Now that all partitions are initialised and the base environment
installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
chrooting in it. This means that we change from the current
installation environment (namely the LiveCD environment) to your
installation system (namely the initialised partitions).
This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
from / (on the LiveCD) to /mnt/gentoo (on your
partitions) using chroot. Then we will create a new environment using
env-update, which essentially creates environment variables.
Finally, we load those variables into memory using source.
# chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash
# source /etc/profile
Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
Ofcourse it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
has some sections left :-)
Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2
Introduction to Bootstrapping
So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
In this step, we will bootstrap your Gentoo system. This takes a
long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
ground up for your specific machine and needs.
Bootstrapping means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
might not want.
Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time
If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
the GNU Java Compiler (gjc) this does not mean that your
system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
To deselect java-support temporarily, define USE="-java" before
firing up the bootstrap script.
# export USE="-java"
Optional: Downloading the Sources First
If you haven't copied over all sourcecode before, then the bootstrap
script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
download the sourcecode first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
compilation) use the -f option of the bootstrap script, which will
fetch (hence the letter f) all sourcecode for you.
# cd /usr/portage
# scripts/bootstrap.sh -f
Bootstrapping the System
Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else, because this
step takes quite some time to finish.
# cd /usr/portage
Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3
If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
(either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
stage2). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
All system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use. However,
some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
Optional: Viewing what will be done
If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute emerge
-p system. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like less or
more to go up and down the list.
# emerge -p system | less
Optional: Downloading the sources first
If you want emerge to download the sources before you continue
(for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
open while you are building all packages) you can use the -f
option of emerge which will fetch all sources for you.
# emerge -f system
This will not built the packages! Only fetch the sources.
Building the System
To start building the system, execute emerge system. Then go do
something else, because this step takes a long time to complete.
# emerge system
When the building has completed, go on with the next section.