generally accepted size). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>.
217</p>
218
219<p> 381</p>
382
383<p>
220To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>3p</c> to select 384To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
221from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 385from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
222<c>3p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 386<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
223space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 387space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c>.
224</p> 388</p>
225 389
226<p> 390<p>
227To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 391To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
228quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 392quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
229</p> 393</p>
230 394
231<note> 395<note>
232To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check whether all the partitions are there. 396To make sure everything is ok, you should run <c>mac-fdisk -l</c> and check
233If you don't see any of the partitions you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. 397whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
234Note that this will recreate the partition map and thus remove all your partitions. 398created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
399pressing <c>i</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c>. Note that this will recreate the
400partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
235</note> 401</note>
236 402
237<p> 403<p>
238Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri 404Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with
239link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 405<uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
240</p> 406</p>
241 407
242</body> 408</body>
243</section> 409</section>
244<section id="parted"> 410<section id="parted">
245<title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 411<title>Using parted to Partition your Disk (Pegasos and RS/6000)</title>
246<body> 412<body>
247 413
248<p> 414<p>
249<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 415<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
250Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can shrink your Mac-partitions and 416Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac partitions and
251create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below 417create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
252describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only. 418describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
253</p> 419</p>
254 420
255<p> 421<p>
256To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>: 422To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
257</p> 423</p>
258 424
259<pre caption="Starting parted"> 425<pre caption="Starting parted">
260# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 426# <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
261</pre> 427</pre>
262 428
263<p> 429<p>
264If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 430If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
265disklabel for the drive. 431disklabel for the drive.
266</p> 432</p>
267 433
268<p> 434<p>
269You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 435You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
270table. Your changes aren't saved until you quit the application; if at any time 436table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
271you change your mind or made a mistake you can press <c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort 437<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort <c>parted</c>.
272parted.
273</p> 438</p>
274 439
275<p> 440<p>
276If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 441If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
277named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 50MB should be more than enough 442at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough to store the MorphOS
278to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or 443kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use any filesystem besides ext2 or
279xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 444ext3, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
280Pegasos II can boot from ext2/ext3 drives). To create the partition run 445Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the
281<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 446partition run <c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and
282be replaced with the megabyte range (f.i. <c>5 55</c> creates a 50 MB partition 447<c>END</c> should be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c>) which
283starting at 5MB and ending at 55MB. 448creates a 32 MB partition starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. If you chose to
284</p> 449create an ext2 or ext3 partition instead, substitute ext2 or ext3 for affs1 in
285 450the <c>mkpart</c> command.
286<p> 451</p>
287You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 452
288program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
289must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
290reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
291<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
292<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
293partition.
294</p> 453<p>
295 454You will need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem and one
455swap partition. Run <c>mkpart primary START END</c> to create each partition,
456replacing <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the desired megabyte boundries.
296<p> 457</p>
458
459<p>
297It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition the same size as 460It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition that is two times
298the amount of RAM in your computer times two. You will probably get away with a 461bigger than the amount of RAM in your computer, but at least 512Mb is
299smaller swap partition unless you intend to run a lot of applications at the 462recommended. To create the swap partition, run
300same time (although at least 512MB is recommended). To create the swap 463<c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c> with START and END again denoting
301partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 464the partition boundries.
302</p>
303
304<p> 465</p>
305Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 466
306installation process. To dislay the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
307are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
308of the partition.
309</p> 467<p>
310
311<p>
312When you are done in parted simply run <c>quit</c>. 468When you are done in <c>parted</c> simply type <c>quit</c>.
313</p> 469</p>
314 470
315</body> 471</body>
316</section> 472</section>
317<section id="filesystems"> 473<section id="filesystems">
319<subsection> 475<subsection>
320<title>Introduction</title> 476<title>Introduction</title>
321<body> 477<body>
322 478
323<p> 479<p>
324Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 480Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
325If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 481If you're not sure which filesystems to choose and are happy with our defaults,
326as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 482continue with
327link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 483<uri link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
328Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 484Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems.
329</p> 485</p>
330 486
331</body> 487</body>
332</subsection>
333<subsection> 488</subsection>
334<title>Filesystems?</title>
335<body>
336 489
337<p> 490<subsection>
338Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3, reiserfs and xfs are found stable 491<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
339on the PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported. 492</subsection>
493
494<subsection>
495<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
496<body>
497
340</p> 498<p>
341 499<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
342<p> 500</p>
343<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 501
344journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 502<pre caption="Creating a swap signature">
345be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation 503# <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
346journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are 504</pre>
347thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled 505
348filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
349happens to be in an inconsistent state.
350</p> 506<p>
351 507To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
352<p> 508</p>
353<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 509
354journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 510<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
355full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 511# <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
356filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 512</pre>
357high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent 513
358filesystem.
359</p> 514<p>
360 515Create and activate the swap now before creating other filesystems.
361<p>
362<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
363performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
364files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
365extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
366solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
367as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
368files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
369</p>
370
371<p>
372<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
373feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
374filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
375an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
376in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
377when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
378deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
379</p> 516</p>
380 517
381</body> 518</body>
382</subsection> 519</subsection>
383<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 520<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
411 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 548 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
412</tr> 549</tr>
413</table> 550</table>
414 551
415<p> 552<p>
416For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path> in our example) 553For instance, to make an ext3 filesystem on the root partition
417in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 554(<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example), you would use:
418</p> 555</p>
419 556
420<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 557<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
421# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i> 558# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
422</pre> 559</pre>
423 560
424<p> 561<p>
425Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 562Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
426volumes). 563volumes).
427</p> 564</p>
428 565
566<impo>
567If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
568block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
569explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
570</impo>
571
429<note> 572<note>
430Be sure that the partition which will host your kernel (the 573On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2, ext3 or
431<path>/boot</path>-path) must be ext2 or ext3. The bootloader can only handle 574affs1. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or
432this filesystem. 575even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel
576must be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you
577configure your bootloader.
433</note> 578</note>
434
435</body>
436</subsection>
437<subsection>
438<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
439<body>
440
441<p>
442<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
446# <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
451</p>
452
453<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
454# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
455</pre>
456
457<p>
458Create and activate the swap now.
459</p>
460 579
461</body> 580</body>
462</subsection> 581</subsection>
463</section> 582</section>
464<section> 583<section>
465<title>Mounting</title> 584<title>Mounting</title>
466<body> 585<body>
467 586
468<p> 587<p>
469Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 588Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
470time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 589time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. As an example we
471create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 590mount the root partition:
472example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition:
473</p> 591</p>
474 592
475<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 593<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
476# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
477# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 594# <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
478</pre> 595</pre>
479 596
480<note> 597<note>
481If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 598If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
482change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 599change its permissions after mounting and unpacking with
483also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 600<c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This is also true for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
484</note> 601</note>
485
486<p>
487Finally we have to create the <path>/dev</path> files in our new home, which is
488needed during the bootloader installation. This could be done by "bind"-mapping
489the <path>/dev</path>-filesystem from the LiveCD:
490</p>
491
492<pre caption="Bind-mounting the /dev-filesystem">
493# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
494# <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
495</pre>
496
497<p>
498We will also have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
499kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the partitions.
500</p>
501 602
502<p> 603<p>
503Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 604Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
504Installation Files</uri>. 605Installation Files</uri>.
505</p> 606</p>

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