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release time. note that since this is beta1, the release dir and stage/media names have been adjusted accordingly. also, the handbooks are marked with a disclaimer=draft, so once the final is out, that will be removed and the release names adjusted. in the mean time, these are live. the beta is officially released. no, it's not april fools, but it is april 1st. :)

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-x86+amd64-medium.xml,v 1.15 2008/03/31 21:48:59 nightmorph Exp $ -->
9 <sections>
11 <abstract>
12 You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install
13 Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD although installation through the
14 Installer LiveCD is possible as well.
15 </abstract>
17 <version>6.0</version>
18 <date>2008-04-01</date>
20 <section>
21 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Introduction</title>
24 <body>
26 <p>
27 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
28 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
29 </p>
31 </body>
32 </subsection>
33 <subsection>
34 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
35 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
37 <table>
38 <tr>
39 <ti/>
40 <th>Minimal CD</th>
41 <th>LiveCD</th>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>CPU</th>
45 <ti>i486 or later</ti>
46 <ti><b>i686</b> or later</ti>
47 </tr>
48 <tr>
49 <th>Memory</th>
50 <ti>64 MB</ti>
51 <ti>256 MB</ti>
52 </tr>
53 <tr>
54 <th>Diskspace</th>
55 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
56 </tr>
57 <tr>
58 <th>Swap space</th>
59 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
60 </tr>
61 </table>
63 </body>
64 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
66 <table>
67 <tr>
68 <ti/>
69 <th>Minimal CD</th>
70 <th>LiveCD</th>
71 </tr>
72 <tr>
73 <th>CPU</th>
74 <ti colspan="2">Any AMD64 CPU or EM64T CPU</ti>
75 </tr>
76 <tr>
77 <th>Memory</th>
78 <ti>64 MB</ti>
79 <ti>256 MB</ti>
80 </tr>
81 <tr>
82 <th>Diskspace</th>
83 <ti colspan="2">1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
84 </tr>
85 <tr>
86 <th>Swap space</th>
87 <ti colspan="2">At least 256 MB</ti>
88 </tr>
89 </table>
91 <p>
92 You should check the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">Gentoo
93 AMD64 Project Page</uri> before proceeding.
94 </p>
96 </body>
97 </subsection>
98 </section>
99 <!-- This part can be propagated to the other architectures as well. -->
100 <!-- START -->
101 <section>
102 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
103 <subsection>
104 <title>Introduction</title>
105 <body>
107 <p>
108 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
109 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
110 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
111 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
112 </p>
114 <p>
115 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
116 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
117 two Installation CDs which are equally suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
118 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
119 latest version of the available packages.
120 </p>
122 <impo>
123 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, or would
124 like to use one of the provided installers, please use the installation
125 instructions described in the <uri link="2008.0/">Gentoo 2008.0
126 Handbooks</uri>.
127 </impo>
129 <p>
130 The Installation CDs that we currently provide are:
131 </p>
133 <ul>
134 <li>
135 The Gentoo <e>Minimal</e> Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable
136 CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and
137 continue with the Gentoo installation.
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 The Gentoo <e>Installer LiveCD</e> contains everything you need to install
141 Gentoo. It provides a graphical environment, a graphical as well as console
142 based installer which automatically carries out the installation for you,
143 and of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
144 </li>
145 </ul>
147 <p>
148 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
149 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
150 </p>
152 </body>
153 </subsection>
154 <subsection>
155 <title>Gentoo Minimal Installation CD</title>
156 <body>
158 <p>
159 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
160 takes up only <keyval id="min-cd-size"/> MB of diskspace. You can use this
161 Installation CD to install Gentoo, but <e>only</e> with a working Internet
162 connection.
163 </p>
165 <table>
166 <tr>
167 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
168 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
169 </tr>
170 <tr>
171 <th>+</th>
172 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
173 </tr>
174 <tr>
175 <th>-</th>
176 <ti>
177 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and
178 is therefore not suitable for networkless installation
179 </ti>
180 </tr>
181 </table>
183 </body>
184 </subsection>
185 <subsection>
186 <title>Gentoo Installer LiveCD</title>
187 <body>
189 <p>
190 The Installer LiveCD is called <c><keyval id="live-cd-name"/></c> and takes up
191 <keyval id="live-cd-size"/> MB. You can use this Installation CD to install
192 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
193 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
194 you are currently installing Gentoo on.
195 </p>
197 <table>
198 <tr>
199 <th>Installer LiveCD</th>
200 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
201 </tr>
202 <tr>
203 <th>+</th>
204 <ti>
205 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
206 connection.
207 </ti>
208 </tr>
209 <tr>
210 <th>-</th>
211 <ti>Huge download</ti>
212 </tr>
213 </table>
215 </body>
216 </subsection>
217 <subsection>
218 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
219 <body>
221 <p>
222 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment,
223 suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this
224 manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of
225 three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
226 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
227 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
228 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
229 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
230 </p>
232 <p>
233 Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from <path><keyval
234 id="release-dir"/>stages/</path> on any of the <uri
235 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">Official Gentoo Mirrors</uri> and are not provided
236 on the LiveCD.
237 </p>
239 </body>
240 </subsection>
241 </section>
242 <!-- STOP -->
243 <section>
244 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
245 <subsection>
246 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
247 <body>
249 <p>
250 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
251 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
252 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
253 </p>
255 <p>
256 You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our <uri
257 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
258 the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd/</path> directory.
259 </p>
261 <p>
262 Inside that directory you'll find ISO files. Those are full CD images which you
263 can write on a CD-R.
264 </p>
266 <p>
267 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
268 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
269 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
270 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
271 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
272 </p>
274 <p>
275 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
276 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
277 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
278 </p>
280 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
281 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
282 </pre>
284 <p>
285 Now verify the signature:
286 </p>
288 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
289 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
290 </pre>
292 <p>
293 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
294 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
295 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
296 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
297 </p>
299 <ul>
300 <li>
301 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
302 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
303 device path).
304 </li>
305 <li>
306 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
307 your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
308 </li>
309 </ul>
311 </body>
312 </subsection>
313 <subsection>
314 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
315 <body>
317 <p>
318 Once you have burnt your installation CD, it is time to boot it.
319 Remove all CDs from your CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
320 This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1 or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside
321 the BIOS, change the boot order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard
322 disk. This is often found under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system
323 will just reboot from the hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
324 </p>
326 <p>
327 Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive and reboot. You should see a
328 boot prompt. At this screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with
329 the default boot options, or boot the Installation CD with custom boot options
330 by specifying a kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
331 </p>
333 <p>
334 Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our Installation CDs.
335 The default one is <c>gentoo</c>. Other kernels are for specific hardware needs
336 and the <c>-nofb</c> variants which disable framebuffer.
337 </p>
339 <p>
340 Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
341 </p>
343 </body>
344 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
346 <table>
347 <tr>
348 <th>Kernel</th>
349 <th>Description</th>
350 </tr>
351 <tr>
352 <ti>gentoo</ti>
353 <ti>Default 2.6 kernel with support for multiple CPUs</ti>
354 </tr>
355 <tr>
356 <ti>gentoo-nofb</ti>
357 <ti>Same as <c>gentoo</c> but without framebuffer support</ti>
358 </tr>
359 <tr>
360 <ti>memtest86</ti>
361 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
362 </tr>
363 </table>
365 </body>
366 <body test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
367 <table>
368 <tr>
369 <th>Kernel</th>
370 <th>Description</th>
371 </tr>
372 <tr>
373 <ti>gentoo</ti>
374 <ti>
375 Default kernel with support for K8 CPUs (including NUMA support) and EM64T
376 CPUs
377 </ti>
378 </tr>
379 <tr>
380 <ti>memtest86</ti>
381 <ti>Test your local RAM for errors</ti>
382 </tr>
383 </table>
385 </body>
386 <body>
388 <p>
389 You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings you can
390 (de)activate at will. The following list is the same as the one you receive
391 when you press F2 at the bootscreen.
392 </p>
394 <pre caption="Options available to pass to your kernel of choice">
395 <comment>Hardware options:</comment>
397 acpi=on This loads support for ACPI and also causes the acpid daemon to
398 be started by the CD on boot. This is only needed if your
399 system requires ACPI to function properly. This is not
400 required for Hyperthreading support.
402 acpi=off Completely disables ACPI. This is useful on some older systems
403 and is also a requirement for using APM. This will disable any
404 Hyperthreading support of your processor.
406 console=X This sets up serial console access for the CD. The first
407 option is the device, usually ttyS0 on x86, followed by any
408 connection options, which are comma separated. The default
409 options are 9600,8,n,1.
411 dmraid=X This allows for passing options to the device-mapper RAID
412 subsystem. Options should be encapsulated in quotes.
413 doapm This loads APM driver support. This requires you to also use
414 acpi=off.
416 dopcmcia This loads support for PCMCIA and Cardbus hardware and also
417 causes the pcmcia cardmgr to be started by the CD on boot.
418 This is only required when booting from PCMCIA/Cardbus devices.
420 doscsi This loads support for most SCSI controllers. This is also a
421 requirement for booting most USB devices, as they use the SCSI
422 subsystem of the kernel.
424 hda=stroke This allows you to partition the whole hard disk even when your
425 BIOS is unable to handle large disks. This option is only used
426 on machines with an older BIOS. Replace hda with the device
427 that is requiring this option.
429 ide=nodma This forces the disabling of DMA in the kernel and is required
430 by some IDE chipsets and also by some CDROM drives. If your
431 system is having trouble reading from your IDE CDROM, try this
432 option. This also disables the default hdparm settings from
433 being executed.
435 noapic This disables the Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
436 that is present on newer motherboards. It has been known to
437 cause some problems on older hardware.
439 nodetect This disables all of the autodetection done by the CD,
440 including device autodetection and DHCP probing. This is
441 useful for doing debugging of a failing CD or driver.
443 nodhcp This disables DHCP probing on detected network cards. This is
444 useful on networks with only static addresses.
446 nodmraid Disables support for device-mapper RAID, such as that used for
447 on-board IDE/SATA RAID controllers.
449 nofirewire This disables the loading of Firewire modules. This should
450 only be necessary if your Firewire hardware is causing
451 a problem with booting the CD.
453 nogpm This diables gpm console mouse support.
455 nohotplug This disables the loading of the hotplug and coldplug init
456 scripts at boot. This is useful for doing debugging of a
457 failing CD or driver.
459 nokeymap This disables the keymap selection used to select non-US
460 keyboard layouts.
462 nolapic This disables the local APIC on Uniprocessor kernels.
464 nosata This disables the loading of Serial ATA modules. This is used
465 if your system is having problems with the SATA subsystem.
467 nosmp This disables SMP, or Symmetric Multiprocessing, on SMP-enabled
468 kernels. This is useful for debugging SMP-related issues with
469 certain drivers and motherboards.
471 nosound This disables sound support and volume setting. This is useful
472 for systems where sound support causes problems.
474 nousb This disables the autoloading of USB modules. This is useful
475 for debugging USB issues.
477 slowusb This adds some extra pauses into the boot process for slow
478 USB CDROMs, like in the IBM BladeCenter.
480 <comment>Volume/Device Management:</comment>
482 doevms This enables support for IBM's pluggable EVMS, or Enterprise
483 Volume Management System. This is not safe to use with lvm.
485 dolvm This enables support for Linux's Logical Volume Management.
486 This is not safe to use with evms.
488 <comment>Other options:</comment>
490 debug Enables debugging code. This might get messy, as it displays
491 a lot of data to the screen.
493 docache This caches the entire runtime portion of the CD into RAM,
494 which allows you to umount /mnt/cdrom and mount another CDROM.
495 This option requires that you have at least twice as much
496 available RAM as the size of the CD.
498 doload=X This causes the initial ramdisk to load any module listed, as
499 well as dependencies. Replace X with the module name.
501 Multiple modules can be specified by a comma-separated list.
503 dosshd Starts sshd on boot, which is useful for unattended installs.
505 passwd=foo Sets whatever follows the equals as the root password, which
506 is required for dosshd since we scramble the root password.
508 noload=X This causes the initial ramdisk to skip the loading of a
509 specific module that may be causing a problem. Syntax matches
510 that of doload.
512 nonfs Disables the starting of portmap/nfsmount on boot.
514 nox This causes an X-enabled LiveCD to not automatically start X,
515 but rather, to drop to the command line instead.
517 scandelay This causes the CD to pause for 10 seconds during certain
518 portions the boot process to allow for devices that are slow to
519 initialize to be ready for use.
521 scandelay=X This allows you to specify a given delay, in seconds, to be
522 added to certain portions of the boot process to allow for
523 devices that are slow to initialize to be ready for use.
524 Replace X with the number of seconds to pause.
525 </pre>
527 <note>
528 The CD will check for "no*" options before "do*" options, so that you can
529 override any option in the exact order you specify.
530 </note>
532 <p>
533 Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
534 <c>gentoo</c> kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
535 to boot the <c>gentoo</c> kernel, with <c>dopcmcia</c> as kernel
536 parameters:
537 </p>
539 <pre caption="Booting an Installation CD">
540 boot: <i>gentoo dopcmcia</i>
541 </pre>
543 <p>
544 You will then be greeted with a boot screen and progress bar. If you are
545 installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, make sure you immediately
546 press Alt-F1 to switch to verbose mode and follow the prompt. If no selection
547 is made in 10 seconds the default (US keyboard) will be accepted and the boot
548 process will continue. Once the boot process completes, you will be
549 automatically logged in to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user.
550 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
551 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
552 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
553 </p>
555 <p>
556 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
557 </p>
559 </body>
560 </subsection>
561 <subsection id="hardware">
562 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
563 <body>
565 <p>
566 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices
567 and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
568 majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
569 auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
570 your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
571 manually.
572 </p>
574 <p>
575 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
576 certain kinds of network interfaces):
577 </p>
579 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
580 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
581 </pre>
583 </body>
584 </subsection>
585 <subsection>
586 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
587 <body>
589 <p>
590 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
591 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
592 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
593 more precise impression):
594 </p>
596 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
597 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
598 </pre>
600 <p>
601 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
602 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
603 disk):
604 </p>
606 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
607 <comment>(Activate DMA:)</comment>
608 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
610 <comment>(Activate Safe Performance Options:)</comment>
611 # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
612 </pre>
614 </body>
615 </subsection>
616 <subsection id="useraccounts">
617 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
618 <body>
620 <p>
621 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
622 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
623 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
624 the root password.
625 </p>
627 <p>
628 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
629 </p>
631 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
632 # <i>passwd</i>
633 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
634 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
635 </pre>
637 <p>
638 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
639 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
640 In the next example, we create a user called "john".
641 </p>
643 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
644 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
645 # <i>passwd john</i>
646 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
647 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
648 </pre>
650 <p>
651 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
652 <c>su</c>:
653 </p>
655 <pre caption="Changing user id">
656 # <i>su - john</i>
657 </pre>
659 </body>
660 </subsection>
661 <subsection>
662 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
663 <body>
665 <p>
666 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
667 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
668 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
669 go to a new terminal and log in.
670 </p>
672 <p>
673 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
674 <c>links</c> to read it:
675 </p>
677 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
678 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
679 </pre>
681 <p>
682 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
683 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>links</c>
684 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
685 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
686 document):
687 </p>
689 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
690 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
691 </pre>
693 <p>
694 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
695 </p>
697 </body>
698 </subsection>
699 <subsection>
700 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
701 <body>
703 <p>
704 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
705 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
706 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
707 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
708 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
709 </p>
711 <p>
712 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
713 </p>
715 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
716 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
717 </pre>
719 <p>
720 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
721 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
722 </p>
724 </body>
725 </subsection>
726 </section>
727 </sections>

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