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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/Attic/ltsp.xml,v 1.20 2007/05/03 05:56:27 nightmorph Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/Attic/ltsp.xml,v 1.21 2008/05/19 21:16:02 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/ltsp.xml">
6<title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo - LTSP Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="lanius@gentoo.org">Heinrich Wendel</mail> 8 <mail link="lanius@gentoo.org">Heinrich Wendel</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Author"> 10<author title="Author">
11 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail> 11 <mail link="josiah@ritchietribe.net">Josiah Ritchie</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 14 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16 16
17<abstract> 17<abstract>
18This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo. 18This guide shows you how to setup a LTSP Server with Gentoo.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
28<section> 28<section>
29<title>What is LTSP?</title> 29<title>What is LTSP?</title>
30<body> 30<body>
31 31
32<p> 32<p>
33LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed 33LTSP is an abbreviation for "Linux Terminal Server Project". Installed
34on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients) 34on a server it can supply many workstations (so called thin-clients)
35with identical environments. All applications run on the server and 35with identical environments. All applications run on the server and
36therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This 36therefore you can use old PCs and convert them into XTerminals. This
37reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you 37reduces costs and maintenance especially in an environment where you
38need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in 38need to have an uniform workspace on each computer you login, e.g. in
39schools or firms. 39schools or firms.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42</body> 42</body>
43</section> 43</section>
44</chapter> 44</chapter>
45
45<chapter> 46<chapter>
46<title>Installation</title> 47<title>Installation</title>
47<section> 48<section>
48<title>Preliminaries</title> 49<title>Preliminaries</title>
49<body> 50<body>
50 51
51<p> 52<p>
52All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is 53All of the examples in this document presume that your server's IP is
53192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is 54192.168.0.254, your domain is named yourdomain.com and your network is
54192.168.0.0/24. 55192.168.0.0/24.
55</p> 56</p>
56 57
57</body> 58</body>
58</section> 59</section>
79</p> 80</p>
80 81
81<ul> 82<ul>
82 <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li> 83 <li><b>XFree</b>: They are called XTerminals, guess why :)</li>
83 <li> 84 <li>
84 <b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of 85 <b>DHCP</b>: DHCP is a protocol for automating the configuration of
85 computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the 86 computers that use TCP/IP, used by ltsp to distribute IPs to the
86 workstations. 87 workstations.
87 </li> 88 </li>
88 <li> 89 <li>
89 <b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through 90 <b>NFS</b>: NFS is a protocol to allow access to harddisks through
90 the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the 91 the network, used by ltsp to mount a base system for the
91 workstations. 92 workstations.
92 </li> 93 </li>
93 <li> 94 <li>
94 <b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp 95 <b>TFTP</b>: TFTP is a simple file transfer protocol, used by ltsp
95 to transfer the kernel to the workstations. 96 to transfer the kernel to the workstations.
96 </li> 97 </li>
97 <li> 98 <li>
98 <b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with 99 <b>XINETD</b>: Xinetd is a powerful replacement for inetd, with
99 advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp. 100 advanced features, used by ltsp to start tftp.
100 </li> 101 </li>
101</ul> 102</ul>
102 103
103<note> 104<note>
104If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome system. 105If you have the kde/gnome useflag set, it will also install a complete kde/gnome
106system.
105</note> 107</note>
106 108
107</body> 109</body>
108</section> 110</section>
109</chapter> 111</chapter>
112
110<chapter> 113<chapter>
111<title>Configuration</title> 114<title>Configuration</title>
112<section> 115<section>
113<body> 116<body>
114 117
121<section> 124<section>
122<title>System Logger</title> 125<title>System Logger</title>
123<body> 126<body>
124 127
125<p> 128<p>
126To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to 129To analyze problems easier, the system logger must be configured to
127accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your 130accept remote connections. Please read the documentation of your
128system logger on how to achieve this. If, for example, you are using 131system logger on how to achieve this. If, for example, you are using
129sysklogd, all you need to do is edit <path>/etc/conf.d/sysklogd</path> and add 132sysklogd, all you need to do is edit <path>/etc/conf.d/sysklogd</path> and add
130"-r" to the SYSLOGD line: 133"-r" to the SYSLOGD line:
131</p> 134</p>
140<section> 143<section>
141<title>NFS</title> 144<title>NFS</title>
142<body> 145<body>
143 146
144<p> 147<p>
145Next step is to edit your <path>/etc/exports</path> file, in order to 148Next step is to edit your <path>/etc/exports</path> file, in order to
146allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at 149allow the workstations to mount the root filesystem. There should be at
147least two lines in it: 150least two lines in it:
148</p> 151</p>
149 152
150<pre caption="/etc/exports"> 153<pre caption="/etc/exports">
151/opt/ltsp-4.1/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async) 154/opt/ltsp-4.1/i386 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(ro,no_root_squash,async)
152/var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async) 155/var/opt/ltsp/swapfiles 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,async)
153</pre> 156</pre>
154 157
155<note> 158<note>
156You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask 159You have to alter the network/netmask to match your network/netmask
157settings. 160settings.
158</note> 161</note>
159 162
160<p> 163<p>
161Now start NFS. 164Now start NFS.
166# <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i> 169# <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
167</pre> 170</pre>
168 171
169</body> 172</body>
170</section> 173</section>
171
172<section> 174<section>
173<title>xinetd/tftp</title> 175<title>xinetd/tftp</title>
174<body> 176<body>
175<p> 177<p>
176TFTP requires a bit of configuring to get it to work properly. First, edit 178TFTP requires a bit of configuring to get it to work properly. First, edit
207 server_args = -s /tftpboot 209 server_args = -s /tftpboot
208} 210}
209</pre> 211</pre>
210 212
211<p> 213<p>
212Now edit <path>/etc/xinetd.conf</path> and comment out the line <c>only_from = localhost</c> by prefacing it with a <c>#</c>. Finally, start xinetd. 214Now edit <path>/etc/xinetd.conf</path> and comment out the line <c>only_from =
215localhost</c> by prefacing it with a <c>#</c>. Finally, start xinetd.
213</p> 216</p>
214 217
215<pre caption="Starting xinetd"> 218<pre caption="Starting xinetd">
216# <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i> 219# <i>rc-update add xinetd default</i>
217# <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i> 220# <i>/etc/init.d/xinetd start</i>
230simple) is to have almost identical <path>/etc/hosts</path> files on all 233simple) is to have almost identical <path>/etc/hosts</path> files on all
231systems. We are going to use the latter. 234systems. We are going to use the latter.
232</p> 235</p>
233 236
234<p> 237<p>
235All workstations must be listed in <path>/etc/hosts</path>. Take a look 238All workstations must be listed in <path>/etc/hosts</path>. Take a look
236at the example: 239at the example:
237</p> 240</p>
238 241
239<pre caption="/etc/hosts"> 242<pre caption="/etc/hosts">
240127.0.0.1 localhost 243127.0.0.1 localhost
241192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com 244192.168.0.254 server server.yourdomain.com
242192.168.0.1 ws001 ws001.yourdomain.com 245192.168.0.1 ws001 ws001.yourdomain.com
247<section> 250<section>
248<title>DHCP Config</title> 251<title>DHCP Config</title>
249<body> 252<body>
250 253
251<p> 254<p>
252This is the most complicated step in my opinion, you have to create a 255This is the most complicated step in my opinion, you have to create a
253valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an 256valid DHCP Config (<path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>). Here is an
254example: 257example:
255</p> 258</p>
256 259
257<pre caption = "dhcpd.conf"> 260<pre caption = "dhcpd.conf">
258<comment>(Some general options)</comment> 261<comment>(Some general options)</comment>
301 304
302<p> 305<p>
303If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we 306If your workstations support PXE, you should list each one of them as we
304have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't 307have done with <e>host ws001</e> (don't forget to uncomment it). Don't
305give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible 308give them an adress in the dynamic range, otherwise it would be possible
306that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome). Remember, if you cut-n-paste the above example, replace any "//" comments with "##", or else dhcp will fail to start. 309that more workstations have the same IP (which is troublesome). Remember,
307</p> 310if you cut-n-paste the above example, replace any "//" comments with "##",
308 311or else dhcp will fail to start.
309<p> 312</p>
313
314<p>
310For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook: 315For more documentation on this item read the official dhcp handbook:
311<uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri> 316<uri>http://www.dhcp-handbook.com/</uri>
312</p> 317</p>
313 318
314<p> 319<p>
315Now start DHCP as you did with NFS and xinetd: 320Now start DHCP as you did with NFS and xinetd:
324DHCPD needs CONFIG_PACKET and CONFIG_FILTER activated in the kernel to work. 329DHCPD needs CONFIG_PACKET and CONFIG_FILTER activated in the kernel to work.
325</note> 330</note>
326 331
327</body> 332</body>
328</section> 333</section>
329
330<section> 334<section>
331<title>LTSP Configuration</title> 335<title>LTSP Configuration</title>
332<body> 336<body>
333 337
334<p> 338<p>
336<uri>http://ltsp.mirrors.tds.net/pub/ltsp/docs/ltsp-4.1-en.html#AEN1190</uri> 340<uri>http://ltsp.mirrors.tds.net/pub/ltsp/docs/ltsp-4.1-en.html#AEN1190</uri>
337for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>. 341for a full description of <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path>.
338</p> 342</p>
339 343
340<p> 344<p>
341As a few suggestions to get started, you will want to first copy <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf.example</path> to <path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path> and edit it from there. You may want to try changing the <c>SCREEN_01</c> option to read 345As a few suggestions to get started, you will want to first copy
342<c>SCREEN_01 = startx</c>. To use a USB mouse on the remote client, add the following MODULE lines, and change the X_MOUSE_* lines as follows: 346<path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf.example</path> to
347<path>/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf</path> and edit it from there. You may want
348to try changing the <c>SCREEN_01</c> option to read <c>SCREEN_01 = startx</c>.
349To use a USB mouse on the remote client, add the following MODULE lines, and
350change the X_MOUSE_* lines as follows:
343</p> 351</p>
344 352
345<pre caption="/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf"> 353<pre caption="/opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf">
346MODULE_01 = usb-uhci 354MODULE_01 = usb-uhci
347MODULE_02 = mousedev 355MODULE_02 = mousedev
350X_MOUSE_DEVICE = "/dev/input/mice" 358X_MOUSE_DEVICE = "/dev/input/mice"
351</pre> 359</pre>
352 360
353</body> 361</body>
354</section> 362</section>
355
356<section> 363<section>
357<title>Displaymanager</title> 364<title>Displaymanager</title>
358<body> 365<body>
359 366
360<p> 367<p>
361Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to 368Now you have to change your displaymanager's configuration to
362also accept remote connections. 369also accept remote connections.
363</p> 370</p>
364 371
365<p> 372<p>
366First change your <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess</path> file, 373First change your <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess</path> file,
374<p> 381<p>
375Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use: 382Now change the configuration of the displaymanager you use:
376</p> 383</p>
377 384
378<p> 385<p>
379<b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out <c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c> 386<b>XDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</path> comment out
380</p> 387<c>DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</c>
381
382<p> 388</p>
389
390<p>
383<b>KDM</b>: In <path>/usr/kde/3.1/share/config/kdm/kdmrc</path> look 391<b>KDM</b>: In <path>/usr/kde/3.1/share/config/kdm/kdmrc</path> look
384for the <c>[Xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to 392for the <c>[Xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
385<c>Enable = true</c>. 393<c>Enable = true</c>.
386</p> 394</p>
387 395
388<p> 396<p>
389<b>GDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf</path> look for the 397<b>GDM</b>: In <path>/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf</path> look for the
390<c>[xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to 398<c>[xdmcp]</c> section and change <c>Enable = false</c> to
391<c>Enable = True</c>. 399<c>Enable = True</c>.
392</p> 400</p>
393 401
394<p> 402<p>
395Then start the displaymanager: 403Then start the displaymanager:
404There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used 412There seem to be problems currently with XDM and GDM. The author used
405KDM to resolve these issues. 413KDM to resolve these issues.
406</warn> 414</warn>
407 415
408<p> 416<p>
409Remember, if your display manager is already running, restarting the X server via CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE doesn't restart the display manager. 417Remember, if your display manager is already running, restarting the X server
418via CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE doesn't restart the display manager.
410</p> 419</p>
411 420
412</body> 421</body>
413</section> 422</section>
414
415<section> 423<section>
416<title>Creating a bootfloppy</title> 424<title>Creating a bootfloppy</title>
417<body> 425<body>
418 426
419<p> 427<p>
435<title>Troubleshooting</title> 443<title>Troubleshooting</title>
436<section> 444<section>
437<body> 445<body>
438 446
439<p> 447<p>
440There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there 448There are a lot of things that can be the source of trouble, but there
441are also several resources around which help you solve your problems: 449are also several resources around which help you solve your problems:
442</p> 450</p>
443 451
444<ul> 452<ul>
445 <li> 453 <li>
446 The official documentation: 454 The official documentation:
447 <uri>http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/Documentation</uri>, 455 <uri>http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/Documentation</uri>,
448 especially the 456 especially the
449 <uri link="http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/TroubleShooting"> 457 <uri link="http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/TroubleShooting">
450 Troubleshooting section</uri>. 458 Troubleshooting section</uri>.
451 </li> 459 </li>
452<li>The gentoo IRC channel: irc.freenode.org #gentoo</li> 460 <li>The gentoo IRC channel: irc.freenode.org #gentoo</li>
453<li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li> 461 <li>The ltsp irc channel: irc.freenode.org #ltsp</li>
454 <li> 462 <li>
455 The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://marc.info/?l=ltsp-discuss</uri> are full 463 The ltsp mailinglists <uri>http://marc.info/?l=ltsp-discuss</uri> are full
456 of some real good knowledge. 464 of some real good knowledge.
457 </li> 465 </li>
458</ul> 466</ul>
467
459</body> 468</body>
460</section> 469</section>
461</chapter> 470</chapter>
462 471
463<chapter> 472<chapter>
464<title>FAQ</title> 473<title>FAQ</title>
465<section> 474<section>
466<body> 475<body>
476
467<p> 477<p>
468<b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled 478<b>Q:</b> My workstations have Pentium II CPUs, but my server is compiled
469with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work? 479with <c>march=athlon-xp</c>, does this work?
470</p> 480</p>
471 481
472<p> 482<p>
473<b>A:</b> This is no problem, because all applications run on the server. 483<b>A:</b> This is no problem, because all applications run on the server.
476<p> 486<p>
477<b>Q:</b> Which CPU and how much RAM should the server have? 487<b>Q:</b> Which CPU and how much RAM should the server have?
478</p> 488</p>
479 489
480<p> 490<p>
481<b>A:</b> There is a good document with suggestions at 491<b>A:</b> There is a good document with suggestions at
482<uri>http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/ServerSizing</uri>. 492<uri>http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/ServerSizing</uri>.
483</p> 493</p>
484 494
485<p> 495<p>
486<b>Q:</b> Do you have more information about this PXE stuff? 496<b>Q:</b> Do you have more information about this PXE stuff?
487</p> 497</p>
488 498
489<p> 499<p>
490<b>A:</b> Yes, take a look at 500<b>A:</b> Yes, take a look at
491<uri>http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/PXE</uri>. 501<uri>http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/PXE</uri>.
492</p> 502</p>
493 503
494<p> 504<p>
495<b>Q:</b> Is it possibly to use 3D-Accelerated software on the workstations? 505<b>Q:</b> Is it possibly to use 3D-Accelerated software on the workstations?
496</p> 506</p>
497 507
498<p> 508<p>
499<b>A:</b> If you are using NVidia cards take a look at 509<b>A:</b> If you are using NVidia cards take a look at
500<uri>http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/NvidiaLtsp411</uri>. 510<uri>http://wiki.ltsp.org/twiki/bin/view/Ltsp/NvidiaLtsp411</uri>.
501</p> 511</p>
502 512
503<p> 513<p>
504<b>Q:</b> In some applications the fonts look crappy, what to do? 514<b>Q:</b> In some applications the fonts look crappy, what to do?
505</p> 515</p>
506 516
507<p> 517<p>
508<b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your 518<b>A:</b> You have to setup the XFontServer, add <c>USE_XFS=Y</c> to your
509<path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment 519<path>lts.conf</path>, edit <path>/etc/X11/fs/config</path> and comment
510<c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with 520<c>no-listen: tcp</c> out, replace <c>XFS_PORT="-1"</c> with
511<c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs: 521<c>XFS_PORT="7100"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/xfs</path> and start xfs:
512<c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>. Also doublecheck that 522<c>/etc/init.d/xfs start</c>. Also doublecheck that
513<path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> (or <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>) contains 523<path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> (or <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>) contains
514<c>FontPath "unix/:7100"</c> in the Files-section. 524<c>FontPath "unix/:7100"</c> in the Files-section.
515</p> 525</p>
516 526
538graphical or character based terminals on a GNU/Linux server." 548graphical or character based terminals on a GNU/Linux server."
539</p> 549</p>
540 550
541<p> 551<p>
542<b><uri link="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/PXE.html">PXE</uri></b> 552<b><uri link="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/PXE.html">PXE</uri></b>
543"Short for Pre-Boot Execution Environment. Pronounced pixie, PXE is one of the 553"Short for Pre-Boot Execution Environment. Pronounced pixie, PXE is one of the
544components of Intel's WfM specification. It allows a workstation to boot from 554components of Intel's WfM specification. It allows a workstation to boot from
545a server on a network prior to booting the operating system on the local hard 555a server on a network prior to booting the operating system on the local hard
546drive. A PXE-enabled workstation connects its NIC to the LAN via a jumper, 556drive. A PXE-enabled workstation connects its NIC to the LAN via a jumper,
547which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is 557which keeps the workstation connected to the network even when the power is
548off." 558off."
549</p> 559</p>
550 560
551</body> 561</body>

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