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Fix bug #400721 - Fix bonding instructions

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.28 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-net-modules.xml,v 1.27 2011/10/23 09:46:14 swift Exp $ -->
8 neysx 1.5
9 swift 1.1 <sections>
10    
11 neysx 1.19 <abstract>
12     Gentoo provides you flexible networking - here you are told about choosing
13     different DHCP clients, setting up bonding, bridging, VLANs and more.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.28 <version>11</version>
17     <date>2013-08-15</date>
18 swift 1.1
19     <section>
20     <title>Network Modules</title>
21     <body>
22    
23     <p>
24 jkt 1.9 We now support modular networking scripts, which means we can easily add support
25     for new interface types and configuration modules while keeping compatibility
26     with existing ones.
27 swift 1.1 </p>
28    
29     <p>
30 jkt 1.9 Modules load by default if the package they need is installed. If you specify a
31     module here that doesn't have its package installed then you get an error
32     stating which package you need to install. Ideally, you only use the modules
33     setting when you have two or more packages installed that supply the same
34     service and you need to prefer one over the other.
35 swift 1.1 </p>
36    
37 vapier 1.15 <note>
38     All settings discussed here are stored in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> unless
39     otherwise specified.
40     </note>
41    
42 swift 1.1 <pre caption="Module preference">
43 swift 1.27 <comment># Prefer ifconfig over iproute2</comment>
44     modules="ifconfig"
45 swift 1.1
46     <comment># You can also specify other modules for an interface
47 nightmorph 1.25 # In this case we prefer pump over dhcpcd</comment>
48 swift 1.26 modules_eth0="pump"
49 swift 1.1
50     <comment># You can also specify which modules not to use - for example you may be
51     # using a supplicant or linux-wlan-ng to control wireless configuration but
52     # you still want to configure network settings per ESSID associated with.</comment>
53 swift 1.26 modules="!iwconfig"
54 swift 1.1 </pre>
55    
56     </body>
57     </section>
58     <section>
59     <title>Interface Handlers</title>
60     <body>
61    
62     <p>
63 jkt 1.10 We provide two interface handlers presently: <c>ifconfig</c> and
64     <c>iproute2</c>. You need one of these to do any kind of network configuration.
65 swift 1.1 </p>
66    
67     <p>
68 swift 1.27 <c>ifconfig</c> is installed by default (the <c>net-tools</c> package is part of
69     the system profile). <c>iproute2</c> is a more powerful and flexible package,
70     but it's not included by default.
71 swift 1.1 </p>
72    
73     <pre caption="To install iproute2">
74     # <i>emerge sys-apps/iproute2</i>
75    
76 swift 1.27 <comment># To prefer ifconfig over iproute2 if both are installed as openrc prefers
77     # to use iproute2 then</comment>
78     modules="ifconfig"
79 swift 1.1 </pre>
80    
81     <p>
82 jkt 1.10 As both <c>ifconfig</c> and <c>iproute2</c> do very similar things we allow
83     their basic configuration to work with each other. For example both the below
84     code snippet work regardless of which module you are using.
85 swift 1.1 </p>
86    
87     <pre caption="ifconfig and iproute2 examples">
88 swift 1.26 config_eth0="192.168.0.2/24"
89     config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0"
90 swift 1.1
91     <comment># We can also specify broadcast</comment>
92 swift 1.26 config_eth0="192.168.0.2/24 brd 192.168.0.255"
93     config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255"
94 swift 1.1 </pre>
95    
96     </body>
97     </section>
98     <section id="dhcp">
99     <title>DHCP</title>
100     <body>
101    
102     <p>
103     DHCP is a means of obtaining network information (IP address, DNS servers,
104     Gateway, etc) from a DHCP server. This means that if there is a DHCP server
105     running on the network, you just have to tell each client to use DHCP and it
106     sets up the network all by itself. Of course, you will have to configure for
107 jkt 1.10 other things like wireless, PPP or other things if required before you can use
108 swift 1.1 DHCP.
109     </p>
110    
111     <p>
112 nightmorph 1.25 DHCP can be provided by <c>dhclient</c>, <c>dhcpcd</c>, or <c>pump</c>. Each
113     DHCP module has its pros and cons - here's a quick run down.
114 swift 1.1 </p>
115    
116     <table>
117 swift 1.2 <tr>
118     <th>DHCP Module</th>
119     <th>Package</th>
120     <th>Pros</th>
121     <th>Cons</th>
122     </tr>
123     <tr>
124 jkt 1.10 <ti><c>dhclient</c></ti>
125     <ti><c>net-misc/dhcp</c></ti>
126 swift 1.2 <ti>
127 swift 1.3 Made by ISC, the same people who make the BIND DNS software. Very
128     configurable
129 swift 1.2 </ti>
130     <ti>
131 swift 1.3 Configuration is overly complex, software is quite bloated, cannot get
132     NTP servers from DHCP, does not send hostname by default
133 swift 1.2 </ti>
134     </tr>
135     <tr>
136 jkt 1.10 <ti><c>dhcpcd</c></ti>
137     <ti><c>net-misc/dhcpcd</c></ti>
138 swift 1.2 <ti>
139 nightmorph 1.20 Long time Gentoo default, no reliance on outside tools, actively developed
140     by Gentoo
141 swift 1.2 </ti>
142 nightmorph 1.20 <ti>Can be slow at times, does not yet daemonize when lease is infinite</ti>
143 swift 1.2 </tr>
144     <tr>
145 jkt 1.10 <ti><c>pump</c></ti>
146     <ti><c>net-misc/pump</c></ti>
147 swift 1.2 <ti>
148 swift 1.3 Lightweight, no reliance on outside tools
149 swift 1.2 </ti>
150     <ti>
151 swift 1.3 No longer maintained upstream, unreliable, especially over modems, cannot
152     get NIS servers from DHCP
153 swift 1.2 </ti>
154     </tr>
155 swift 1.1 </table>
156    
157     <p>
158 jkt 1.9 If you have more than one DHCP client installed, you need to specify which one
159 jkt 1.10 to use - otherwise we default to <c>dhcpcd</c> if available.
160 swift 1.1 </p>
161    
162     <p>
163 jkt 1.10 To send specific options to the DHCP module, use <c>module_eth0="..."</c>
164 flammie 1.17 <e>(change module to the DHCP module you're using - i.e. <c>dhcpcd_eth0</c>)</e>.
165 swift 1.1 </p>
166    
167     <p>
168     We try and make DHCP relatively agnostic - as such we support the following
169 jkt 1.10 commands using the <c>dhcp_eth0</c> variable. The default is not to set any of
170     them:
171 swift 1.1 </p>
172    
173     <ul>
174 jkt 1.10 <li><c>release</c> - releases the IP address for re-use</li>
175     <li><c>nodns</c> - don't overwrite <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path></li>
176     <li><c>nontp</c> - don't overwrite <path>/etc/ntp.conf</path></li>
177     <li><c>nonis</c> - don't overwrite <path>/etc/yp.conf</path></li>
178 swift 1.1 </ul>
179    
180     <pre caption="Sample DHCP configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
181     <comment># Only needed if you have more than one DHCP module installed</comment>
182 swift 1.26 modules="dhcpcd"
183 swift 1.1
184 swift 1.26 config_eth0="dhcp"
185 swift 1.1 dhcpcd_eth0="-t 10" <comment># Timeout after 10 seconds</comment>
186     dhcp_eth0="release nodns nontp nonis" <comment># Only get an address</comment>
187     </pre>
188    
189     <note>
190 nightmorph 1.25 <c>dhcpcd</c> and <c>pump</c> send the current hostname to the
191 jkt 1.10 DHCP server by default so you don't need to specify this anymore.
192 swift 1.1 </note>
193    
194     </body>
195     </section>
196     <section>
197 nightmorph 1.23 <title>ADSL with PPPoE/PPPoA</title>
198 swift 1.1 <body>
199    
200     <p>
201     First we need to install the ADSL software.
202     </p>
203    
204 nightmorph 1.22 <pre caption="Install the ppp package">
205     # <i>emerge net-dialup/ppp</i>
206 swift 1.1 </pre>
207    
208 nightmorph 1.22 <p>
209 nightmorph 1.23 Second, create the PPP net script and the net script for the ethernet interface
210     to be used by PPP:
211 nightmorph 1.22 </p>
212    
213 nightmorph 1.23 <pre caption="Creating the PPP and ethernet scripts">
214 nightmorph 1.22 # <i>ln -s /etc/init.d/net.lo /etc/init.d/net.ppp0</i>
215 nightmorph 1.23 # <i>ln -s /etc/init.d/net.lo /etc/init.d/net.eth0</i>
216 nightmorph 1.22 </pre>
217 swift 1.1
218     <p>
219 swift 1.26 Be sure to set <c>rc_depend_strict</c> to "YES" in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
220 nightmorph 1.23 </p>
221    
222     <p>
223 nightmorph 1.22 Now we need to configure <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
224 swift 1.1 </p>
225    
226 nightmorph 1.22 <pre caption="A basic PPPoE setup">
227 swift 1.26 config_eth0=null <comment>(Specify your ethernet interface)</comment>
228     config_ppp0="ppp"
229 nightmorph 1.23 link_ppp0="eth0" <comment>(Specify your ethernet interface)</comment>
230 swift 1.26 plugins_ppp0="pppoe"
231 nightmorph 1.22 username_ppp0='user'
232     password_ppp0='password'
233 swift 1.26 pppd_ppp0="
234     noauth
235     defaultroute
236     usepeerdns
237     holdoff 3
238     child-timeout 60
239     lcp-echo-interval 15
240     lcp-echo-failure 3
241     noaccomp noccp nobsdcomp nodeflate nopcomp novj novjccomp"
242    
243     rc_need_ppp0="net.eth0"
244 swift 1.1 </pre>
245    
246     <p>
247 nightmorph 1.22 You can also set your password in <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path>.
248 swift 1.1 </p>
249    
250 nightmorph 1.22 <pre caption="Sample /etc/ppp/pap-secrets">
251 swift 1.1 <comment># The * is important</comment>
252 swift 1.4 "username" * "password"
253 swift 1.1 </pre>
254    
255 nightmorph 1.23 <p>
256     If you use PPPoE with a USB modem you'll need to emerge <c>br2684ctl</c>. Please
257     read <path>/usr/portage/net-dialup/speedtouch-usb/files/README</path> for
258     information on how to properly configure it.
259     </p>
260    
261 nightmorph 1.22 <impo>
262     Please carefully read the section on ADSL and PPP in
263 swift 1.26 <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-0.8.3-r1/net.example.bz2</path>. It contains many
264     more detailed explanations of all the settings your particular PPP setup will
265     likely need. Of course, change <c>0.8.3-r1</c> with the version of OpenRC
266     installed on your system.
267 nightmorph 1.22 </impo>
268    
269 swift 1.1 </body>
270     </section>
271     <section id="apipa">
272     <title>APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)</title>
273     <body>
274    
275     <p>
276 jkt 1.9 APIPA tries to find a free address in the range 169.254.0.0-169.254.255.255 by
277     arping a random address in that range on the interface. If no reply is found
278     then we assign that address to the interface.
279 swift 1.1 </p>
280    
281     <p>
282 jkt 1.9 This is only useful for LANs where there is no DHCP server and you don't connect
283     directly to the internet and all other computers use APIPA.
284 swift 1.1 </p>
285    
286     <p>
287 jkt 1.10 For APIPA support, emerge <c>net-misc/iputils</c> or <c>net-analyzer/arping</c>.
288 swift 1.1 </p>
289    
290     <pre caption="APIPA configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
291     <comment># Try DHCP first - if that fails then fallback to APIPA</comment>
292 swift 1.26 config_eth0="dhcp"
293     fallback_eth0="apipa"
294 swift 1.1
295     <comment># Just use APIPA</comment>
296 swift 1.26 config_eth0="apipa"
297 swift 1.1 </pre>
298    
299     </body>
300     </section>
301     <section>
302     <title>Bonding</title>
303     <body>
304    
305     <p>
306 jkt 1.10 For link bonding/trunking emerge <c>net-misc/ifenslave</c>.
307 swift 1.1 </p>
308    
309     <p>
310 jkt 1.9 Bonding is used to increase network bandwidth. If you have two network cards
311     going to the same network, you can bond them together so your applications see
312     just one interface but they really use both network cards.
313 swift 1.1 </p>
314    
315 swift 1.28 <p>
316     First, clear the configuration of the participating interfaces:
317     </p>
318 swift 1.1
319 swift 1.28 <pre caption="Clearing interface configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
320     config_eth0="null"
321     config_eth1="null"
322     config_eth2="null"
323     </pre>
324 swift 1.1
325 swift 1.28 <p>
326     Next, define the bonding between the interfaces:
327     </p>
328    
329     <pre caption="Define the bonding">
330     slaves_bond0="eth0 eth1 eth2"
331     config_bond0="192.168.100.4/24"
332 swift 1.1 </pre>
333    
334 swift 1.28 <p>
335     Remove the <path>net.eth*</path> services from the runlevels, create a
336     <path>net.bond0</path> one and add that one to the correct runlevel.
337     </p>
338    
339 swift 1.1 </body>
340     </section>
341     <section>
342     <title>Bridging (802.1d support)</title>
343     <body>
344    
345     <p>
346 jkt 1.10 For bridging support emerge <c>net-misc/bridge-utils</c>.
347 swift 1.1 </p>
348    
349     <p>
350 jkt 1.9 Bridging is used to join networks together. For example, you may have a server
351     that connects to the internet via an ADSL modem and a wireless access card to
352     enable other computers to connect to the internet via the ADSL modem. You could
353     create a bridge to join the two interfaces together.
354 swift 1.1 </p>
355    
356     <pre caption="Bridge configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
357 nightmorph 1.24 <comment># Configure the bridge - "man brctl" for more details</comment>
358 swift 1.26 brctl_br0="setfd 0" "sethello 0" "stp off"
359 swift 1.1
360     <comment># To add ports to bridge br0</comment>
361     bridge_br0="eth0 eth1"
362    
363     <comment># You need to configure the ports to null values so dhcp does not get started</comment>
364 swift 1.26 config_eth0="null"
365     config_eth1="null"
366 swift 1.1
367     <comment># Finally give the bridge an address - you could use DHCP as well</comment>
368 swift 1.26 config_br0="192.168.0.1/24"
369 swift 1.1
370     <comment># Depend on eth0 and eth1 as they may require extra configuration</comment>
371 swift 1.26 rc_need_br0="net.eth0 net.eth1"
372 swift 1.1 </pre>
373    
374     <impo>
375 jkt 1.10 For using some bridge setups, you may need to consult the <uri
376     link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#variable_name">variable name</uri> documentation.
377 swift 1.1 </impo>
378    
379     </body>
380     </section>
381     <section>
382     <title>MAC Address</title>
383     <body>
384    
385     <p>
386 swift 1.26 If you need to, you can change the MAC address of your interfaces through
387     the network configuration file too.
388 swift 1.1 </p>
389    
390     <pre caption="MAC Address change example">
391     <comment># To set the MAC address of the interface</comment>
392     mac_eth0="00:11:22:33:44:55"
393    
394     <comment># To randomize the last 3 bytes only</comment>
395     mac_eth0="random-ending"
396    
397 flammie 1.17 <comment># To randomize between the same physical type of connection (e.g. fibre,
398 swift 1.1 # copper, wireless) , all vendors</comment>
399     mac_eth0="random-samekind"
400    
401 flammie 1.17 <comment># To randomize between any physical type of connection (e.g. fibre, copper,
402 swift 1.1 # wireless) , all vendors</comment>
403     mac_eth0="random-anykind"
404    
405     <comment># Full randomization - WARNING: some MAC addresses generated by this may
406     # NOT act as expected</comment>
407     mac_eth0="random-full"
408     </pre>
409    
410     </body>
411     </section>
412     <section>
413     <title>Tunnelling</title>
414     <body>
415    
416     <p>
417 jkt 1.9 You don't need to emerge anything for tunnelling as the interface handler can do
418     it for you.
419 swift 1.1 </p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Tunnelling configuration in /etc/conf.d/net">
422     <comment># For GRE tunnels</comment>
423     iptunnel_vpn0="mode gre remote 207.170.82.1 key 0xffffffff ttl 255"
424    
425     <comment># For IPIP tunnels</comment>
426     iptunnel_vpn0="mode ipip remote 207.170.82.2 ttl 255"
427    
428     <comment># To configure the interface</comment>
429 swift 1.26 config_vpn0="192.168.0.2 peer 192.168.1.1"
430 swift 1.1 </pre>
431    
432     </body>
433     </section>
434     <section>
435     <title>VLAN (802.1q support)</title>
436     <body>
437    
438     <p>
439 swift 1.28 For VLAN support, emerge <c>net-misc/vconfig</c>. Also make sure that you use
440     iproute2 as configuration module rather than ifconfig.
441 swift 1.1 </p>
442    
443 swift 1.2 <p>
444 jkt 1.9 Virtual LAN is a group of network devices that behave as if they were connected
445     to a single network segment - even though they may not be. VLAN members can only
446     see members of the same VLAN even though they may share the same physical
447     network.
448 swift 1.1 </p>
449    
450 swift 1.28 <p>
451     To configure VLANs, first specify the VLAN numbers in
452     <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> like so:
453     </p>
454    
455     <pre caption="Specifying VLAN numbers">
456 swift 1.1 vlans_eth0="1 2"
457 swift 1.28 </pre>
458    
459     <p>
460     Next, configure the interface for each VLAN:
461     </p>
462    
463     <pre caption="Interface configuration for each VLAN">
464     config_eth0_1="172.16.3.1 netmask 255.255.254.0"
465     routes_eth0_1="default via 172.16.3.254"
466    
467     config_eth0_2="172.16.2.1 netmask 255.255.254.0"
468     routes_eth0_2="default via 172.16.2.254"
469     </pre>
470    
471     <p>
472     VLAN-specific configurations are handled by <c>vconfig</c> like so:
473     </p>
474 swift 1.1
475 swift 1.28 <pre caption="Configuring the VLANs">
476     vlan1_name="vlan1"
477     vlan1_ingress="2:6 3:5"
478     eth0_vlan1_egress="1:2"
479 swift 1.1 </pre>
480    
481     <impo>
482 jkt 1.10 For using some VLAN setups, you may need to consult the <uri
483     link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#variable_name">variable name</uri> documentation.
484 swift 1.1 </impo>
485    
486     </body>
487     </section>
488    
489     </sections>

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