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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/Attic/ltsp.xml,v 1.17 2006/11/28 20:01:21 nightmorph Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
5<title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8</author> 9</author>
9<author title="Author"> 10<author title="Author">
10 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail> 11 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
11</author> 12</author>
12<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
13 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 14 <mail link="sven.vermeulen@siphos.be">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14</author> 15</author>
15
16<license/>
17 16
18<abstract> 17<abstract>
19This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo. 18This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
20</abstract> 19</abstract>
20
21<license/>
22
21<version>1.2</version> 23<version>1.12</version>
22<date>October 11, 2003</date> 24<date>2006-11-28</date>
25
23<chapter> 26<chapter>
24<title>Introduction</title> 27<title>Introduction</title>
25<section> 28<section>
26<title>What is LTSP?</title> 29<title>What is LTSP?</title>
27<body> 30<body>
31
28<p> 32<p>
29LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed 33LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
30on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients) 34on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
31with identical environments. All applications run on the server and 35with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
32therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This 36therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
33reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you 37reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
34need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in 38need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
35schools or firms. 39schools or firms.
36</p> 40</p>
41
37</body> 42</body>
38</section> 43</section>
39</chapter> 44</chapter>
40<chapter> 45<chapter>
41<title>Installation</title> 46<title>Installation</title>
42<section> 47<section>
43<title>Preliminaries</title> 48<title>Preliminaries</title>
44<body> 49<body>
50
45<p> 51<p>
46All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is 52All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
47192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is 53192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
48192.168.0.0/24. 54192.168.0.0/24.
49</p> 55</p>
56
50</body> 57</body>
51</section> 58</section>
52<section> 59<section>
53<title>Installation</title> 60<title>Installation</title>
54<body> 61<body>
58Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri 65Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri
59link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>. 66link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>.
60</p> 67</p>
61 68
62<p> 69<p>
63Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp core 70Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp package:
64utils:
65</p> 71</p>
66 72
67<pre caption="Emerge LTSP"> 73<pre caption="Emerge LTSP">
68# <i>emerge ltsp-core</i> 74# <i>emerge ltsp</i>
69</pre> 75</pre>
70 76
71<p> 77<p>
72This will install the following packages as dependencies: 78This will install the following packages as dependencies:
73</p> 79</p>
74 80
75<ul> 81<ul>
76<li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li> 82 <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
83 <li>
77<li><b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of 84 <b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
78computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the 85 computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
79workstations.</li> 86 workstations.
87 </li>
88 <li>
80<li><b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through 89 <b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
81the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the 90 the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
82workstations.</li> 91 workstations.
92 </li>
93 <li>
83<li><b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp 94 <b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
84to transfer the kernel to the workstations.</li> 95 to transfer the kernel to the workstations.
96 </li>
97 <li>
85<li><b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with 98 <b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
86advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.</li> 99 advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.
100 </li>
87</ul> 101</ul>
88 102
89<note> 103<note>
90If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system. 104If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system.
91</note> 105</note>
93</body> 107</body>
94</section> 108</section>
95</chapter> 109</chapter>
96<chapter> 110<chapter>
97<title>Configuration</title> 111<title>Configuration</title>
112<section>
98<body> 113<body>
99 114
100<p> 115<p>
101After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured: 116After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured:
102</p> 117</p>
103 118
104</body> 119</body>
120</section>
105<section> 121<section>
106<title>System Logger</title> 122<title>System Logger</title>
107<body> 123<body>
108 124
109<p> 125<p>
110To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to 126To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
111accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your 127accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
112system logger on how to achieve this. 128system logger on how to achieve this. If, for example, you are using
129sysklogd, all you need to do is edit <path>/etc/conf.d/sysklogd</path> and add
130"-r" to the SYSLOGD line:
131</p>
132
133<pre caption="/etc/conf.d/sysklogd">
134SYSLOGD="-m 0 -r"
135KLOGD="-c 3 -2"
113</p> 136</pre>
114 137
115</body> 138</body>
116</section> 139</section>
117<section> 140<section>
118<title>NFS</title> 141<title>NFS</title>
123allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at 146allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
124least two lines in it: 147least two lines in it:
125</p> 148</p>
126 149
127<pre caption="/etc/exports"> 150<pre caption="/etc/exports">
128/opt/ltsp/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async) 151/opt/ltsp-4.1/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
129/var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async) 152/var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
130</pre> 153</pre>
131 154
132<note> 155<note>
133You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask 156You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
147</section> 170</section>
148 171
149<section> 172<section>
150<title>xinetd/tftp</title> 173<title>xinetd/tftp</title>
151<body> 174<body>
152 175<p>
176TFTP requires a bit of configuring to get it to work properly. First, edit
177<path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path> to set tftpd's options and path correctly:
153<p> 178</p>
154By default TFTP won't be started, to change this edit 179
155<path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and replace <c>disable=yes</c> with 180<pre caption="/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd">
156<c>disable=no</c>. Afterwards, start xinetd. 181INTFTPD_PATH="/tftpboot"
182INTFTPD_OPTS="-s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
183</pre>
184
185<p>
186The -s flag specifies that TFTP is to run in secure chrooted mode
187(recommended). This means that you don't need to include the
188<path>/tftpboot</path> path for example in the DHCP configuration.
189</p>
190
191<p>
192Next, configure xinetd to run TFTP and allow remote connections. By default
193TFTP won't be started by xinetd, so edit <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and
194replace <c>disable=yes</c> with <c>disable=no</c>. If the file is missing just
195go ahead and create <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> with the contents below.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="/etc/xinetd.d/tftp">
199service tftp
200{
201 disable = no
202 socket_type = dgram
203 protocol = udp
204 wait = yes
205 user = root
206 server = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
207 server_args = -s /tftpboot
208}
209</pre>
210
211<p>
212Now edit <path>/etc/xinetd.conf</path> and comment out the line <c>only_from = localhost</c> by prefacing it with a <c>#</c>. Finally, start xinetd.
157</p> 213</p>
158 214
159<pre caption="Starting xinetd"> 215<pre caption="Starting xinetd">
160# <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i> 216# <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
161# <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i> 217# <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
181</p> 237</p>
182 238
183<pre caption="/etc/hosts"> 239<pre caption="/etc/hosts">
184127.0.0.1 localhost 240127.0.0.1 localhost
185192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com 241192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
186192.168.0.1 ws-1 ws-1.yourdomain.com 242192.168.0.1 ws001 ws001.yourdomain.com
187</pre> 243</pre>
188 244
189</body> 245</body>
190</section> 246</section>
191<section> 247<section>
197valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an 253valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
198example: 254example:
199</p> 255</p>
200 256
201<pre caption = "dhcpd.conf"> 257<pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
202<codenote>Some general options</codenote> 258<comment>(Some general options)</comment>
203default-lease-time 21600; 259default-lease-time 21600;
204max-lease-time 21600; 260max-lease-time 21600;
205use-host-decl-names on; 261use-host-decl-names on;
206ddns-update-style ad-hoc; 262ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
207 263
208<codenote>Bootp options</codenote> 264<comment>(Bootp options)</comment>
209allow booting; 265allow booting;
210allow bootp; 266allow bootp;
211 267
212<codenote>Network Options</codenote> 268<comment>(Network Options)</comment>
213option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0; 269option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
214option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255; 270option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
215option routers 192.168.0.254; 271option routers 192.168.0.254;
216option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254; 272option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254;
217option log-servers 192.168.0.254; 273option log-servers 192.168.0.254;
218option domain-name "yourdomain.com"; 274option domain-name "yourdomain.com";
219 275
220<codenote>LTSP Path Options</codenote> 276<comment>(LTSP Path Options)</comment>
221option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp/i386"; 277option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp-4.1/i386";
222filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1"; 278filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.26-ltsp-2";
279<comment>(Address of the tftp server to download the ltsp file from)</comment>
280next-server 192.168.0.254;
223 281
224<codenote>If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following</codenote> 282<comment>(If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following)</comment>
225<codenote>lines and alter the driver and IO</codenote> 283<comment>(lines and alter the driver and IO)</comment>
226#option option-128 code 128 = string; 284#option option-128 code 128 = string;
227#option option-129 code 129 = text; 285#option option-129 code 129 = text;
228#option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00; 286#option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00;
229#option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300"; 287#option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300";
230 288
231shared-network WORKSTATIONS { 289shared-network WORKSTATIONS {
232 subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 { 290 subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
233 <codenote>Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations</codenote> 291 <comment>(Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations)</comment>
234 range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.16; 292 range dynamic-bootp 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.16;
235 <codenote>Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting</codenote> 293 <comment>(Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting)</comment>
236 #host ws001 { 294 #host ws001 {
237 # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84; 295 # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84;
238 # fixed-address 192.168.0.1; 296 # fixed-address 192.168.0.1;
239 #} 297 #}
240 } 298 }
243 301
244<p> 302<p>
245If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we 303If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
246have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't 304have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
247give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible 305give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
248that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome). 306that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome). Remember, if you cut-n-paste the above example, replace any "//" comments with "##", or else dhcp will fail to start.
249</p> 307</p>
250 308
251<p> 309<p>
252For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook: 310For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
253<uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri> 311<uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
277There are many options to configure your workstations, visit 335There are many options to configure your workstations, visit
278<uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri> 336<uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri>
279for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>. 337for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
280</p> 338</p>
281 339
340<p>
341As a few suggestions to get started, you will want to first copy <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf.example</path> to <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path> and edit it from there. You may want to try changing the <c>SCREEN_01</c> option to read
342<c>SCREEN_01 = startx</c>. To use a USB mouse on the remote client, add the following MODULE lines, and change the X_MOUSE_* lines as follows:
343</p>
344
345<pre caption="/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf">
346MODULE_01 = usb-uhci
347MODULE_02 = mousedev
348MODULE_03 = usbmouse
349X_MOUSE_PROTOCOL = "IMPS/2"
350X_MOUSE_DEVICE = "/dev/input/mice"
351</pre>
352
282</body> 353</body>
283</section> 354</section>
284 355
285<section> 356<section>
286<title>Displaymanager</title> 357<title>Displaymanager</title>
287<body> 358<body>
288 359
289<p> 360<p>
290Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to 361Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
291also accept remote connections. 362also accept remote connections.
363</p>
364
365<p>
366First change your <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess</path> file,
367uncomment the following line:
368</p>
369
370<pre caption="/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess">
371#* #any host can get a login window
372</pre>
373
374<p>
375Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use:
292</p> 376</p>
293 377
294<p> 378<p>
295<b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c> 379<b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c>
296</p> 380</p>
319<warn> 403<warn>
320There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used 404There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
321KDM to resolve these issues. 405KDM to resolve these issues.
322</warn> 406</warn>
323 407
408<p>
409Remember, if your display manager is already running, restarting the X server via CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE doesn't restart the display manager.
410</p>
411
324</body> 412</body>
325</section> 413</section>
326 414
327<section> 415<section>
328<title>Creating a bootfloppy</title> 416<title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
329<body> 417<body>
330 418
331<p> 419<p>
332If you workstations don't support PXE booting, you must create a 420If your workstations don't support PXE booting, you can create a boot-floppy
333boot-floppy, which is needed to start your workstations. Go to 421which is used to start your workstations and connect to the terminal server.
334<uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net/5.0.9/</uri>, select your NIC, press 422Go to <uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net</uri>, select the latest version, select
335<e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy: 423your NIC, press <e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy:
336</p> 424</p>
337 425
338<pre caption="Write floppy image"> 426<pre caption="Write floppy image">
339# <i>cat nicfile.lzdsk > /dev/fd0</i> 427# <i>cat nicfile.zdsk > /dev/fd0</i>
340</pre> 428</pre>
341 429
342</body> 430</body>
343</section> 431</section>
344</chapter> 432</chapter>
345 433
346<chapter> 434<chapter>
347<title>Troubleshooting</title> 435<title>Troubleshooting</title>
436<section>
348<body> 437<body>
349 438
350<p> 439<p>
351There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there 440There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
352are also several resources around which help you solve your problems: 441are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
360<li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li> 449<li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
361<li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri> 450<li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri>
362are full of some real good knowledge.</li> 451are full of some real good knowledge.</li>
363</ul> 452</ul>
364</body> 453</body>
454</section>
365</chapter> 455</chapter>
366 456
367<chapter> 457<chapter>
368<title>FAQ</title> 458<title>FAQ</title>
459<section>
369<body> 460<body>
370<p> 461<p>
371<b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled 462<b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
372with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work? 463with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
373</p> 464</p>
411<p> 502<p>
412<b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your 503<b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
413<path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment 504<path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
414<c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with 505<c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
415<c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs: 506<c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
416<c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>. 507<c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>. Also doublecheck that
508<path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> (or <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>) contains
509<c>FontPath "unix/:7100"</c> in the Files-section.
510</p>
511
417</p> 512<p>
513<b>Q: </b> How can I use the soundcard of my workstation?
514</p>
418 515
516<p>
517<b>A: </b> There is a ltsp-sound package in gentoo, for more instructions read
518the included <path>README</path> file.
519</p>
520
419</body> 521</body>
522</section>
420</chapter> 523</chapter>
421 524
422<chapter> 525<chapter>
423<title>Glossary</title> 526<title>Glossary</title>
527<section>
424<body> 528<body>
425 529
426<p> 530<p>
427<b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b> 531<b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b>
428"The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either 532"The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either
438which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is 542which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
439off." 543off."
440</p> 544</p>
441 545
442</body> 546</body>
547</section>
443</chapter> 548</chapter>
444</guide> 549</guide>

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