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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.68 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.67 2004/12/22 21:54:10 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 swift 1.68 <version>1.63</version>
12     <date>2004-12-26</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
22 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
23 swift 1.57 and source code (of course this requires a working network connection):
24 swift 1.2 </p>
25    
26     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
27 neysx 1.59 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o |grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
28 swift 1.2 </pre>
29    
30     <p>
31     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
32 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
33 swift 1.2 </p>
34    
35     </body>
36 swift 1.3 </subsection>
37     <subsection>
38 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
43     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
44 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
45     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
46     network.
47     </p>
48    
49     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
50 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
51     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
52 swift 1.18 </pre>
53    
54     </body>
55     </subsection>
56     <subsection>
57 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
58     <body>
59    
60     <p>
61     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
62     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
63     chrooted environment.
64     </p>
65    
66     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
67     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
68     </pre>
69    
70     </body>
71     </subsection>
72     <subsection>
73 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
74 swift 1.1 <body>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
78 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
79 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
80 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
81 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     <p>
85     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
86 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
87     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
88     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
89 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
90     </p>
91    
92     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
93     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
94     # <i>env-update</i>
95 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
96 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
97     </pre>
98    
99     <p>
100     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
101 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
102 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
103     </p>
104    
105     </body>
106 swift 1.3 </subsection>
107     <subsection>
108 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
109 swift 1.2 <body>
110    
111     <p>
112 swift 1.64 If you have a working Internet connection and you don't want to install our
113 neysx 1.65 prebuilt packages later on (also known as GRP packages), you should update your
114     Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this for you.
115     Other users should <e>only</e> run <c>emerge --metadata</c> to create the cache
116     database Portage usually creates after <c>emerge --sync</c>.
117 swift 1.2 </p>
118    
119 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
120 neysx 1.65 <comment>(For users with an Internet connection who do not intend on using GRP packages)</comment>
121 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
122 swift 1.38
123 swift 1.64 <comment>(For all other users)</comment>
124     # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
125 swift 1.13 </pre>
126    
127     <p>
128     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
129 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
130 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
131 swift 1.13 </p>
132 swift 1.8
133     </body>
134     </subsection>
135 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
136 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
137     <body>
138    
139 swift 1.57 <warn>
140     Do not make any modifications to the USE variable if you are performing a stage3
141     with GRP installation. You can alter the USE variable after having installed the
142     packages you want. Gremlins are known to attack your system if you ignore this
143     warning!
144     </warn>
145    
146 swift 1.21 <p>
147     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
148     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
149     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
150     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
151     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
152     (X-server).
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
157     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
158 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
159 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
160     </p>
161    
162     <p>
163     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
164     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
165     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
166     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
167     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
168     tweaked for GNOME.
169     </p>
170    
171     <p>
172 swift 1.68 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
173     files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
174     directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
175     directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
176     settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
177 swift 1.21 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
178     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
179     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
180     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
181     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
182     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
183     </p>
184    
185     <p>
186     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
187 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
188     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
189 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
190     </p>
191    
192     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
193     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
194 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
195 swift 1.23 </pre>
196    
197     <p>
198     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
199     and CD Recording support:
200 swift 1.21 </p>
201    
202     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
203     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
204     </pre>
205    
206     <pre caption="USE setting">
207     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
208     </pre>
209    
210 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
211     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
212 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
213     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
214 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
215     if you know what locales to choose.
216 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
217    
218     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
219 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
220     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
221 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
222    
223     <p>
224     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
225     </p>
226    
227 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
228 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
229 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
230    
231 swift 1.67 <p>
232     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
233     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
234     </p>
235    
236 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
237 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
238     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
239     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
240     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
241     </pre>
242    
243 swift 1.21 </body>
244     </subsection>
245     <subsection>
246 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
251     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
252     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
253     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
254     </p>
255 swift 1.2
256     </body>
257 swift 1.1 </subsection>
258 swift 1.3 </section>
259     <section>
260 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
261     <body>
262    
263     <p>
264     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
265     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
266     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
267 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
268 swift 1.1 </p>
269    
270     <ul>
271     <li>
272 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
273     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
274     to Stage2</uri>)
275 swift 1.1 </li>
276     <li>
277 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
278     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
279     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
280 swift 1.1 </li>
281     <li>
282 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
283 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
284     Kernel</uri>
285 swift 1.1 </li>
286     </ul>
287    
288     </body>
289 swift 1.3 </section>
290     <section>
291     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
292 swift 1.1 <subsection>
293     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
294     <body>
295    
296     <p>
297     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
298     </p>
299    
300     <p>
301     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
302     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
303     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
304     </p>
305    
306     <p>
307     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
308 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
309 swift 1.1 </p>
310    
311     <p>
312 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
313     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
314     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
315 swift 1.1 </p>
316    
317     </body>
318 swift 1.3 </subsection>
319     <subsection>
320 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
321     <body>
322    
323     <p>
324 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
325 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
326     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
327 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
328 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
329     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
330 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
331 swift 1.1 </p>
332    
333     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
334     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
335 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
336 swift 1.1 </pre>
337    
338     </body>
339 swift 1.3 </subsection>
340 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
341 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
342     <body>
343    
344     <p>
345     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
346 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
347     takes quite some time to finish.
348 swift 1.1 </p>
349    
350     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
351     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
352 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
353 swift 1.12 </pre>
354    
355     <p>
356 swift 1.63 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
357     fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
358     When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
359     </p>
360    
361     <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
362     # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
363 swift 1.66 # <i>emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers</i>
364 swift 1.63 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
365     </pre>
366    
367     <p>
368 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
369     to Stage3</uri>.
370     </p>
371    
372 swift 1.1 </body>
373     </subsection>
374 swift 1.3 </section>
375     <section>
376     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
377 swift 1.1 <subsection>
378     <title>Introduction</title>
379     <body>
380    
381     <p>
382     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
383     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
384     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
385     </p>
386    
387     <p>
388     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
389 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
390     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
391 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
392     </p>
393    
394     </body>
395 swift 1.3 </subsection>
396     <subsection>
397 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
398     <body>
399    
400     <p>
401     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
402 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
403 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
404     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
405     </p>
406    
407     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
408 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
409 swift 1.1 </pre>
410    
411     </body>
412 swift 1.3 </subsection>
413     <subsection>
414 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
415 swift 1.1 <body>
416    
417     <p>
418     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
419     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
420 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
421 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
422     </p>
423    
424     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
425 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
426 swift 1.1 </pre>
427    
428     </body>
429 swift 1.3 </subsection>
430     <subsection>
431 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
432     <body>
433    
434     <p>
435     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
436 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
437     complete.
438 swift 1.1 </p>
439    
440     <pre caption = "Building the System">
441     # <i>emerge system</i>
442     </pre>
443    
444     <p>
445 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
446     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
447     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
448 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
449 swift 1.28 </p>
450    
451     <p>
452 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
453     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
454 swift 1.28 </p>
455    
456     </body>
457     </subsection>
458     </section>
459    
460 swift 1.3 </sections>

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