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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-ppc-kernel.xml,v 1.61 2010/07/21 00:52:41 nightmorph Exp $ -->
9 <sections>
11 <abstract>
12 The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13 explains how to configure your kernel.
14 </abstract>
16 <version>10.1</version>
17 <date>2010-07-20</date>
19 <section>
20 <title>Timezone</title>
21 <body>
23 <p>
24 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29 GMT+8.
30 </p>
32 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 </pre>
38 </body>
39 </section>
40 <section>
41 <title>Installing the Kernel Sources</title>
42 <subsection>
43 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44 <body>
46 <p>
47 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51 Guide</uri>.
52 </p>
54 <p>
55 For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 </p>
59 <p>
60 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 </p>
63 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 </pre>
67 <p>
68 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 </p>
74 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 </pre>
79 <p>
80 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83 the best way to optimize your environment.
84 </p>
86 <p>
87 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90 genkernel</uri> instead.
91 </p>
93 </body>
94 </subsection>
95 </section>
96 <section id="manual">
97 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98 <subsection>
99 <title>Introduction</title>
100 <body>
102 <p>
103 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105 few kernels you won't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106 </p>
108 <p>
109 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 </p>
120 <p>
121 Now, go to your kernel source directory, it's time to configure your kernel.
122 Start by configuring a kernel that will boot on most 32 Bit PowerPC machines
123 by first running <c>make pmac32_defconfig</c>. After the default configuration
124 has been generated, run <c>make menuconfig</c> to start an ncurses-based
125 configuration menu.
126 </p>
128 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
129 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
130 # <i>make pmac32_defconfig</i>
131 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
132 </pre>
134 <p>
135 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
136 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
137 properly without additional tweaks).
138 </p>
140 </body>
141 </subsection>
142 <subsection>
143 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
144 <body>
146 <p>
147 First go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
148 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
149 able to mount your partitions. Also select the <c>/proc file system</c> and
150 <c>Virtual memory</c>. Make sure that you also enable support for Amiga
151 partitions if you are using a Pegasos, or Macintosh partitions if you are using
152 an Apple computer.
153 </p>
155 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
156 File systems ---&gt;
157 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
158 <comment>(/proc may already be forced on by your configuration, if so, you'll see --- instead)</comment>
159 [*] /proc file system support
160 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
161 Partition Types ---&gt;
162 [*] Advanced partition support
163 [*] Amiga partition table support
164 [*] Macintosh partition map support
166 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
167 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
168 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
169 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
170 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
171 </pre>
173 <p>
174 Users of NewWorld and OldWorld machines will want HFS support as well. OldWorld
175 users require it for copying compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. NewWorld
176 users require it for configuring the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:
177 </p>
179 <pre caption="Activating HFS support">
180 File Systems ---&gt;
181 Miscellaneous filesystems ---&gt;
182 &lt;M&gt; Apple Macintosh file system support
183 &lt;M&gt; Apple Extended HFS file system support
184 </pre>
186 <p>
187 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
188 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
189 </p>
191 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
192 Device Drivers ---&gt;
193 Network device support ---&gt;
194 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
195 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
196 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
197 </pre>
199 <p>
200 The two compression options won't harm but are not always needed. The <c>PPP
201 over Ethernet</c> option might only be used by <c>ppp</c> when configured to
202 perform kernel mode PPPoE.
203 </p>
205 <p>
206 Don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card! Most
207 newer Apple computers use the SunGEM ethernet driver. Older iMacs commonly use
208 the BMAC driver.
209 </p>
211 <pre caption="Selecting the network driver">
212 Device Drivers ---&gt;
213 Network device support ---&gt;
214 Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
215 [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
216 &lt;*&gt; Generic Media Independent Interface device support
217 &lt;*&gt; MACE (Power Mac ethernet) support
218 &lt;*&gt; BMAC (G3 ethernet) support
219 &lt;*&gt; Sun GEM support
220 </pre>
222 <p>
223 At this time, full kernel preemption may still be unstable on PPC and may cause
224 compilation failures and random segfaults. It is <e>strongly</e> suggested
225 that you do not use this feature. Both <e>Voluntary Preemption</e> and
226 <e>No Forced Preemption</e> should be safe.
227 </p>
229 <pre caption="Ensure the Preemptible Kernel Option is Off">
230 Kernel options ---&gt;
231 <comment>(Select One)</comment>
232 Preemption Model
233 (X) No Forced Preemption (Server)
234 (X) Voluntary Kernel Preemption (Desktop)
235 </pre>
237 <p>
238 If you're booting from FireWire, you'll need to enable these options. If you do
239 not want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
240 dependencies in an initrd.
241 </p>
243 <pre caption="Enable support for FireWire devices on boot">
244 Device Drivers ---&gt;
245 IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support ---&gt;
246 &lt;*&gt; IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
247 &lt;*&gt; OHCI-1394 support
248 &lt;*&gt; SBP-2 support (Harddisks etc.)
249 </pre>
251 <p>
252 If you're booting from USB, you'll need to enable these options. If you do not
253 want to compile in support, you'll need to include these modules and their
254 dependencies in an initrd.
255 </p>
257 <pre caption="Enable support for USB devices on boot">
258 Device Drivers ---&gt;
259 USB support ---&gt;
260 &lt;*&gt; Support for Host-side USB
261 &lt;*&gt; OHCI HCD support
262 &lt;*&gt; USB Mass Storage support
263 </pre>
265 <p>
266 Do not turn off kernel framebuffer support as it is required for a successful
267 boot. If you are using an NVIDIA based chipset, you should use the Open
268 Firmware framebuffer. If you are using an ATI based chipset, you should select
269 the framebuffer driver based upon your chipset (Mach64, Rage128 or Radeon).
270 </p>
272 <pre caption="Choosing a Framebuffer Driver">
273 Device Drivers ---&gt;
274 Graphics support ---&gt;
275 &lt;*&gt; Support for frame buffer devices
276 [*] Open Firmware frame buffer device support
277 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon display support
278 &lt;*&gt; ATI Rage128 display support
279 &lt;*&gt; ATI Mach64 display support
280 Console display driver support ---&gt;
281 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console support
282 </pre>
284 <note>
285 If you select more than one framebuffer device, it may default to a less than
286 optimal driver. Either use only one framebuffer device or specify which to use
287 by passing the driver to use to the kernel on boot by appending a video line
288 such as: <c>video=radeonfb</c>.
289 </note>
291 <p>
292 When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with <uri
293 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
294 </p>
296 </body>
297 </subsection>
298 <subsection id="compiling">
299 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
300 <body>
302 <p>
303 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
304 the configuration menu and run the following commands:
305 </p>
307 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
308 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
309 </pre>
311 <p>
312 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
313 <path>/boot</path> as shown below. If you have a separate boot partition, as
314 on Pegasos computers, be sure that it is mounted properly. If you are using
315 BootX to boot, we'll copy the kernel later.
316 </p>
318 <p>
319 Yaboot and BootX expect to use an uncompressed kernel unlike many other
320 bootloaders. The uncompressed kernel is called vmlinux and it is placed in
321 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> after the kernel has finished compiling. If you are
322 using a Pegasos machine, the Pegasos firmware requires a compressed kernel
323 called zImage which can be found in
324 <path>/usr/src/linux/arch/powerpc/boot/images</path>.
325 </p>
327 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
328 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
329 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
330 <comment>(Apple/IBM)</comment>
331 # <i>cp vmlinux /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
332 <comment>(Pegasos)</comment>
333 # <i>cp arch/powerpc/boot/images/zImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
334 </pre>
336 <p>
337 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
338 </p>
340 </body>
341 </subsection>
342 </section>
343 <section id="genkernel">
344 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
345 <body>
347 <p>
348 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
349 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
350 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
351 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
352 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
353 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
354 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
355 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own
356 kernels.
357 </p>
359 <p>
360 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
361 </p>
363 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
364 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
365 </pre>
367 <p>
368 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
369 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
370 </p>
372 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
373 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6</i>
374 </pre>
376 <p>
377 If you are using FireWire or USB to boot, you'll need to add modules to the
378 initrd. Edit <path>/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/modules_load</path> and change
379 <c>MODULES_FIREWIRE="ieee1394 ohci1394 sbp2"</c> for FireWire support or
380 <c>MODULES_USB="usbcore ohci-hcd ehci-hcd usb-storage"</c> for USB support.
381 </p>
383 <p>
384 Before compiling your sources, the fstab needs a slight adjustment. The rest of
385 the fstab will be completed during a later step, so don't worry about the
386 details now. If you did not create a separate boot partition (NOT bootstrap,
387 that's different), remove the line referencing <path>/boot</path> from
388 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This will need to be done on most Apple computers.
389 </p>
391 <pre caption="Removing /boot from /etc/fstab on machines without a boot partition">
392 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
393 <comment>Remove this line</comment>
394 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
395 </pre>
397 <p>
398 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel --genzimage all</c>.
399 For Pegasos, we will need to use a different config and create a zImage instead
400 of the vmlinux kernel used on Apple machines. Be aware, as <c>genkernel</c>
401 compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation can take
402 quite a while to finish!
403 </p>
405 <p>
406 Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2
407 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using
408 <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and add support for your
409 filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e. <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or
410 LVM2 will probably want to add <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as an argument as
411 well.
412 </p>
414 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
415 # <i>genkernel all</i>
416 </pre>
418 <pre caption="Running genkernel on the Pegasos">
419 # <i>genkernel --genzimage --kernel-config=/usr/share/genkernel/ppc/Pegasos all</i>
420 </pre>
422 <p>
423 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
424 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
425 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
426 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need them when writing
427 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
428 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
429 before your "real" system starts up. Be sure to also copy down the required
430 boot arguments, these are required for a successful boot with genkernel.
431 </p>
433 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
434 <comment>Note, your kernel version might be different</comment>
435 # <i>ls /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-name"/> /boot/<keyval id="genkernel-initrd"/></i>
436 </pre>
438 <p>
439 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
440 </p>
442 </body>
443 </section>
444 <section id="kernel_modules">
445 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
447 <subsection>
448 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
449 </subsection>
451 </section>
452 </sections>

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