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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/postgres-howto.xml,v 1.4 2007/04/25 07:40:11 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/postgres-howto.xml" lang="en">
6 <title>PostgreSQL Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 This guide is meant to show the basic setup of PostgreSQL. The setup described
17 here should be sufficient enough to use for basic web appplications, and any
18 other program that provides PostgreSQL support.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23 <license/>
24
25 <version>1.2</version>
26 <date>2007-04-25</date>
27
28 <chapter>
29 <title>Introduction</title>
30 <section>
31 <title>PostgreSQL introduction</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 When talking to most developers about the different database solutions to use,
36 two major databases will usually form the answer. One would be <c>MySQL</c>,
37 and the other is what this document will refer to, <c>PostgreSQL</c>. The
38 advantages of one over the other is a somewhat long winded debate, however it
39 is just to say that PostgreSQL has had a more firm grasp on true relational
40 database structure than MySQL. Most of the standard features such as
41 <b>FOREIGN KEY</b> was only just added in MySQL 5. However, whatever the case
42 may be, this document assumes that you have selected PostgreSQL as the
43 database to use. The first place to start is the <c>emerge</c> process. In the
44 next section, the installation process through emerge will be described, as
45 well as the basic configuration.
46 </p>
47
48 </body>
49 </section>
50 <section>
51 <title>PostgreSQL installation</title>
52 <body>
53
54 <p>
55 To begin, we must first <c>emerge</c> the PostgreSQL package. To do so, run the
56 following code to first ensure that the options for it are properly set:
57 </p>
58
59 <pre caption="Checking the PostgreSQL build options">
60 # <i>emerge -pv postgresql</i>
61
62 These are the packages that I would merge, in order:
63
64 Calculating dependencies ...done!
65 [ebuild N ] dev-db/postgresql-8.0.4 -doc -kerberos +nls +pam +perl -pg-intdatetime +python +readline (-selinux) +ssl -tcl +xml +zlib 0 kB
66 </pre>
67
68 <p>
69 Here's a list of what the different build options indicate:
70 </p>
71
72 <table>
73 <tr>
74 <th>USE Flag</th>
75 <th>Meaning</th>
76 </tr>
77 <tr>
78 <ti>doc</ti>
79 <ti>
80 This USE flag enables or disables the installation of documentation
81 outside of the standard man pages. The one good time to disable this
82 option is if you are low on space, or you have alternate methods of
83 getting a hold of the documentation (online, etc.)
84 </ti>
85 </tr>
86 <tr>
87 <ti>kerberos</ti>
88 <ti>
89 When connecting to the database, with this option enabled, the admin
90 has the option of using <c>kerberos</c> to authenticate their
91 users/services to the database.
92 </ti>
93 </tr>
94 <tr>
95 <ti>nls</ti>
96 <ti>
97 If this option is enabled, PostgreSQL can utilize translated strings for
98 non-English speaking users.
99 </ti>
100 </tr>
101 <tr>
102 <ti>pam</ti>
103 <ti>
104 If this option is enabled, and the admin configures the PostgreSQL
105 configuration file properly, users/services will be able to login to a
106 PostgreSQL database using <c>PAM</c> (Pluggable Authentication Module).
107 </ti>
108 </tr>
109 <tr>
110 <ti>perl</ti>
111 <ti>
112 If this option is enabled, <c>perl</c> bindings for PostgreSQL will be
113 built.
114 </ti>
115 </tr>
116 <tr>
117 <ti>pg-intdatetime</ti>
118 <ti>
119 If this option is enabled, PostgreSQL will support 64 bit integer date
120 types.
121 </ti>
122 </tr>
123 <tr>
124 <ti>python</ti>
125 <ti>
126 If this option is enabled, PostgreSQL will be built with
127 <c>python</c> bindings.
128 </ti>
129 </tr>
130 <tr>
131 <ti>readline</ti>
132 <ti>
133 If this option is enabled, PostgreSQL will support <c>readline</c> style
134 command line editing. This includes command history and isearch.
135 </ti>
136 </tr>
137 <tr>
138 <ti>selinux</ti>
139 <ti>
140 If this option is enabled, an <c>selinux</c> policy for PostgreSQL will be
141 installed.
142 </ti>
143 </tr>
144 <tr>
145 <ti>ssl</ti>
146 <ti>
147 If this option is enabled, PostgreSQL will utilize the <c>OpenSSL</c>
148 library to encrypt traffic between PostgreSQL clients and servers.
149 </ti>
150 </tr>
151 <tr>
152 <ti>tcl</ti>
153 <ti>
154 If this option is enabled, PostgreSQL will build <c>tcl</c> bindings.
155 </ti>
156 </tr>
157 <tr>
158 <ti>xml</ti>
159 <ti>
160 If this option is enabled, <c>XPATH</c> style xml support will be built.
161 More information on using xml support with PostgreSQL can be found on:
162 <uri link="http://www.throwingbeans.org/postgresql_and_xml.html">
163 PostgreSQL and XML</uri>.
164 </ti>
165 </tr>
166 <tr>
167 <ti>zlib</ti>
168 <ti>
169 This isn't really used by PostgreSQL itself, but by <c>pg_dump</c> to
170 compress the dumps it produces.
171 </ti>
172 </tr>
173 </table>
174
175 <p>
176 Once you've customized PostgreSQL to meet your specific needs, go ahead and
177 start the <c>emerge</c>:
178 </p>
179
180 <pre caption="Emerge-ing PostgreSQL">
181 # <i>emerge postgresql</i>
182 <comment>(Output shortened)</comment>
183 >>> /usr/lib/libecpg.so.5 -> libecpg.so.5.0
184 >>> /usr/bin/postmaster -> postgres
185 * Make sure the postgres user in /etc/passwd has an account setup with /bin/bash as the shell
186 *
187 * Execute the following command
188 * emerge --config =postgresql-8.0.4
189 * to setup the initial database environment.
190 *
191 >>> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
192 >>> dev-db/postgresql-8.0.4 merged.
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 As shown by the einfo output, there is some post setup that must be done. The
197 next chapter will look at the actual configuration of PostgreSQL.
198 </p>
199
200 </body>
201 </section>
202 </chapter>
203 <chapter>
204 <title>PostgreSQL configuration</title>
205 <section>
206 <title>Setting up the initial database environment</title>
207 <body>
208
209 <p>
210 As noted in the earlier <c>emerge</c> output, the initial database environment
211 must be setup. However, before this is done, one thing needs to be considered.
212 Unlike, say MySQL, PostgreSQL's "root" password is the password of the actual
213 user. However, only the user is created by the ebuild <e>not</e> the password.
214 So before we can begin, the password must be set for the postgres user:
215 </p>
216
217 <pre caption="Setting the password">
218 # <i>passwd postgres</i>
219 New UNIX password:
220 Retype new UNIX password:
221 passwd: password updated successfully
222 </pre>
223
224 <p>
225 Now that this is set up, the creation of the initial database environment can
226 occur:
227 </p>
228
229 <pre caption="Configuring the database environment with emerge --config">
230 # <i>emerge --config =postgresql-8.0.4</i>
231
232
233 Configuring pkg...
234
235 * Creating the data directory ...
236 * Initializing the database ...
237 The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres".
238 This user must also own the server process.
239
240 The database cluster will be initialized with locale C.
241
242 fixing permissions on existing directory /var/lib/postgresql/data ... ok
243 creating directory /var/lib/postgresql/data/global ... ok
244 creating directory /var/lib/postgresql/data/pg_xlog ... ok
245 creating directory /var/lib/postgresql/data/pg_xlog/archive_status ... ok
246 creating directory /var/lib/postgresql/data/pg_clog ... ok
247 creating directory /var/lib/postgresql/data/pg_subtrans ... ok
248 creating directory /var/lib/postgresql/data/base ... ok
249 creating directory /var/lib/postgresql/data/base/1 ... ok
250 creating directory /var/lib/postgresql/data/pg_tblspc ... ok
251 selecting default max_connections ... 100
252 selecting default shared_buffers ... 1000
253 creating configuration files ... ok
254 creating template1 database in /var/lib/postgresql/data/base/1 ... ok
255 initializing pg_shadow ... ok
256 enabling unlimited row size for system tables ... ok
257 initializing pg_depend ... ok
258 creating system views ... ok
259 loading pg_description ... ok
260 creating conversions ... ok
261 setting privileges on built-in objects ... ok
262 creating information schema ... ok
263 vacuuming database template1 ... ok
264 copying template1 to template0 ... ok
265
266 WARNING: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections
267 You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the -A option the
268 next time you run initdb.
269
270 Success. You can now start the database server using:
271
272 /usr/bin/postmaster -D /var/lib/postgresql/data
273 or
274 /usr/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/lib/postgresql/data -l logfile start
275
276 *
277 * You can use /etc/init.d/postgresql script to run PostgreSQL instead of pg_ctl.
278 *
279 </pre>
280
281 <p>
282 Now the initial database environment is setup. The next section will look at
283 verifying the install and setting up users to access the database.
284 </p>
285
286 </body>
287 </section>
288 <section>
289 <title>PostgreSQL database setup</title>
290 <body>
291
292 <p>
293 Now that PostgreSQL is setup, it's a good idea at this point to verify the
294 installation. First, make sure the service starts up ok:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Starting up the PostgreSQL service">
298 # <i>/etc/init.d/postgresql start</i>
299 * Starting PostgreSQL ... [ ok ]
300 </pre>
301
302 <p>
303 Once this is verified working, it's also a good idea to add it to the default
304 runlevel so it starts at boot:
305 </p>
306
307 <pre caption="Adding to the default runlevel">
308 # <i>rc-update add postgresql default</i>
309 * postgresql added to runlevel default
310 </pre>
311
312 <p>
313 Now that the service has started, it's time to try setting up a test database.
314 To start out, let's create a test database by using the <c>createdb</c>
315 command. We'll also pass along the <c>-U</c> option to set the user (it
316 defaults to the current user name if you don't), and the <c>-W</c> option to
317 request the password we created earlier. Finally we give it the name of the
318 database we want to create:
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Creating a database with createdb">
322 $ <i>createdb -U postgres -W test</i>
323 Password:
324 CREATE DATABASE
325 </pre>
326
327 <p>
328 The database was successfully created, and we can confirm that the database can
329 run basic tasks. We'll go ahead and drop this database (remove it) with the
330 <c>dropdb</c> command:
331 </p>
332
333 <pre caption="Dropping a database with dropdb">
334 $ <i>dropdb -U postgres -W test</i>
335 Password:
336 DROP DATABASE
337 </pre>
338
339 <p>
340 Right now, only the postgres user can run commands. Obviously this is not the
341 sort of setup one would like in a multi-user environment. The next section will
342 look at working with user accounts.
343 </p>
344
345 </body>
346 </section>
347 <section>
348 <title>Setting up database user accounts</title>
349 <body>
350
351 <p>
352 As mentioned earlier, having to login as the postgres user is somewhat
353 undesirable in a mult-user environment. In most cases there will be various
354 users and services accessing the server, and each have different permission
355 requirements. So, to handle this, the <c>createuser</c> command can be used.
356 This command is an alternative to running a few SQL queries, and is a lot more
357 flexible from an admin standpoint. We'll go ahead and create two users, a
358 'superuser' that can add other users and administer the db, and a standard user:
359 </p>
360
361 <pre caption="Setting up the superuser">
362 <comment>(replace chris with the username you'd like to use)</comment>
363 $ <i>createuser -a -d -P -E -U postgres -W chris</i>
364 Enter password for new user:
365 Enter it again:
366 Password:
367 CREATE USER
368 </pre>
369
370 <p>
371 There, we've created the superuser. The command line option <c>-a</c> specifies
372 that this user can add other users. <c>-d</c> means that this user can create
373 databases. <c>-P</c> let's you enter a password for the user and <c>-E</c> will
374 encrypt it for security purposes. Now then, we'll test this new user's
375 permissions out by setting up our standard user:
376 </p>
377
378 <pre caption="Setting up the standard user">
379 <comment>(replace chris with the username you've just created)</comment>
380 $ <i>createuser -A -D -P -E -U chris -W testuser</i>
381 Enter password for new user:
382 Enter it again:
383 Password:
384 CREATE USER
385 </pre>
386
387 <p>
388 Success! Our new user was created using the previously created superuser. The
389 <c>-A</c> and <c>-D</c> options do the opposite of <c>-a</c> and <c>-d</c>, and
390 instead deny the user the ability to create other users and databases. Now that
391 there are users to work with, the next chapter will look at using the new
392 database.
393 </p>
394
395 </body>
396 </section>
397 </chapter>
398 <chapter>
399 <title>Using PostgreSQL</title>
400 <section>
401 <title>Setting up permissions</title>
402 <body>
403
404 <p>
405 Now there is a user that can create databases and add other users, and the main
406 postgres user that can do anything. The user created earlier can currently login
407 to the server, and that's about it. In general, users need to be able to insert
408 data and retrieve data, and sometimes any other number of tasks. So, for this
409 new user to be able to do anything, they must be setup with the proper
410 permissions. This can easily be done by passing the <c>-O</c> parameter to
411 <c>createdb</c>. We'll start by making a new database, <b>MyDB</b> with our
412 superuser that will be owned by the previous testuser:
413 </p>
414
415 <pre caption="Creating the MyDB database">
416 $ <i>createdb -O testuser -U chris -W MyDB</i>
417 Password:
418 CREATE DATABASE
419 </pre>
420
421 <p>
422 Alright, now we have a new MyDB database, and a testuser that can access it.
423 To test this out, we'll login as the testuser to the new MyDB database. We'll
424 do this with the <c>psql</c> program. This program is what's used to connect to
425 the PostgreSQL database from command line. So connect to the new database like
426 so:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Logging into the MyDB database as the testuser">
430 $ <i>psql -U testuser -W MyDB</i>
431 Password:
432 Welcome to psql 8.0.4, the PostgreSQL interactive terminal.
433
434 Type: \copyright for distribution terms
435 \h for help with SQL commands
436 \? for help with psql commands
437 \g or terminate with semicolon to execute query
438 \q to quit
439
440 MyDB=&gt;
441 </pre>
442
443 <p>
444 So, the testuser is now logged into the database, and can begin to initiate
445 some commands. To get a feel for using PostgreSQL, the next section will take a
446 look at some of the basic commands in navigating the <c>psql</c> client.
447 </p>
448
449 </body>
450 </section>
451 <section>
452 <title>Basic PostgreSQL commands and creating a table</title>
453 <body>
454
455 <p>
456 For those who are used to MySQL, this is somewhat of a definite read. This is
457 where PostgreSQL may get somewhat unique with regards to running commands. To
458 start, here is a list of some commands that will be discussed:
459 </p>
460
461 <table>
462 <tr>
463 <th>Command</th>
464 <th>Usage</th>
465 <th>MySQL Equivalent</th>
466 </tr>
467 <tr>
468 <ti>\c[onnect] [DBNAME|- [USER]]</ti>
469 <ti>Connects to another database</ti>
470 <ti>USE DATABASE</ti>
471 </tr>
472 <tr>
473 <ti>\q</ti>
474 <ti>Quit the <c>psql</c> client</ti>
475 <ti>quit</ti>
476 </tr>
477 <tr>
478 <ti>\i FILE</ti>
479 <ti>Run commands from <c>FILE</c></ti>
480 <ti>source FILE</ti>
481 </tr>
482 <tr>
483 <ti>\o [FILE]</ti>
484 <ti>Send query results to <c>FILE</c></ti>
485 <ti>INTO OUTFILE, but outputs everything (not just SELECTS)</ti>
486 </tr>
487 <tr>
488 <ti>\d [NAME]</ti>
489 <ti>Describe a database or table (as well as other items)</ti>
490 <ti>DESC(RIBE)</ti>
491 </tr>
492 <tr>
493 <ti>\db [PATTERN]</ti>
494 <ti>
495 List available tables that match <c>PATTERN</c> (all if no pattern
496 is given)
497 </ti>
498 <ti>SHOW TABLES</ti>
499 </tr>
500 </table>
501
502 <p>
503 With the exception of <c>\c[onnect]</c>, all the commands shown will be used
504 later on in the section. So right now the database is empty. That said, we need
505 to insert some data. The first step to inserting data, however, is to put it in
506 a table. Right now there are no tables in the database, so we need to create
507 one. This is done with the <c>CREATE TABLE</c> command. We'll make a table of
508 items. They will contain a Product ID, Description, and price:
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption="Creating the products table">
512 MyDB=> CREATE TABLE products (
513 MyDB(&gt; product_id SERIAL,
514 MyDB(&gt; description TEXT,
515 MyDB(&gt; price DECIMAL
516 MyDB(&gt; );
517 NOTICE: CREATE TABLE will create implicit sequence "products_product_id_seq"
518 for serial column "products.product_id"
519 CREATE TABLE
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 You can ignore the NOTICE, it's perfectly harmless. Looking at the last line of
524 the function, <c>CREATE TABLE</c> seems to indicate that the command has
525 succeeded. However, let's go ahead and verify that the table was indeed
526 successfully created with the <c>\d</c> command:
527 </p>
528
529 <pre caption="Looking at the newly created table">
530 MyDB=&gt; <i>\d products</i>
531 Table "public.products"
532 Column | Type | Modifiers
533 -------------+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------
534 product_id | integer | not null default nextval('public.products_product_id_seq'::text)
535 description | text |
536 price | numeric |
537 </pre>
538
539 <p>
540 Indeed the table was successfully created. Now that the table is created, it
541 needs to be populated with data. The next section will look at populating the
542 database with data.
543 </p>
544
545 </body>
546 </section>
547 <section>
548 <title>Inserting data into the database</title>
549 <body>
550
551 <p>
552 This section will look at the two ways of populating the newly created table
553 with data. First let's look at the most basic command, <c>INSERT</c>:
554 </p>
555
556 <pre caption="INSERT syntax">
557 INSERT INTO [tablename] (column1,column2,column3) VALUES(value1,value2,value3)
558 </pre>
559
560 <p>
561 <c>tablename</c> contains the name of the table to insert the data into.
562 (column1,column2,column3) lets you specify the specific columns to insert the
563 values into. VALUES(value1,value2,value3) is the listing of values. The values
564 are inserted into the same order as the columns (column1 gets value1, column2
565 gets value2, column3 gets value3). These counts <e>must</e> be the same. So
566 let's go ahead and insert an item into the table:
567 </p>
568
569 <impo>
570 From working with databases for a long time, I personally recommend specifying
571 <c>INSERT</c> statements exactly as above. Developers often make the mistake of
572 using <c>INSERT INTO</c> without specifying columns. This is unproductive, as
573 if a new column gets added to the database, it will cause in error if the value
574 to column count is not the same. You should <e>always</e> specify the columns
575 unless you're 300% sure you'll never add a column.
576 </impo>
577
578 <pre caption="Inserting data into the table">
579 MyDB=&gt; <i>INSERT INTO products (description,price) VALUES('A test product', 12.00);</i>
580 INSERT 17273 1
581 </pre>
582
583 <p>
584 The last line needs a bit of explaining. The return of an insert command is an
585 OID (Object Identifier) and the number of rows inserted. OID's are a bit beyond
586 the scope of this guide, and the <uri
587 link="http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.1/static/datatype-oid.html">PostgreSQL
588 manual</uri> has some good information on it. Now, for a situation where you
589 have 20,000 products, these insert statements can be a little tedious. However,
590 not all is lost. The <c>COPY</c> command can be used to insert data into a
591 table from a file or stdin. In this example, let's assume that you have a csv
592 (comma separated values) file, which contains the product id, description, and
593 price. The file looks like this:
594 </p>
595
596 <pre caption="products.csv">
597 2,meat,6.79
598 3,soup,0.69
599 4,soda,1.79
600 </pre>
601
602 <p>
603 Now we'll use the <c>COPY</c> command to populate our data:
604 </p>
605
606 <impo>
607 The <c>COPY FROM STDIN</c> command is used because only the postgres user can
608 insert data from a file (for obvious security reasons).
609 </impo>
610
611 <pre caption="Using COPY to populate the products table">
612 MyDB=&gt; <i>COPY products FROM STDIN WITH DELIMITER AS ',';</i>
613 Enter data to be copied followed by a newline.
614 End with a backslash and a period on a line by itself.
615 >> <i>2,meat,6.79</i>
616 >> <i>3,soup,0.69</i>
617 >> <i>4,soda,1.79</i>
618 >> <i>\.</i>
619 </pre>
620
621 <p>
622 Unfortunately, this line doesn't return the same status information as the
623 <c>INSERT INTO</c> statement. How do we know the data was inserted? The next
624 section will look at running queries to check our data.
625 </p>
626
627 </body>
628 </section>
629 <section>
630 <title>Using PostgreSQL queries</title>
631 <body>
632
633 <p>
634 This section will look at using the <c>SELECT</c> statement to view data in our
635 tables. The basic <c>SELECT</c> format looks like this:
636 </p>
637
638 <pre caption="SELECT syntax">
639 SELECT (column1,column2|*) FROM (table) [WHERE (conditionals)]
640 </pre>
641
642 <p>
643 There are two ways to select columns. The first is using <c>*</c> to select all
644 columns, and the second is to specify a list of specific columns you wish to
645 see. The second is quite handy when you want to find a specific column in a
646 rather large list of them. Let's start out with using <c>SELECT</c> with
647 <c>*</c> to specify all columns:
648 </p>
649
650 <pre caption="Viewing the products table">
651 MyDB=&gt; <i>SELECT * FROM products;</i>
652 product_id | description | price
653 ------------+----------------+-------
654 1 | A test product | 12.00
655 2 | meat | 6.79
656 3 | soup | 0.69
657 4 | soda | 1.79
658 (4 rows)
659 </pre>
660
661 <p>
662 As shown here, all the data we inserted earlier is indeed in the table. Now
663 let's say we only want to see the description and the price, and don't care
664 about the product id. In this case we'll use the column specific SELECT form:
665 </p>
666
667 <pre caption="Viewing specific columns from the products table">
668 MyDB=&gt; <i>SELECT description,price FROM products;</i>
669 description | price
670 ----------------+-------
671 A test product | 12.00
672 meat | 6.79
673 soup | 0.69
674 soda | 1.79
675 (4 rows)
676 </pre>
677
678 <p>
679 Now only the product and price is shown, letting us focus on only the important
680 data. Now let's say that we want to see only the items that are greater than
681 $2.00. Here's where the <c>WHERE</c> clause comes in handy:
682 </p>
683
684 <pre caption="Viewing specific rows from the products table">
685 MyDB=&gt; <i>SELECT description,price FROM products WHERE price > 2.00;</i>
686 description | price
687 ----------------+-------
688 A test product | 12.00
689 meat | 6.79
690 (2 rows)
691 </pre>
692
693 <p>
694 Now a listing of products over $2.00 is displayed, focusing the data even more.
695 These forms of querying for information are very powerful, and can help create
696 extremely useful reports.
697 </p>
698
699 </body>
700 </section>
701 <section>
702 <title>Conclusion</title>
703 <body>
704
705 <p>
706 This concludes the PostgreSQL Guide. A big thanks goes to Masatomo Nakano, the
707 previous Gentoo PostgreSQL maintainer for his help in answering my questions.
708 Any suggestions on this guide should be sent to
709 <mail>chriswhite@gentoo.org</mail>. For more extensive documentation, see the
710 <uri link="http://www.postgresql.org">PostgreSQL website</uri>.
711 </p>
712
713 </body>
714 </section>
715 </chapter>
716 </guide>

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