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release time. note that since this is beta1, the release dir and stage/media names have been adjusted accordingly. also, the handbooks are marked with a disclaimer=draft, so once the final is out, that will be removed and the release names adjusted. in the mean time, these are live. the beta is officially released. no, it's not april fools, but it is april 1st. :)

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.12 2008/03/31 21:48:59 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13 explains how to configure your kernel.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>6.0</version>
17 <date>2008-04-01</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Timezone</title>
21 <body>
22
23 <p>
24 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29 GMT+8.
30 </p>
31
32 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 </pre>
37
38 </body>
39 </section>
40 <section>
41 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42 <subsection>
43 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44 <body>
45
46 <p>
47 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51 Guide</uri>.
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 </p>
62
63 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 </pre>
66
67 <p>
68 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 </p>
73
74 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 </pre>
78
79 <p>
80 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83 the best way to optimize your environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90 genkernel</uri> instead.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </subsection>
95 </section>
96 <section id="manual">
97 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98 <subsection>
99 <title>Introduction</title>
100 <body>
101
102 <p>
103 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106 </p>
107
108 <p>
109 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133 properly without additional tweaks).
134 </p>
135
136 </body>
137 </subsection>
138 <subsection>
139 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
144 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
145 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
146 </p>
147
148 </body>
149 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
150
151 <p>
152 We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
153 strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
154 notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
155 <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
156 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package. Make sure you select IA32
157 Emulation if you want to be able to run 32-bit programs. Gentoo will install a
158 multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so you probably
159 want this option.
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
163 Processor type and features --->
164 [ ] Intel MCE Features
165 [ ] AMD MCE Features
166 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
167 ( ) AMD-Opteron/Athlon64
168 ( ) Intel EM64T
169 ( ) Generic-x86-64
170 Executable file formats / Emulations --->
171 [*] IA32 Emulation
172 </pre>
173
174 </body>
175 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
176
177 <p>
178 Now select the correct processor family:
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
182 Processor type and features ---&gt;
183 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
184 (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
185 </pre>
186
187 </body>
188 <body>
189
190 <p>
191 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
192 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
193 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
194 file system</c>.
195 </p>
196
197 </body>
198 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
199
200 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
201 File systems ---&gt;
202 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
203 [*] /proc file system support
204 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
205
206 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
207 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
208 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
209 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
210 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
211 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
212 </pre>
213
214 </body>
215 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
216
217 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
218 File systems ---&gt;
219 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
220 [*] /proc file system support
221 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
222
223 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
224 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
225 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
226 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
227 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
228 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
229 </pre>
230
231 </body>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 Do not forget to enable DMA for your drives:
236 </p>
237
238 <pre caption="Activating DMA">
239 Device Drivers ---&gt;
240 ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
241 [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
242 </pre>
243
244 <p>
245 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
246 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
247 </p>
248
249 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
250 Device Drivers ---&gt;
251 Networking Support ---&gt;
252 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
253 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
254 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
255 </pre>
256
257 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers" test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
258 Device Drivers ---&gt;
259 Networking support ---&gt;
260 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
261 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
262 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
263 </pre>
264
265 <p>
266 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
267 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
268 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
269 </p>
270
271 <p>
272 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
273 ethernet card.
274 </p>
275
276 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
277 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
278 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
279 </p>
280
281 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
282 If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
283 should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
284 </p>
285
286 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
287 Processor type and features ---&gt;
288 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
289 </pre>
290
291 <note>
292 In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
293 </note>
294
295 <p>
296 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
297 those as well:
298 </p>
299
300 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
301 Device Drivers ---&gt;
302 USB Support ---&gt;
303 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
304 </pre>
305
306 </body>
307 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
308
309 <p>
310 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
311 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
312 </p>
313
314 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
315 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
316 PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
317 &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
318 <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
319 &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
320 [*] 32-bit CardBus support
321 <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
322 --- PC-card bridges
323 &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
324 &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
325 &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
326 &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
327 &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
328 </pre>
329
330 <p>
331 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
332 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
333 </p>
334
335 </body>
336 </subsection>
337 <subsection id="compiling">
338 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
339 <body>
340
341 <p>
342 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
343 the configuration and start the compilation process:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
347 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
352 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
353 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
354 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
355 name and version of your kernel.
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
359 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
360 </pre>
361
362 <p>
363 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
364 </p>
365
366 </body>
367 </subsection>
368 </section>
369 <section id="genkernel">
370 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
371 <body>
372
373 <p>
374 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
375 script to configure your kernel for you.
376 </p>
377
378 <p>
379 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
380 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
381 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
382 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
383 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
384 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
385 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
386 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
387 </p>
388
389 <p>
390 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
391 </p>
392
393 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
394 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
395 </pre>
396
397 </body>
398 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
399
400 <p>
401 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
402 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
406 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/x86/kernel-config-2.6</i>
407 </pre>
408
409 </body>
410 <body>
411
412 <p>
413 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
414 though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
415 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
416 </p>
417
418 <p>
419 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
420 might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
421 all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
422 <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
423 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
424 </p>
425
426 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
427 # <i>genkernel all</i>
428 </pre>
429
430 <p>
431 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
432 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
433 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
434 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
435 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
436 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
437 before your "real" system starts up.
438 </p>
439
440 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
441 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
442 </pre>
443
444 </body>
445 </section>
446 <section id="kernel_modules">
447 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
448
449 <subsection>
450 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
451 </subsection>
452
453 </section>
454 </sections>

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