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Revision 1.32 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Jul 13 00:53:51 2010 UTC (4 years, 11 months ago) by nightmorph
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.31: +5 -4 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
fix the handbook for bug 323381: update -march=nocona to core2, update MCE description in the kernel config, and add the new processor type for intel atom.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86+amd64-kernel.xml,v 1.31 2009/11/30 19:00:28 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter
13 explains how to configure your kernel.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>7.4</version>
17 <date>2010-07-12</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Timezone</title>
21 <body>
22
23 <p>
24 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
25 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
26 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
27 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
28 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact
29 GMT+8.
30 </p>
31
32 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
33 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
34 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
35 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
36 </pre>
37
38 </body>
39 </section>
40 <section>
41 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
42 <subsection>
43 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
44 <body>
45
46 <p>
47 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
48 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
49 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
50 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
51 Guide</uri>.
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 For <keyval id="arch"/>-based systems we have <c>gentoo-sources</c>
56 (kernel source patched for extra features).
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>.
61 </p>
62
63 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 </pre>
66
67 <p>
68 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 </p>
73
74 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 </pre>
78
79 <p>
80 Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use
81 <c>genkernel</c> for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the
82 Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is
83 the best way to optimize your environment.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with <uri
88 link="#manual">Default: Manual Configuration</uri>. If you want to use
89 <c>genkernel</c> you should read <uri link="#genkernel">Alternative: Using
90 genkernel</uri> instead.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </subsection>
95 </section>
96 <section id="manual">
97 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
98 <subsection>
99 <title>Introduction</title>
100 <body>
101
102 <p>
103 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
104 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
105 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
106 </p>
107
108 <p>
109 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
110 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
111 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
112 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
113 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
114 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
115 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
116 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
117 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
122 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
126 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
127 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
132 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
133 properly without additional tweaks).
134 </p>
135
136 </body>
137 </subsection>
138 <subsection>
139 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
140 <body>
141
142 <p>
143 Make sure that every driver that is vital to the booting of your system (such as
144 SCSI controller, ...) is compiled <e>in</e> the kernel and not as a module,
145 otherwise your system will not be able to boot completely.
146 </p>
147
148 </body>
149 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
150
151 <p>
152 We shall then select the exact processor type. The x86_64 kernel maintainer
153 strongly recommends users enable MCE features so that they are able to be
154 notified of any hardware problems. On x86_64, these errors are not printed to
155 <c>dmesg</c> like on other architectures, but to <path>/dev/mcelog</path>. This
156 requires the <c>app-admin/mcelog</c> package. Make sure you select IA32
157 Emulation if you want to be able to run 32-bit programs. Gentoo will install a
158 multilib system (mixed 32-bit/64-bit computing) by default, so you probably
159 want this option.
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="Selecting processor type and features">
163 Processor type and features --->
164 [ ] Machine Check / overheating reporting
165 [ ] Intel MCE Features
166 [ ] AMD MCE Features
167 Processor family (AMD-Opteron/Athlon64) --->
168 ( ) Opteron/Athlon64/Hammer/K8
169 ( ) Intel P4 / older Netburst based Xeon
170 ( ) Core 2/newer Xeon
171 ( ) Intel Atom
172 ( ) Generic-x86-64
173 Executable file formats / Emulations --->
174 [*] IA32 Emulation
175 </pre>
176
177 </body>
178 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
179
180 <p>
181 Now select the correct processor family:
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="Selecting correct processor family">
185 Processor type and features ---&gt;
186 <comment>(Change according to your system)</comment>
187 (<i>Athlon/Duron/K7</i>) Processor family
188 </pre>
189
190 </body>
191 <body>
192
193 <p>
194 Now go to <c>File Systems</c> and select support for the filesystems you use.
195 <e>Don't</e> compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be
196 able to mount your partitions. Also select <c>Virtual memory</c> and <c>/proc
197 file system</c>.
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Selecting necessary file systems">
201 File systems ---&gt;
202 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
203 [*] /proc file system support
204 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
205
206 <comment>(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)</comment>
207 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
208 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
209 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
210 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
211 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
212 </pre>
213
214 <p>
215 If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up
216 modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:
217 </p>
218
219 <pre caption="Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers">
220 Device Drivers ---&gt;
221 Networking Support ---&gt;
222 &lt;*&gt; PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
223 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for async serial ports
224 &lt;*&gt; PPP support for sync tty ports
225 </pre>
226
227 <p>
228 The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither
229 does the <c>PPP over Ethernet</c> option, that might only be used by <c>ppp</c>
230 when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
231 </p>
232
233 <p>
234 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
235 ethernet card.
236 </p>
237
238 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
239 If you have an Intel CPU that supports HyperThreading (tm), or you have a
240 multi-CPU system, you should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
241 </p>
242
243 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
244 If you have a multi-CPU Opteron or a multi-core (e.g. AMD64 X2) system, you
245 should activate "Symmetric multi-processing support":
246 </p>
247
248 <pre caption="Activating SMP support">
249 Processor type and features ---&gt;
250 [*] Symmetric multi-processing support
251 </pre>
252
253 <note>
254 In multi-core systems, each core counts as one processor.
255 </note>
256
257 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
258 If you have more than 4GB of RAM, you need to enable "High Memory Support
259 (64G)".
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 If you use USB Input Devices (like Keyboard or Mouse) don't forget to enable
264 those as well:
265 </p>
266
267 <pre caption="Activating USB Support for Input Devices">
268 Device Drivers ---&gt;
269 [*] HID Devices ---&gt;
270 &lt;*&gt; USB Human Interface Device (full HID) support
271 </pre>
272
273 </body>
274 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
275
276 <p>
277 If you want PCMCIA support for your laptop, don't forget to enable
278 support for the PCMCIA card bridge present in your system:
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="Enabling PCMCIA support">
282 Bus options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA) ---&gt;
283 PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support ---&gt;
284 &lt;*&gt; PCCard (PCMCIA/CardBus) support
285 <comment>(select 16 bit if you need support for older PCMCIA cards. Most people want this.)</comment>
286 &lt;*&gt; 16-bit PCMCIA support
287 [*] 32-bit CardBus support
288 <comment>(select the relevant bridges below)</comment>
289 --- PC-card bridges
290 &lt;*&gt; CardBus yenta-compatible bridge support (NEW)
291 &lt;*&gt; Cirrus PD6729 compatible bridge support (NEW)
292 &lt;*&gt; i82092 compatible bridge support (NEW)
293 &lt;*&gt; i82365 compatible bridge support (NEW)
294 &lt;*&gt; Databook TCIC host bridge support (NEW)
295 </pre>
296
297 <p>
298 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
299 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
300 </p>
301
302 </body>
303 </subsection>
304 <subsection id="compiling">
305 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
306 <body>
307
308 <p>
309 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
310 the configuration and start the compilation process:
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
314 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
315 </pre>
316
317 <p>
318 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
319 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
320 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
321 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
322 name and version of your kernel.
323 </p>
324
325 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
326 # <i>cp arch/<keyval id="arch-sub"/>/boot/bzImage /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
327 </pre>
328
329 <p>
330 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
331 </p>
332
333 </body>
334 </subsection>
335 </section>
336 <section id="genkernel">
337 <title>Alternative: Using genkernel</title>
338 <body>
339
340 <p>
341 If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our <c>genkernel</c>
342 script to configure your kernel for you.
343 </p>
344
345 <p>
346 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
347 kernel by using our <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for
348 you. <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the
349 way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use
350 <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all
351 your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because
352 genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal
353 solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
354 </p>
355
356 <p>
357 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
361 # <i>emerge genkernel</i>
362 </pre>
363
364 <p>
365 Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the
366 location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:
367 </p>
368
369 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'" caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
370 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86/kernel-config</i>
371 </pre>
372
373 <pre test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'" caption="Copying over the Installation CD kernel config">
374 # <i>zcat /proc/config.gz &gt; /usr/share/genkernel/arch/x86_64/kernel-config</i>
375 </pre>
376
377 <p>
378 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel all</c>. Be aware
379 though, as <c>genkernel</c> compiles a kernel that supports almost all
380 hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!
381 </p>
382
383 <p>
384 Note that, if your boot partition doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you
385 might need to manually configure your kernel using <c>genkernel --menuconfig
386 all</c> and add support for your filesystem <e>in</e> the kernel (i.e.
387 <e>not</e> as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add
388 <c>--evms2</c> or <c>--lvm2</c> as argument as well.
389 </p>
390
391 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
392 # <i>genkernel all</i>
393 </pre>
394
395 <p>
396 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
397 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
398 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write
399 down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing
400 the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after
401 booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD)
402 before your "real" system starts up.
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="Checking the created kernel image name and initrd">
406 # <i>ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initramfs*</i>
407 </pre>
408
409 </body>
410 </section>
411 <section id="kernel_modules">
412 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
413
414 <subsection>
415 <include href="hb-install-kernelmodules.xml"/>
416 </subsection>
417
418 </section>
419 </sections>

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