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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.59 2008/08/21 14:44:44 swift Exp $ -->
9 <sections>
11 <version>9.1</version>
12 <date>2008-08-21</date>
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
24 GMT+8.
25 </p>
27 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
28 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
29 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
30 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
31 </pre>
33 </body>
34 </section>
35 <section>
36 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39 <body>
41 <p>
42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44 users several possible kernels to choose from. A full listing with description
45 is available at the
46 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel Guide</uri>.
47 </p>
49 <p>
50 We suggest using <c>gentoo-sources</c> on PPC, which is a recent 2.6 kernel.
51 </p>
53 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
54 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
55 </pre>
57 <p>
58 If you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink named
59 <path>linux</path> pointing to your current kernel source. In this case, the
60 installed kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval
61 id="kernel-version"/></c>. Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
62 </p>
64 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
65 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
66 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/>
67 </pre>
69 <p>
70 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
71 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
72 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
73 a more efficient configuration.
74 </p>
76 <p>
77 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
78 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
79 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
80 genkernel</uri> instead.
81 </p>
83 </body>
84 </subsection>
85 </section>
86 <section id="manual">
87 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
88 <subsection>
89 <title>Introduction</title>
90 <body>
92 <p>
93 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
94 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
95 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
96 </p>
98 <p>
99 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
100 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
101 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains the program
102 <c>lspci</c>. You will now be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted
103 environment. You may safely ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (such as pcilib:
104 cannot open /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively,
105 you can run <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results
106 are the same. You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the
107 Installation CD uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
108 Another place to look for clues as to what components to enable is to check the
109 kernel message logs from the successful boot that got you this far. Type
110 <c>dmesg</c> to see these kernel messages.
111 </p>
113 <p>
114 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
115 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
116 by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
117 has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
118 configuration menu.
119 </p>
121 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
122 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
123 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
124 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
125 </pre>
127 <p>
128 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
129 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
130 properly without additional tweaks).
131 </p>
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 <subsection>
136 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
137 <body>
139 <p>
140 First go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
141 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
142 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
143 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
144 partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
145 an Apple computer.
146 </p>
148 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
149 File systems ---&gt;
150 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
151 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
152 [*] /proc file system support
153 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
154 Partition Types ---&gt;
155 [*] Advanced partition support
156 [*] Amiga partition table support
157 [*] Macintosh partition map support
159 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
160 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
161 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
162 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
163 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
164 </pre>
166 <p>
167 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
168 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
169 users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
170 </p>
172 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
173 File Systems ---&gt;
174 Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
175 &lt;M&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
176 &lt;M&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
177 </pre>
179 <p>
180 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
181 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
182 </p>
184 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
185 Device Drivers ---&gt;
186 Network device support ---&gt;
187 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
188 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
189 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
190 </pre>
192 <p>
193 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
194 over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
195 perform kernel mode PPPoE.
196 </p>
198 <p>
199 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
200 newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
201 the BMAC driver.
202 </p>
204 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
205 Device Drivers ---&gt;
206 Network device support ---&gt;
207 Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
208 [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
209 &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
210 &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
211 &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
212 &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
213 </pre>
215 <p>
216 At this time, full kernel preemption may still be unstable on PPC and may cause
217 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
218 that you do not use this feature. Both <e>Voluntary Preemption</e> and
219 <e>No Forced Preemption</e> should be safe.
220 </p>
222 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
223 Kernel options ---&gt;
224 <comment>(Select One)</comment>
225 Preemption Model
226 (X) No Forced Preemption (Server)
227 (X) Voluntary Kernel Preemption (Desktop)
228 </pre>
230 <p>
231 If you're booting from Firewire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
232 not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
233 dependencies in an initrd.
234 </p>
236 <pre caption="Enable support for firewire devices on boot">
237 Device Drivers ---&gt;
238 IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
239 &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
240 &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
241 &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
242 </pre>
244 <p>
245 If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
246 want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
247 dependencies in an initrd.
248 </p>
250 <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
251 Device Drivers ---&gt;
252 USB support ---&gt;
253 &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
254 &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
255 &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
256 </pre>
258 <p>
259 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
260 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the Open
261 Firmware framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select
262 the framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
263 </p>
265 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
266 Device Drivers ---&gt;
267 Graphics support ---&gt;
268 &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
269 [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
270 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
271 &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
272 &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
273 Console display driver support ---&gt;
274 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
275 </pre>
277 <note>
278 If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
279 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which
280 to use by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video
281 line such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
282 </note>
284 <p>
285 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
286 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
287 </p>
289 </body>
290 </subsection>
291 <subsection id="compiling">
292 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
293 <body>
295 <p>
296 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
297 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
298 </p>
300 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
301 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
302 </pre>
304 <p>
305 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
306 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
307 on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
308 BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
309 </p>
311 <p>
312 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
313 bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
314 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
315 using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
316 called zImage which can be found in
317 <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
318 </p>
320 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
321 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
322 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
323 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
324 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
325 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
326 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name" /></i>
327 </pre>
329 <p>
330 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
331 </p>
333 </body>
334 </subsection>
335 </section>
336 <section id="genkernel">
337 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
338 <body>
340 <p>
341 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
342 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
343 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
344 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
345 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
346 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
347 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
348 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
349 kernels.
350 </p>
352 <p>
353 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
354 </p>
356 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
357 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
358 </pre>
360 <p>
361 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
362 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
363 </p>
365 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
366 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
367 </pre>
369 <p>
370 If you are using firewire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
371 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
372 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for firewire support or
373 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
374 </p>
376 <p>
377 Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
378 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
379 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
380 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
381 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
382 </p>
384 <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
385 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
386 <comment>Remove this line</comment>
387 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
388 </pre>
390 <p>
391 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
392 For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
393 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
394 compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
395 quite a while to finish!
396 </p>
398 <p>
399 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
400 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
401 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
402 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
403 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as
404 well.
405 </p>
407 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
408 # <i>genkernel all</i>
409 </pre>
411 <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
412 # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
413 </pre>
415 <p>
416 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
417 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
418 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
419 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
420 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
421 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
422 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
423 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
424 </p>
426 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
427 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
428 # <i>ls /boot/kernel-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/> /boot/initramfs-genkernel-ppc-<keyval id="kernel-gentoo"/></i>
429 </pre>
431 <p>
432 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
433 </p>
435 </body>
436 </section>
437 <section id="kernel_modules">
438 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
440 <subsection>
441 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
442 </subsection>
444 </section>
445 </sections>

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