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4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.2 2003/11/25 17:34:47 swift Exp $ --> 4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.13 2003/12/04 22:26:19 swift Exp $ -->
5 5
6<sections> 6<sections>
7<section> 7<section>
8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9<subsection> 9<subsection>
10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title> 10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11<body> 11<body>
12 12
13<p> 13<p>
14We have briefly encountered <c>emerge</c> in the previous chapter, but not to 14The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15the extent that you are now able to work with it to its fullest potential. We 15used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16will fix that right now ;-) 16briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
17</p> 18</p>
18 19
19<p> 20<p>
20<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 21<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
21software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in 22software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
42<body> 43<body>
43 44
44<p> 45<p>
45Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the 46Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
46Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available 47Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
47directories. 48directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
48</p> 50</p>
49 51
50<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree"> 52<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
51# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i> 53# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
52<comment>(The --classify will append a special character to note the filetype)</comment>
53app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/ 54app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
54app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/ 55app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
55app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/ 56app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
56app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/ 57app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
57app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/ 58app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
102gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/ 103gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
103</pre> 104</pre>
104 105
105<p> 106<p>
106Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a 107Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
107seperate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c> 108separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
108package: 109package:
109</p> 110</p>
110 111
111<pre caption="Viewing a package"> 112<pre caption="Viewing a package">
112# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i> 113# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
126<p> 127<p>
127The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all 128The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
128the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the 129the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
129checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and 130checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
130<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package, 131<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
131such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> and a more 132such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
132extensive description). 133extensive description).
133</p> 134</p>
134 135
135<p> 136<p>
136Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by 137Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
221the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description. 222the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
222</p> 223</p>
223 224
224<p> 225<p>
225You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to 226You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
226install a package, it ofcourse needs to have the necessary sources (or 227install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
227precompiled packages) available. It therefor checks the contents of 228precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
228<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or 229<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or
229<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the 230<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
230necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files 231necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
231and places them in those directories. 232and places them in those directories.
232</p> 233</p>
238Other Tools</uri>. 239Other Tools</uri>.
239</note> 240</note>
240 241
241</body> 242</body>
242</subsection> 243</subsection>
244<subsection>
245<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
246<body>
247
248<p>
249While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
250each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
251<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
252will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
253</p>
254
255<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
256# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
257</pre>
258
259</body>
260</subsection>
243</section> 261</section>
244<section> 262<section>
245<title>Updating Portage</title> 263<title>Updating Portage</title>
246<subsection> 264<subsection>
247<title>Introduction</title> 265<title>Introduction</title>
248<body> 266<body>
249 267
250<p> 268<p>
251Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree 269Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
252regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your 270regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
253system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon, and that 271system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
254packages with possible security problems will remain on your system. 272you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
255</p> 273</p>
256 274
257<p> 275<p>
258There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is 276There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
259by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>. 277by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
318</subsection> 336</subsection>
319</section> 337</section>
320<section> 338<section>
321<title>Maintaining Software</title> 339<title>Maintaining Software</title>
322<subsection> 340<subsection>
323<title>Installing Software</title> 341<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title>
324<body>
325
326</body> 342<body>
327</subsection> 343
344<p>
345Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
346install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package, or
347using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
348both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
349</p>
350
351<p>
352As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
353if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
354link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
355link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
356package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
357Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
358and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
359</p>
360
361<p>
362Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
363is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
364<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
365</p>
366
367<p>
368As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
369<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the sourcecode of the
370packages are placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
371installing a package you can remove the package or sourcecode from the
372respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/sourcecode of
373the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
374have to redownload it).
375</p>
376
377</body>
328<subsection> 378</subsection>
329<title>Updating Software</title> 379<subsection>
380<title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
381<body>
382
383<p>
384Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
385the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you
386can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
387&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
388<c>gnumeric</c>:
389</p>
390
391<pre caption="Building gnumeric">
392# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
393</pre>
394
395<p>
396This will download the sourcecode for you and unpacks, compiles and installs the
397package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. If
398you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
399<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
400</p>
401
402<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
403# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
404</pre>
405
406<p>
407If you want to download the sourcecode of the package and its dependencies,
408but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
409(<c>-f</c> in short):
410</p>
411
412<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
413# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
414</pre>
415
416<p>
417If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
418<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
422# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
423</pre>
424
425<p>
426You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
427For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
428any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
429</p>
430
431<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
432# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
433</pre>
434
435<p>
436Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
437version).
438</p>
439
330<body> 440</body>
441</subsection>
442<subsection>
443<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
444<body>
445
446<p>
447When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
448option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
449<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
450the application you want to install match.
451</p>
452
453<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
454# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
455</pre>
456
457<p>
458If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
459<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
463# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
468<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
469variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
470</p>
471
472<p>
473To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
474your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
475</p>
476
477<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
478# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
479</pre>
480
481<p>
482This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
483install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
484what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
485(<c>-p</c> in short):
486</p>
487
488<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
489# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
490</pre>
491
492<p>
493You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
494information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
495<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
496applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
497</p>
498
499<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
500# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
501</pre>
502
503<p>
504You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
505For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
506any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
507</p>
508
509<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
510# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
511</pre>
512
513<p>
514Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
515version).
516</p>
517
518
519</body>
520</subsection>
521<subsection>
522<title>Working with Dependencies</title>
523<body>
524
525<p>
526Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
527don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
528by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
529and dependencies.
530</p>
531
532<p>
533For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a
534package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
535is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
536any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
537all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
538dependency for safety reasons.
539</p>
540
541<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric">
542# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i>
543</pre>
544
545<p>
546Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
547given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
548can lead to failures.
549</p>
550
551<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies">
552# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i>
553</pre>
554
555<p>
556To opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
557install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
558</p>
559
560<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
561# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
562</pre>
563
564</body>
565</subsection>
566<subsection>
567<title>Updating your System</title>
568<body>
569
570<p>
571Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
572<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
573installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
574things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
575have a working Gentoo system.
576</p>
577
578<p>
579The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
580your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
581emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
582<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
583(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
584<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
585</p>
586
587<p>
588If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
589(<c>-u</c> in short):
590</p>
591
592<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
593# <i>emerge --update system</i>
594</pre>
595
596<p>
597An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
598</p>
599
600<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
601# <i>emerge --update world</i>
602</pre>
603
604<p>
605Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
606<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
607</p>
608
609<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
610# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
611<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
612[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
613[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
614[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
615</pre>
616
617<p>
618Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
619letters) which gives you more information about the package:
620</p>
621
622<ul>
623 <li>
624 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
625 the package listed to the right
626 </li>
627 <li>
628 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
629 first time
630 </li>
631 <li>
632 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
633 </li>
634 <li>
635 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the sourcecode
636 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
637 </li>
638 <li>
639 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
640 upgraded
641 </li>
642 <li>
643 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
644 downgraded
645 </li>
646 <li>
647 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
648 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
649 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
650 removed.
651 </li>
652</ul>
653
654<p>
655In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
656instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
657<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
658</p>
659
660<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
661# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
662</pre>
663
664<p>
665Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
666perform the same actions for individual software packages.
667</p>
331 668
332</body> 669</body>
333</subsection> 670</subsection>
334<subsection> 671<subsection>
335<title>Removing Software</title> 672<title>Removing Software</title>
336<body> 673<body>
674
675<p>
676If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
677option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
678</p>
679
680<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
681# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
682</pre>
683
684<p>
685If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
686again:
687</p>
688
689<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
690# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
691</pre>
692
693<warn>
694Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
695installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
696<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
697your system!
698</warn>
699
700<p>
701Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
702package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
703left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
704specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
705Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
706filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
707</p>
708
709<ul>
710 <li>
711 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
712 probably by you or some tool
713 </li>
714 <li>
715 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
716 </li>
717 <li>
718 <c>cfgpro</c> : Another already installed package claims to own this file
719 </li>
720</ul>
337 721
338</body> 722</body>
339</subsection> 723</subsection>
340</section> 724</section>
341<section> 725<section>
342<title>Software Availability</title> 726<title>Software Availability</title>
343<subsection> 727<subsection>
344<title>ARCH or not?</title> 728<title>ARCH or not?</title>
345<body> 729<body>
346 730
731<p>
732Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
733<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
734you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
735<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
736</p>
737
738<p>
739The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
740charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
741by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
742to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
743</p>
744
745<p>
746Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
747the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
748submitting bugreports to <uri
749link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
750<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
751edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
752it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
753</p>
754
755<p>
756If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
757packages will be updated!
758</p>
759
347</body> 760</body>
348</subsection> 761</subsection>
349<subsection> 762<subsection>
350<title>Masked Packages</title> 763<title>Masked Packages</title>
351<body> 764<body>
352 765
766<p>
767When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
768</p>
769
770<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
771Calculating dependencies
772!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
773</pre>
774
775<p>
776A package can be masked due to two reasons:
777</p>
778
779<ol>
780 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
781 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
782</ol>
783
784<p>
785If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
786to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
787<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
788</p>
789
790<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
791# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
792</pre>
793
794<p>
795A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
796<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
797will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
798a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
799possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
800"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
801<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
802the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
803</p>
804
805<p>
806Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
807all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
808</p>
809
810<p>
811Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
812package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
813settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
814</p>
815
816<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
817# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
818</pre>
819
353</body> 820</body>
354</subsection> 821</subsection>
355<subsection> 822<subsection>
356<title>Blocked Packages</title> 823<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body> 824<body>
825
826<p>
827You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
828</p>
829
830<pre caption="Blocking package">
831[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
832</pre>
833
834<p>
835In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
836emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
837<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
838</p>
839
840<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
841# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
842</pre>
358 843
359</body> 844</body>
360</subsection> 845</subsection>
361</section> 846</section>
362</sections> 847</sections>

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