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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.28 2005/03/28 11:30:52 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-disk.xml,v 1.51 2012/10/06 19:54:14 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12To be able to install Gentoo, you must create the necessary partitions.
13This chapter describes how to partition a disk for future usage.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>2.00</version> 16<version>12</version>
12<date>2005-03-28</date> 17<date>2012-10-06</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 20<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title>
18<body>
19 21
20<p>
21We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p>
27
28<p>
29To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31<path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI or SATA drives, then your first
32hard drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>.
33</p>
34
35<p>
36The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
37programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
38about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
39simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
40randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
41</p>
42
43</body>
44</subsection> 22<subsection>
23<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
45<subsection> 24</subsection>
25
26<subsection>
46<title>Partitions and Slices</title> 27<title>Partitions</title>
47<body> 28<body>
48 29
49<p> 30<p>
50Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux 31Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
51system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices 32system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
52are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems, 33are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
53these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique, 34these are called <e>partitions</e>.
54called <e>slices</e>.
55</p> 35</p>
56 36
57</body> 37</body>
58</subsection> 38</subsection>
59</section> 39</section>
63<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title> 43<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
64<body> 44<body>
65 45
66<p> 46<p>
67If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system, 47If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
68you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book: 48you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book. Choose the
49filesystem layout that best matches the type of PowerPC system you are
50installing on.
51</p>
52
53</body>
54</subsection>
55<subsection>
56<title>Apple New World</title>
57<body>
58
69</p> 59<p>
60Apple New World machines are fairly straightforward to configure. The first
61partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track of
62the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. The next partition
63should always be a bootstrap partition. This partition contains a small (800k)
64HFS filesystem that holds a copy of the bootloader Yaboot and its configuration
65file. This partition is <e>not</e> the same as a <path>/boot</path> partition as
66found on other architectures. After the boot partition, the usual Linux
67filesystems are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a
68temporary storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The
69root partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on. If you
70wish to dual boot, the OSX partition can go anywhere after the bootstrap
71partition to insure that yaboot starts first.
72</p>
73
74<note>
75There may be "Disk Driver" partitions on your disk such as
76<path>Apple_Driver63</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_ATA</path>,
77<path>Apple_FWDriver</path>, <path>Apple_Driver_IOKit</path>, and
78<path>Apple_Patches</path>. These are used to boot MacOS, so if you have no need
79for this, you can remove them by initializing the disk with <c>mac-fdisk</c>'s
80<c>i</c> option. This will completely erase the disk! If you are in doubt, just
81let them be.
82</note>
83
84<note>
85If you partitioned this disk with Apple's Disk Utility, there may be
86128Mb spaces between partitions which Apple reserves for "future use". You
87can safely remove these.
88</note>
70 89
71<table> 90<table>
72<tr> 91<tr>
73 <th>Partition NewWorld</th>
74 <th>Partition OldWorld</th>
75 <th>Partition Pegasos</th> 92 <th>Partition</th>
76 <th>Partition RS/6000</th> 93 <th>Size</th>
77 <th>Filesystem</th> 94 <th>Filesystem</th>
95 <th>Description</th>
96</tr>
97<tr>
98 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
99 <ti>32k</ti>
100 <ti>None</ti>
101 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
102</tr>
103<tr>
104 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
105 <ti>800k</ti>
106 <ti>HFS</ti>
107 <ti>Apple Bootstrap</ti>
108</tr>
109<tr>
110 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
111 <ti>512Mb</ti>
112 <ti>Swap</ti>
113 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
114</tr>
115<tr>
116 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
117 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
118 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
119 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
120</tr>
121</table>
122
123</body>
124</subsection>
125<subsection>
126<title>Apple Old World</title>
127<body>
128
129<p>
130Apple Old World machines are a bit more complicated to configure. The first
131partition is always an <e>Apple Partition Map</e>. This partition keeps track
132of the layout of the disk. You cannot remove this partition. If you are using
133BootX, the configuration below assumes that MacOS is installed on a seperate
134disk. If this is not the case, there will be additional partitions for "Apple
135Disk Drivers" such as <path>Apple_Driver63, Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver,
136Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path> and the MacOS install. If you are
137using Quik, you will need to create a boot partition to hold the kernel, unlike
138other Apple boot methods. After the boot partition, the usual Linux filesystems
139are placed, according to the scheme below. The swap partition is a temporary
140storage place for when your system runs out of physical memory. The root
141partition will contain the filesystem that Gentoo is installed on.
142</p>
143
144<note>
145If you are using an OldWorld machine, you will need to keep MacOS available.
146The layout here assumes MacOS is installed on a separate drive.
147</note>
148
149<table>
150<tr>
151 <th>Partition</th>
78 <th>Size</th> 152 <th>Size</th>
153 <th>Filesystem</th>
79 <th>Description</th> 154 <th>Description</th>
80</tr> 155</tr>
81<tr> 156<tr>
82 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti> 157 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
83 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
84 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
85 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
86 <ti>(Partition Map)</ti>
87 <ti>32k</ti> 158 <ti>32k</ti>
159 <ti>None</ti>
88 <ti>Apple_partition_map</ti> 160 <ti>Apple Partition Map</ti>
89</tr>
90<tr> 161</tr>
162<tr>
91 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti> 163 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
92 <ti>(Not needed)</ti> 164 <ti>32Mb</ti>
93 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 165 <ti>ext2</ti>
94 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti> 166 <ti>Quik Boot Partition (quik only)</ti>
95 <ti>(bootstrap)</ti> 167</tr>
168<tr>
169 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
170 <ti>512Mb</ti>
171 <ti>Swap</ti>
172 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
173</tr>
174<tr>
175 <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
176 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
177 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
178 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
179</tr>
180</table>
181
182</body>
183</subsection>
184<subsection>
185<title>Pegasos</title>
186<body>
187
188<p>
189The Pegasos partition layout is quite simple compared to the Apple layouts.
190The first partition is a Boot Partition, which contains kernels to be booted,
191along with an Open Firmware script that presents a menu on boot. After the boot
192partition, the usual Linux filesystems are placed, according to the scheme
193below. The swap partition is a temporary storage place for when your system
194runs out of physical memory. The root partition will contain the filesystem
195that Gentoo is installed on.
196</p>
197
198<table>
199<tr>
200 <th>Partition</th>
201 <th>Size</th>
202 <th>Filesystem</th>
203 <th>Description</th>
204</tr>
205<tr>
206 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
207 <ti>32Mb</ti>
208 <ti>affs1 or ext2</ti>
209 <ti>Boot Partition</ti>
210</tr>
211<tr>
212 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
213 <ti>512Mb</ti>
214 <ti>Swap</ti>
215 <ti>Linux Swap</ti>
216</tr>
217<tr>
218 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
219 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
220 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
221 <ti>Linux Root</ti>
222</tr>
223</table>
224
225</body>
226</subsection>
227<subsection>
228<title>IBM PReP (RS/6000)</title>
229<body>
230
231<p>
232The IBM PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) requires a small PReP boot partition
233on the disk's first partition, followed by the swap and root partitions.
234</p>
235
236<table>
237<tr>
238 <th>Partition</th>
239 <th>Size</th>
240 <th>Filesystem</th>
241 <th>Description</th>
242</tr>
243<tr>
244 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
96 <ti>800k</ti> 245 <ti>800k</ti>
97 <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti> 246 <ti>None</ti>
98</tr> 247 <ti>PReP Boot Partition (Type 0x41)</ti>
99<tr> 248</tr>
100 <ti>(Not applicable</ti>
101 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
102 <ti>(Not applicable)</ti>
103 <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
104 <ti>(PReP Boot)</ti>
105 <ti>800k</ti>
106 <ti>Type 0x41</ti>
107</tr> 249<tr>
108<tr>
109 <ti>(Not needed)</ti>
110 <ti>(Not needed)</ti>
111 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
112 <ti>(Not needed)</ti>
113 <ti>ext2</ti>
114 <ti>32MB</ti>
115 <ti>Boot partition</ti>
116</tr>
117<tr>
118 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
119 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
120 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
121 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti> 250 <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
122 <ti>(swap)</ti>
123 <ti>512M</ti> 251 <ti>512Mb</ti>
124 <ti>Swap partition, Type 0x82</ti> 252 <ti>Swap</ti>
125</tr> 253 <ti>Linux Swap (Type 0x82)</ti>
126<tr> 254</tr>
127 <ti><path>/dev/hda4</path></ti> 255<tr>
128 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
129 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
130 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti> 256 <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
131 <ti>ext3, xfs</ti>
132 <ti>Rest of the disk</ti> 257 <ti>Rest of Disk</ti>
133 <ti>Root partition, Type 0x83</ti> 258 <ti>ext3, reiserfs, xfs</ti>
259 <ti>Linux Root (Type 0x83)</ti>
134</tr> 260</tr>
135</table> 261</table>
136 262
137<note>
138There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
139Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit, Apple_Patches</path>. If
140you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can delete them, because MacOS X and
141Linux don't need them. You might have to use <c>parted</c> in order to delete
142them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
143</note>
144
145<warn> 263<warn>
146<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions. On the Installation CD there 264<c>parted</c> is able to resize partitions including HFS+. Unfortunately there
147are patches included to resize HFS+ filesystem. Unfortunately it is not 265may be issues with resizing HFS+ journaled filesystems, so, for the best
148possible to resize HFS+ journaled filesystems, even if the journaling has been 266results, switch off journaling in Mac OS X before resizing. Remember that any
149switchedoff in Mac OS X. Everything you do with resizing in parted you do it 267resizing operation is dangerous, so attempt at your own risk! Be sure to always
150on your own risk! Be sure to have a backup of your data! 268have a backup of your data before resizing!
151</warn> 269</warn>
152 270
153<p> 271<p>
154If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many 272If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how many
155partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with <uri 273partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
156link="#fdisk">Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple/IBM) to Partition your Disk</uri> 274<uri link="#mac-fdisk"> Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) to Partition your Disk
157or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (especially Pegasos) to 275</uri> or <uri link="#parted">Alternative: Using parted (IBM/Pegasos) to
158Partition your Disk</uri>. 276Partition your Disk</uri>.
159</p> 277</p>
160 278
161</body> 279</body>
162</subsection> 280</subsection>
167<p> 285<p>
168The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance, 286The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
169if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your 287if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
170<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier. 288<path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
171If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path> 289If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your <path>/var</path>
172should be separate as all mails are stored inside <path>/var</path>. A good 290should be separate as all received mail is stored in <path>/var</path>. A good
173choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Gameservers will have 291choice of filesystem will then maximise your performance. Game servers should
174a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming servers are installed there. The 292have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most game servers are installed there. The
175reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. 293reason is similar for <path>/home</path>: security and backups. Whatever layout
294you chose, you will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> large: not only
295will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone takes
296more than 500Mb excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
176</p> 297</p>
177 298
178<p> 299<p>
179As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate 300As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
180partitions or volumes have the following advantages: 301partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
198 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc. 319 nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
199</li> 320</li>
200</ul> 321</ul>
201 322
202<p> 323<p>
203However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured 324However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. If not configured
204properly, you might result in having a system with lots of free space on one 325properly, you will have a system with lots of free space on one partition and
205partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and 326none on another. Another nuisance is that separate partitions - especially
206SATA. 327for important mountpoints like <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> - often
328require the administrator to boot with an initramfs to mount the partition
329before other boot scripts start. This isn't always the case though, so your
330results may vary.
331</p>
332
333<p>
334There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA.
207</p> 335</p>
208 336
209</body> 337</body>
210</subsection> 338</subsection>
211</section> 339</section>
212<section id="fdisk"> 340<section id="mac-fdisk">
213<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title> 341<title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple) Partition your Disk</title>
214<body> 342<body>
215 343
216<p> 344<p>
217At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>: 345At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
218</p> 346</p>
219 347
220<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk"> 348<pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
221# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/hda</i> 349# <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
222</pre> 350</pre>
223 351
224<p> 352<p>
353If you used Apple's Disk Utility to leave space for Linux, first delete the
225First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your 354partitions you have created previously to make room for your new install. Use
226Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). 355<c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s). It will ask for the
227It will ask for the partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on 356partition number to delete. Usually the first partition on NewWorld machines
228NewWorld machines (Apple_partition_map) could not be deleted. 357(Apple_partition_map) cannot be deleted. If you would like to start with a
358clean disk, you can simply initialize the disk by pressing <c>i</c>. This
359will completely erase the disk, so use this with caution.
229</p> 360</p>
230 361
231<p> 362<p>
232Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will 363Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
233ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free 364ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
243<p> 374<p>
244Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will 375Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
245ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c> 376ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
246before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter 377before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
247<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size 378<c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
248you want -- 512MB is recommended though). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> 379you want -- a minimum of 512MB is recommended, but 2 times your physical memory
249(mandatory). 380is the generally accepted size). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c>.
250</p> 381</p>
251 382
252<p> 383<p>
253To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select 384To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
254from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter 385from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
255<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available 386<c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
256space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory). 387space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c>.
257</p> 388</p>
258 389
259<p> 390<p>
260To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to 391To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
261quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>. 392quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
262</p> 393</p>
263 394
264<note> 395<note>
265To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check 396To make sure everything is ok, you should run <c>mac-fdisk -l</c> and check
266whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions 397whether all the partitions are there. If you don't see any of the partitions you
267you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions 398created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by
268by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk. Note that this will recreate the partition map 399pressing <c>i</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c>. Note that this will recreate the
269and thus remove all your partitions. 400partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
270</note> 401</note>
271 402
272<p> 403<p>
273Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with <uri 404Now that your partitions are created, you can continue with
274link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>. 405<uri link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
275</p> 406</p>
276 407
277</body> 408</body>
278</section> 409</section>
279<section id="parted"> 410<section id="parted">
280<title>Using parted (especially Pegasos) to Partition your Disk</title> 411<title>Using parted to Partition your Disk (Pegasos and RS/6000)</title>
281<body> 412<body>
282 413
283<p> 414<p>
284<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by 415<c>parted</c>, the Partition Editor, can now handle HFS+ partitions used by
285Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac-partitions and 416Mac OS and Mac OS X. With this tool you can resize your Mac partitions and
286create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below 417create space for your Linux partitions. Nevertheless, the example below
287describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only. 418describes partitioning for Pegasos machines only.
288</p> 419</p>
289 420
290<p> 421<p>
291To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>: 422To begin let's fire up <c>parted</c>:
292</p> 423</p>
293 424
294<pre caption="Starting parted"> 425<pre caption="Starting parted">
295# <i>parted /dev/hda</i> 426# <i>parted /dev/sda</i>
296</pre> 427</pre>
297 428
298<p> 429<p>
299If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new 430If the drive is unpartitioned, run <c>mklabel amiga</c> to create a new
300disklabel for the drive. 431disklabel for the drive.
301</p> 432</p>
302 433
303<p> 434<p>
304You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition 435You can type <c>print</c> at any time in parted to display the current partition
305table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press 436table. If at any time you change your mind or made a mistake you can press
306<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort parted. 437<c>Ctrl-c</c> to abort <c>parted</c>.
307</p> 438</p>
308 439
309<p> 440<p>
310If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem 441If you intend to also install MorphOS on your Pegasos create an affs1 filesystem
311named "BI0" (BI zero) at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough 442at the start of the drive. 32MB should be more than enough to store the MorphOS
312to store the MorphOS kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use reiserfs or 443kernel. If you have a Pegasos I or intend to use any filesystem besides ext2 or
313xfs, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the 444ext3, you will also have to store your Linux kernel on this partition (the
314Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the partition run 445Pegasos II can only boot from ext2/ext3 or affs1 partitions). To create the
315<c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> should 446partition run <c>mkpart primary affs1 START END</c> where <c>START</c> and
316be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c> creates a 32 MB partition 447<c>END</c> should be replaced with the megabyte range (e.g. <c>0 32</c>) which
317starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. 448creates a 32 MB partition starting at 0MB and ending at 32MB. If you chose to
318</p> 449create an ext2 or ext3 partition instead, substitute ext2 or ext3 for affs1 in
319 450the <c>mkpart</c> command.
320<p> 451</p>
321You need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem for all your 452
322program files etc, and one swap partition. To create the root filesystem you
323must first decide which filesystem to use. Possible options are ext2, ext3,
324reiserfs and xfs. Unless you know what you are doing, use ext3. Run
325<c>mkpart primary ext3 START END</c> to create an ext3 partition. Again, replace
326<c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the megabyte start and stop marks for the
327partition.
328</p> 453<p>
329 454You will need to create two partitions for Linux, one root filesystem and one
455swap partition. Run <c>mkpart primary START END</c> to create each partition,
456replacing <c>START</c> and <c>END</c> with the desired megabyte boundries.
330<p> 457</p>
458
459<p>
331It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition the same size as 460It is generally recommended that you create a swap partition that is two times
332the amount of RAM in your computer times two. You will probably get away with a 461bigger than the amount of RAM in your computer, but at least 512Mb is
333smaller swap partition unless you intend to run a lot of applications at the 462recommended. To create the swap partition, run
334same time (although at least 512MB is recommended). To create the swap 463<c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c> with START and END again denoting
335partition, run <c>mkpart primary linux-swap START END</c>. 464the partition boundries.
336</p>
337
338<p> 465</p>
339Write down the partition minor numbers as they are required during the 466
340installation process. To display the minor numbers run <c>print</c>. Your drives
341are accessed as <path>/dev/hdaX</path> where X is replaced with the minor number
342of the partition.
343</p> 467<p>
344
345<p>
346When you are done in parted simply run <c>quit</c>. 468When you are done in <c>parted</c> simply type <c>quit</c>.
347</p> 469</p>
348 470
349</body> 471</body>
350</section> 472</section>
351<section id="filesystems"> 473<section id="filesystems">
354<title>Introduction</title> 476<title>Introduction</title>
355<body> 477<body>
356 478
357<p> 479<p>
358Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them. 480Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
359If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use 481If you're not sure which filesystems to choose and are happy with our defaults,
360as default in this handbook, continue with <uri 482continue with
361 link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>. 483<uri link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
362Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems... 484Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems.
363</p> 485</p>
364 486
365</body> 487</body>
366</subsection>
367<subsection> 488</subsection>
368<title>Filesystems?</title>
369<body>
370 489
371<p> 490<subsection>
372Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3 and XFS are found stable on the 491<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
373PPC architecture. jfs is unsupported, ReiserFS still has some problems on ppc 492</subsection>
374and is not supported. 493
494<subsection>
495<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
496<body>
497
375</p> 498<p>
376 499<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
377<p> 500</p>
378<b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata 501
379journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can 502<pre caption="Creating a swap signature">
380be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation 503# <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
381journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are 504</pre>
382thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled 505
383filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
384happens to be in an inconsistent state.
385</p> 506<p>
386 507To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
387<p> 508</p>
388<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata 509
389journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like 510<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
390full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable 511# <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
391filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables 512</pre>
392high performance in almost all situations. In short, ext3 is an excellent 513
393filesystem.
394</p> 514<p>
395 515Create and activate the swap now before creating other filesystems.
396<p>
397<b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
398performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
399files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
400extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
401solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
402as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
403files and directories containing tens of thousands of files. Unfortunately we still have some
404issues with ReiserFS on ppc. We do not encourage people to use this filesystem.
405</p>
406
407<p>
408<b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling which comes with a robust
409feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
410filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
411an uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
412in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
413when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
414deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
415</p> 516</p>
416 517
417</body> 518</body>
418</subsection> 519</subsection>
419<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 520<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
430 <th>Filesystem</th> 531 <th>Filesystem</th>
431 <th>Creation Command</th> 532 <th>Creation Command</th>
432</tr> 533</tr>
433<tr> 534<tr>
434 <ti>ext2</ti> 535 <ti>ext2</ti>
435 <ti><c>mkfs.ext2</c></ti> 536 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
436</tr> 537</tr>
437<tr> 538<tr>
438 <ti>ext3</ti> 539 <ti>ext3</ti>
439 <ti><c>mkfs.ext3</c></ti> 540 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
440</tr> 541</tr>
441<tr> 542<tr>
442 <ti>reiserfs</ti> 543 <ti>reiserfs</ti>
443 <ti><c>mkfs.reiserfs</c></ti> 544 <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
444</tr> 545</tr>
445<tr> 546<tr>
446 <ti>xfs</ti> 547 <ti>xfs</ti>
447 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti> 548 <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
448</tr> 549</tr>
449</table> 550</table>
450 551
451<p> 552<p>
452For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/hda4</path> in our example) 553For instance, to make an ext3 filesystem on the root partition
453in ext3 (as in our example), you would use: 554(<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example), you would use:
454</p> 555</p>
455 556
456<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition"> 557<pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
457# <i>mkfs.ext3 /dev/hda4</i> 558# <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
458</pre> 559</pre>
459 560
460<p> 561<p>
461Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical 562Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
462volumes). 563volumes).
463</p> 564</p>
464 565
566<impo>
567If you choose to use ReiserFS for <path>/</path>, do not change its default
568block size if you will also be using <c>yaboot</c> as your bootloader, as
569explained in <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=10">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
570</impo>
571
465<note> 572<note>
466On OldWorld machines and the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must 573On the PegasosII your partition which holds the kernel must be ext2, ext3 or
467be ext2 or ext3. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, 574affs1. NewWorld machines can boot from any of ext2, ext3, XFS, ReiserFS or
468ReiserFS or even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. 575even HFS/HFS+ filesystems. On OldWorld machines booting with BootX, the kernel
576must be placed on an HFS partition, but this will be completed when you
577configure your bootloader.
469</note> 578</note>
470
471</body>
472</subsection>
473<subsection>
474<title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
475<body>
476
477<p>
478<c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
479</p>
480
481<pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
482# <i>mkswap /dev/hda3</i>
483</pre>
484
485<p>
486To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
487</p>
488
489<pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
490# <i>swapon /dev/hda3</i>
491</pre>
492
493<p>
494Create and activate the swap now.
495</p>
496 579
497</body> 580</body>
498</subsection> 581</subsection>
499</section> 582</section>
500<section> 583<section>
501<title>Mounting</title> 584<title>Mounting</title>
502<body> 585<body>
503 586
504<p> 587<p>
505Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is 588Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
506time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to 589time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. As an example we
507create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an 590mount the root partition:
508example we create a mount-point and mount the root partition:
509</p> 591</p>
510
511<warn>
512Due to a bug in the e2fsprogs package, you need to explicitly use
513the <c>mount -t ext3</c> option if you are using an ext3 filesystem.
514</warn>
515 592
516<pre caption="Mounting partitions"> 593<pre caption="Mounting partitions">
517# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
518# <i>mount /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i> 594# <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
519<comment>(For ext3 partitions:)</comment>
520# <i>mount -t ext3 /dev/hda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
521</pre> 595</pre>
522 596
523<note> 597<note>
524If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to 598If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
525change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This 599change its permissions after mounting and unpacking with
526also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>. 600<c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This is also true for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
527</note> 601</note>
528
529
530<p>
531We will have to mount the proc filesystem (a virtual interface with the
532kernel) on <path>/proc</path>. But first we will need to place our files on the
533partitions.
534</p>
535 602
536<p> 603<p>
537Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo 604Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
538Installation Files</uri>. 605Installation Files</uri>.
539</p> 606</p>

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