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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.30 2004/03/06 17:03:15 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 </p>
21
22 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
23 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 <p>
27 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
28 completely optional. If <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, the default values suffice.
29 </p>
30
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
39 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
40 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
41 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
42 network.
43 </p>
44
45 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
46 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
47 </pre>
48
49 </body>
50 </subsection>
51 <subsection>
52 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
53 <body>
54
55 <p>
56 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
57 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
58 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
59 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
60 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
65 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
66 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
67 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
68 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
72 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
73 # <i>env-update</i>
74 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
75 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
76 </pre>
77
78 <p>
79 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
80 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
81 has some sections left :-)
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 <subsection>
87 <title>Optional: Updating Portage</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
92 download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge sync</c> does this
93 for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
94 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
95 </p>
96
97 <pre caption="Updating Portage">
98 # <i>emerge sync</i>
99 <comment>(In case you are unable to use rsync, use "emerge-webrsync" which
100 downloads and installs a portage snapshot for you)</comment>
101 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
102 </pre>
103
104 <p>
105 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
106 update Portage, you can safely ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
107 on during the installation.
108 </p>
109
110 </body>
111 </subsection>
112 <subsection id="configure_USE">
113 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
114 <body>
115
116 <p>
117 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
118 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
119 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
120 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
121 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
122 (X-server).
123 </p>
124
125 <p>
126 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
127 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
128 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
129 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
130 </p>
131
132 <p>
133 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
134 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
135 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
136 sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
137 (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
138 tweaked for GNOME.
139 </p>
140
141 <p>
142 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
143 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
144 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
145 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
146 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
147 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
148 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
149 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
150 </p>
151
152 <p>
153 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
154 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=1">Chapter 1: USE flags</uri>. A full
155 description on the available USE flags can be found on your system in
156 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
157 </p>
158
159 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
160 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
161 </pre>
162
163 <p>
164 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
165 and CD Recording support:
166 </p>
167
168 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
169 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
170 </pre>
171
172 <pre caption="USE setting">
173 USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
174 </pre>
175
176 </body>
177 </subsection>
178 <subsection>
179 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
180 <body>
181
182 <p>
183 If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
184 system you might want to take a look at our <uri
185 link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
186 the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
187 </p>
188
189 </body>
190 </subsection>
191 </section>
192 <section>
193 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
194 <body>
195
196 <p>
197 Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
198 select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
199 that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
200 is the first place where your choice defines the further steps.
201 </p>
202
203 <ul>
204 <li>
205 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
206 this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
207 to Stage2</uri>)
208 </li>
209 <li>
210 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
211 and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
212 from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
213 </li>
214 <li>
215 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
216 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
217 Kernel</uri>
218 </li>
219 </ul>
220
221 </body>
222 </section>
223 <section>
224 <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
225 <subsection>
226 <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
227 <body>
228
229 <p>
230 So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
231 </p>
232
233 <p>
234 In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
235 long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
236 ground up for your specific machine and needs.
237 </p>
238
239 <p>
240 <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
241 Collection and several other key system programs. The GNU Compiler
242 Collection even has to be built twice: first with the "generic" compiler
243 we provide, and a second time with the compiler you then just built.
244 </p>
245
246 <p>
247 Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
248 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
249 link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
250 </p>
251
252 </body>
253 </subsection>
254 <subsection>
255 <title>Optional: Decreasing Compilation Time</title>
256 <body>
257
258 <p>
259 If you want to speed up the bootstrapping, you can temporarily deselect
260 java-support. This means that the GNU Compiler Collection and the GNU C
261 Library will be compiled without java-support (which decreases
262 compilation time considerably). Although this means that you wont have
263 the GNU Java Compiler (<c>gcj</c>) this does <e>not</e> mean that your
264 system won't be able to use java applets and other java-related stuff.
265 </p>
266
267 <p>
268 To deselect java-support temporarily, define <e>USE="-java"</e> before
269 firing up the bootstrap script.
270 </p>
271
272 <pre caption = "Deselecting java support">
273 # <i>export USE="-java"</i>
274 </pre>
275
276 <p>
277 Don't forget to unset the variable after bootstrapping:
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Unsetting USE">
281 # <i>unset USE</i>
282 </pre>
283
284 </body>
285 </subsection>
286 <subsection>
287 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
288 <body>
289
290 <p>
291 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
292 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
293 this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
294 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
295 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
296 compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
297 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
298 </p>
299
300 <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
301 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
302 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
303 </pre>
304
305 </body>
306 </subsection>
307 <subsection>
308 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
309 <body>
310
311 <p>
312 Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
313 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else (for instance harass
314 Gentoo developers on #gentoo), because this step takes quite some time to
315 finish.
316 </p>
317
318 <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
319 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
320 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
321 </pre>
322
323 <p>
324 If you have altered the <c>CHOST</c> setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
325 previously, you need to reinitialize some variables in order for <c>gcc</c> to
326 work fast:
327 </p>
328
329 <pre caption="Reinitialize environment variables">
330 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
331 </pre>
332
333 <p>
334 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
335 to Stage3</uri>.
336 </p>
337
338 </body>
339 </subsection>
340 </section>
341 <section>
342 <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
343 <subsection>
344 <title>Introduction</title>
345 <body>
346
347 <p>
348 If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
349 (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
350 <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
351 </p>
352
353 <p>
354 <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
355 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
356 Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
357 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
358 </p>
359
360 </body>
361 </subsection>
362 <subsection>
363 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
364 <body>
365
366 <p>
367 If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
368 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
369 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
370 <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
371 </p>
372
373 <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
374 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
375 </pre>
376
377 </body>
378 </subsection>
379 <subsection>
380 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
385 (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
386 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
387 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
388 </p>
389
390 <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
391 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
392 </pre>
393
394 </body>
395 </subsection>
396 <subsection>
397 <title>Building the System</title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
402 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
403 complete.
404 </p>
405
406 <pre caption = "Building the System">
407 # <i>emerge system</i>
408 </pre>
409
410 <p>
411 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
412 (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
413 booted, do read our documentation on <uri
414 link="?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
415 </p>
416
417 <p>
418 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
419 link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
420 </p>
421
422 </body>
423 </subsection>
424 </section>
425
426 </sections>

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