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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/Attic/ltsp.xml,v 1.5 2003/12/12 15:07:11 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/Attic/ltsp.xml,v 1.17 2006/11/28 20:01:21 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
6<title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Author"> 10<author title="Author">
11 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail> 11 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 14 <mail link="sven.vermeulen@siphos.be">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16
17<license/>
18 16
19<abstract> 17<abstract>
20This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo. 18This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
21</abstract> 19</abstract>
20
21<license/>
22
22<version>1.3</version> 23<version>1.12</version>
23<date>December 11, 2003</date> 24<date>2006-11-28</date>
25
24<chapter> 26<chapter>
25<title>Introduction</title> 27<title>Introduction</title>
26<section> 28<section>
27<title>What is LTSP?</title> 29<title>What is LTSP?</title>
28<body> 30<body>
31
29<p> 32<p>
30LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed 33LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
31on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients) 34on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
32with identical environments. All applications run on the server and 35with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
33therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This 36therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
34reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you 37reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
35need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in 38need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
36schools or firms. 39schools or firms.
37</p> 40</p>
41
38</body> 42</body>
39</section> 43</section>
40</chapter> 44</chapter>
41<chapter> 45<chapter>
42<title>Installation</title> 46<title>Installation</title>
43<section> 47<section>
44<title>Preliminaries</title> 48<title>Preliminaries</title>
45<body> 49<body>
50
46<p> 51<p>
47All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is 52All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
48192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is 53192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
49192.168.0.0/24. 54192.168.0.0/24.
50</p> 55</p>
56
51</body> 57</body>
52</section> 58</section>
53<section> 59<section>
54<title>Installation</title> 60<title>Installation</title>
55<body> 61<body>
59Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri 65Gentoo Installation Manual for your architecture on <uri
60link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>. 66link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc">Gentoo's Documentation Website</uri>.
61</p> 67</p>
62 68
63<p> 69<p>
64Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp core 70Then lets begin with the easiest step, installing the ltsp package:
65utils:
66</p> 71</p>
67 72
68<pre caption="Emerge LTSP"> 73<pre caption="Emerge LTSP">
69# <i>emerge ltsp-core</i> 74# <i>emerge ltsp</i>
70</pre> 75</pre>
71 76
72<p> 77<p>
73This will install the following packages as dependencies: 78This will install the following packages as dependencies:
74</p> 79</p>
75 80
76<ul> 81<ul>
77<li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li> 82 <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
83 <li>
78<li><b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of 84 <b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
79computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the 85 computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
80workstations.</li> 86 workstations.
87 </li>
88 <li>
81<li><b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through 89 <b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
82the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the 90 the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
83workstations.</li> 91 workstations.
92 </li>
93 <li>
84<li><b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp 94 <b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
85to transfer the kernel to the workstations.</li> 95 to transfer the kernel to the workstations.
96 </li>
97 <li>
86<li><b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with 98 <b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
87advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.</li> 99 advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.
100 </li>
88</ul> 101</ul>
89 102
90<note> 103<note>
91If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system. 104If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system.
92</note> 105</note>
94</body> 107</body>
95</section> 108</section>
96</chapter> 109</chapter>
97<chapter> 110<chapter>
98<title>Configuration</title> 111<title>Configuration</title>
112<section>
99<body> 113<body>
100 114
101<p> 115<p>
102After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured: 116After the emerge process has finished all services must be configured:
103</p> 117</p>
104 118
105</body> 119</body>
120</section>
106<section> 121<section>
107<title>System Logger</title> 122<title>System Logger</title>
108<body> 123<body>
109 124
110<p> 125<p>
111To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to 126To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
112accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your 127accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
113system logger on how to achieve this. 128system logger on how to achieve this. If, for example, you are using
129sysklogd, all you need to do is edit <path>/etc/conf.d/sysklogd</path> and add
130"-r" to the SYSLOGD line:
131</p>
132
133<pre caption="/etc/conf.d/sysklogd">
134SYSLOGD="-m 0 -r"
135KLOGD="-c 3 -2"
114</p> 136</pre>
115 137
116</body> 138</body>
117</section> 139</section>
118<section> 140<section>
119<title>NFS</title> 141<title>NFS</title>
124allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at 146allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
125least two lines in it: 147least two lines in it:
126</p> 148</p>
127 149
128<pre caption="/etc/exports"> 150<pre caption="/etc/exports">
129/opt/ltsp/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async) 151/opt/ltsp-4.1/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
130/var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async) 152/var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
131</pre> 153</pre>
132 154
133<note> 155<note>
134You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask 156You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
148</section> 170</section>
149 171
150<section> 172<section>
151<title>xinetd/tftp</title> 173<title>xinetd/tftp</title>
152<body> 174<body>
153 175<p>
176TFTP requires a bit of configuring to get it to work properly. First, edit
177<path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path> to set tftpd's options and path correctly:
154<p> 178</p>
155By default TFTP won't be started, to change this edit 179
156<path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and replace <c>disable=yes</c> with 180<pre caption="/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd">
157<c>disable=no</c>. Afterwards, start xinetd. 181INTFTPD_PATH="/tftpboot"
182INTFTPD_OPTS="-s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
183</pre>
184
185<p>
186The -s flag specifies that TFTP is to run in secure chrooted mode
187(recommended). This means that you don't need to include the
188<path>/tftpboot</path> path for example in the DHCP configuration.
189</p>
190
191<p>
192Next, configure xinetd to run TFTP and allow remote connections. By default
193TFTP won't be started by xinetd, so edit <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> and
194replace <c>disable=yes</c> with <c>disable=no</c>. If the file is missing just
195go ahead and create <path>/etc/xinetd.d/tftp</path> with the contents below.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="/etc/xinetd.d/tftp">
199service tftp
200{
201 disable = no
202 socket_type = dgram
203 protocol = udp
204 wait = yes
205 user = root
206 server = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
207 server_args = -s /tftpboot
208}
209</pre>
210
211<p>
212Now edit <path>/etc/xinetd.conf</path> and comment out the line <c>only_from = localhost</c> by prefacing it with a <c>#</c>. Finally, start xinetd.
158</p> 213</p>
159 214
160<pre caption="Starting xinetd"> 215<pre caption="Starting xinetd">
161# <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i> 216# <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
162# <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i> 217# <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
182</p> 237</p>
183 238
184<pre caption="/etc/hosts"> 239<pre caption="/etc/hosts">
185127.0.0.1 localhost 240127.0.0.1 localhost
186192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com 241192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
187192.168.0.1 ws-1 ws-1.yourdomain.com 242192.168.0.1 ws001 ws001.yourdomain.com
188</pre> 243</pre>
189 244
190</body> 245</body>
191</section> 246</section>
192<section> 247<section>
198valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an 253valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
199example: 254example:
200</p> 255</p>
201 256
202<pre caption = "dhcpd.conf"> 257<pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
203<codenote>Some general options</codenote> 258<comment>(Some general options)</comment>
204default-lease-time 21600; 259default-lease-time 21600;
205max-lease-time 21600; 260max-lease-time 21600;
206use-host-decl-names on; 261use-host-decl-names on;
207ddns-update-style ad-hoc; 262ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
208 263
209<codenote>Bootp options</codenote> 264<comment>(Bootp options)</comment>
210allow booting; 265allow booting;
211allow bootp; 266allow bootp;
212 267
213<codenote>Network Options</codenote> 268<comment>(Network Options)</comment>
214option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0; 269option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
215option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255; 270option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
216option routers 192.168.0.254; 271option routers 192.168.0.254;
217option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254; 272option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.254;
218option log-servers 192.168.0.254; 273option log-servers 192.168.0.254;
219option domain-name "yourdomain.com"; 274option domain-name "yourdomain.com";
220 275
221<codenote>LTSP Path Options</codenote> 276<comment>(LTSP Path Options)</comment>
222option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp/i386"; 277option root-path "192.168.0.254:/opt/ltsp-4.1/i386";
223filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.19-ltsp-1"; 278filename "/lts/vmlinuz-2.4.26-ltsp-2";
279<comment>(Address of the tftp server to download the ltsp file from)</comment>
280next-server 192.168.0.254;
224 281
225<codenote>If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following</codenote> 282<comment>(If your workstations have ISA NICs uncomment the following)</comment>
226<codenote>lines and alter the driver and IO</codenote> 283<comment>(lines and alter the driver and IO)</comment>
227#option option-128 code 128 = string; 284#option option-128 code 128 = string;
228#option option-129 code 129 = text; 285#option option-129 code 129 = text;
229#option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00; 286#option option-128 e4:45:74:68:00:00;
230#option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300"; 287#option option-129 "NIC=ne IO=0x300";
231 288
232shared-network WORKSTATIONS { 289shared-network WORKSTATIONS {
233 subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 { 290 subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
234 <codenote>Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations</codenote> 291 <comment>(Distribute dynamic IPs to the workstations)</comment>
235 range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.16; 292 range dynamic-bootp 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.16;
236 <codenote>Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting</codenote> 293 <comment>(Workstation specific configuration for PXE booting)</comment>
237 #host ws001 { 294 #host ws001 {
238 # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84; 295 # hardware ethernet 00:E0:06:E8:00:84;
239 # fixed-address 192.168.0.1; 296 # fixed-address 192.168.0.1;
240 #} 297 #}
241 } 298 }
244 301
245<p> 302<p>
246If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we 303If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
247have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't 304have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
248give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible 305give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
249that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome). 306that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome). Remember, if you cut-n-paste the above example, replace any "//" comments with "##", or else dhcp will fail to start.
250</p> 307</p>
251 308
252<p> 309<p>
253For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook: 310For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
254<uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri> 311<uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
278There are many options to configure your workstations, visit 335There are many options to configure your workstations, visit
279<uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri> 336<uri>http://www.ltsp.org/documentation/ltsp-3.0-4-en.html#AEN903</uri>
280for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>. 337for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
281</p> 338</p>
282 339
340<p>
341As a few suggestions to get started, you will want to first copy <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf.example</path> to <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path> and edit it from there. You may want to try changing the <c>SCREEN_01</c> option to read
342<c>SCREEN_01 = startx</c>. To use a USB mouse on the remote client, add the following MODULE lines, and change the X_MOUSE_* lines as follows:
343</p>
344
345<pre caption="/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf">
346MODULE_01 = usb-uhci
347MODULE_02 = mousedev
348MODULE_03 = usbmouse
349X_MOUSE_PROTOCOL = "IMPS/2"
350X_MOUSE_DEVICE = "/dev/input/mice"
351</pre>
352
283</body> 353</body>
284</section> 354</section>
285 355
286<section> 356<section>
287<title>Displaymanager</title> 357<title>Displaymanager</title>
291Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to 361Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
292also accept remote connections. 362also accept remote connections.
293</p> 363</p>
294 364
295<p> 365<p>
296First change your <path>Xaccess</path> file, uncomment the following line: 366First change your <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess</path> file,
367uncomment the following line:
297</p> 368</p>
298 369
299<pre caption="Xaccess"> 370<pre caption="/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess">
300#* #any host can get a login window 371#* #any host can get a login window
301</pre> 372</pre>
302 373
303<p> 374<p>
304Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use: 375Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use:
332<warn> 403<warn>
333There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used 404There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
334KDM to resolve these issues. 405KDM to resolve these issues.
335</warn> 406</warn>
336 407
408<p>
409Remember, if your display manager is already running, restarting the X server via CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE doesn't restart the display manager.
410</p>
411
337</body> 412</body>
338</section> 413</section>
339 414
340<section> 415<section>
341<title>Creating a bootfloppy</title> 416<title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
342<body> 417<body>
343 418
344<p> 419<p>
345If you workstations don't support PXE booting, you must create a 420If your workstations don't support PXE booting, you can create a boot-floppy
346boot-floppy, which is needed to start your workstations. Go to 421which is used to start your workstations and connect to the terminal server.
347<uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net/5.0.9/</uri>, select your NIC, press 422Go to <uri>http://www.rom-o-matic.net</uri>, select the latest version, select
348<e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy: 423your NIC, press <e>Get ROM</e> and write the image to a floppy:
349</p> 424</p>
350 425
351<pre caption="Write floppy image"> 426<pre caption="Write floppy image">
352# <i>cat nicfile.lzdsk > /dev/fd0</i> 427# <i>cat nicfile.zdsk > /dev/fd0</i>
353</pre> 428</pre>
354 429
355</body> 430</body>
356</section> 431</section>
357</chapter> 432</chapter>
358 433
359<chapter> 434<chapter>
360<title>Troubleshooting</title> 435<title>Troubleshooting</title>
436<section>
361<body> 437<body>
362 438
363<p> 439<p>
364There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there 440There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
365are also several resources around which help you solve your problems: 441are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
373<li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li> 449<li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
374<li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri> 450<li>The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://ltsp.org/mailinglists.php</uri>
375are full of some real good knowledge.</li> 451are full of some real good knowledge.</li>
376</ul> 452</ul>
377</body> 453</body>
454</section>
378</chapter> 455</chapter>
379 456
380<chapter> 457<chapter>
381<title>FAQ</title> 458<title>FAQ</title>
459<section>
382<body> 460<body>
383<p> 461<p>
384<b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled 462<b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
385with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work? 463with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
386</p> 464</p>
424<p> 502<p>
425<b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your 503<b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
426<path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment 504<path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
427<c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with 505<c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
428<c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs: 506<c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
429<c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>. 507<c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>. Also doublecheck that
508<path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> (or <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>) contains
509<c>FontPath "unix/:7100"</c> in the Files-section.
430</p> 510</p>
431 511
432<p> 512<p>
433<b>Q: </b> How can I use the soundcard of my workstation? 513<b>Q: </b> How can I use the soundcard of my workstation?
434</p> 514</p>
437<b>A: </b> There is a ltsp-sound package in gentoo, for more instructions read 517<b>A: </b> There is a ltsp-sound package in gentoo, for more instructions read
438the included <path>README</path> file. 518the included <path>README</path> file.
439</p> 519</p>
440 520
441</body> 521</body>
522</section>
442</chapter> 523</chapter>
443 524
444<chapter> 525<chapter>
445<title>Glossary</title> 526<title>Glossary</title>
527<section>
446<body> 528<body>
447 529
448<p> 530<p>
449<b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b> 531<b><uri link="http://www.ltsp.org">LTSP</uri></b>
450"The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either 532"The LTSP provides a simple way to utilize low cost workstations as either
460which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is 542which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
461off." 543off."
462</p> 544</p>
463 545
464</body> 546</body>
547</section>
465</chapter> 548</chapter>
466</guide> 549</guide>

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