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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 jkt 1.34 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/power-management-guide.xml,v 1.33 2008/01/21 12:12:12 jkt Exp $ -->
4 so 1.15 <guide link="/doc/en/power-management-guide.xml">
5 swift 1.1 <title>Power Management Guide</title>
6    
7 swift 1.4 <author title="Author">
8 nightmorph 1.17 <mail link="earthwings@gentoo.org">Dennis Nienhüser</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10 rane 1.19 <author title="Editor">
11     <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
12     </author>
13 nightmorph 1.26 <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
15     </author>
16 swift 1.1
17     <abstract>
18     Power Management is the key to extend battery run time on mobile systems like
19     laptops. This guide assists you setting it up on your laptop.
20     </abstract>
21    
22     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
23 so 1.15 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
24 swift 1.1 <license/>
25    
26 jkt 1.33 <version>1.38</version>
27     <date>2008-01-21</date>
28 swift 1.1
29     <chapter>
30     <title>Introduction</title>
31     <section>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 so 1.15 Capacity and lifetime of laptop batteries have improved much in the last years.
36 swift 1.1 Nevertheless modern processors consume much more energy than older ones and
37     each laptop generation introduces more devices hungry for energy. That's why
38     Power Management is more important than ever. Increasing battery run time
39     doesn't necessarily mean buying another battery. Much can be achieved applying
40     intelligent Power Management policies.
41     </p>
42    
43     </body>
44     </section>
45     <section>
46 rane 1.19 <title>A Quick Overview</title>
47 swift 1.1 <body>
48    
49     <p>
50     Please notice that this guide describes Power Management for <e>laptops</e>.
51     While some sections might also suite for <e>servers</e>, others do not and may
52     even cause harm. Please do not apply anything from this guide to a server
53     unless you really know what you are doing.
54     </p>
55    
56     <p>
57     As this guide has become rather long, here's a short overview helping you to
58     find your way through it.
59     </p>
60    
61     <p>
62 rane 1.19 The <uri link="#doc_chap2">Prerequisites</uri> chapter talks about some
63     requirements that should be met before any of the following device individual
64     sections will work. This includes BIOS settings, kernel configuration and some
65     simplifications in user land. The following three chapters focus on devices
66     that typically consume most energy - processor, display and hard drive. Each
67     can be configured seperately. <uri link="#doc_chap3">CPU Power Management</uri>
68     shows how to adjust the processor's frequency to save a maximum of energy
69 rane 1.21 without losing too much performance. A few different tricks prevent your hard
70 rane 1.19 drive from working unnecessarily often in <uri link="#doc_chap5">Disk Power
71     Management</uri> (decreasing noise level as a nice side effect). Some notes on
72 rane 1.20 graphics cards, Wireless LAN and USB finish the device section in <uri
73     link="#doc_chap6">Power Management For Other Devices</uri> while another
74 rane 1.19 chapter is dedicated to the (rather experimental) <uri link="#doc_chap7">sleep
75 rane 1.20 states</uri>. Last not least <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri> lists
76     common pitfalls.
77 swift 1.1 </p>
78    
79     </body>
80     </section>
81     <section>
82 rane 1.19 <title>Power Budget For Each Component</title>
83 swift 1.1 <body>
84    
85 swift 1.2 <figure link="/images/energy-budget.png" short="Which component consumes how
86 swift 1.1 much energy?" caption="Power budget for each component"/>
87    
88     <p>
89     Nearly every component can operate in different states - off, sleep, idle,
90     active to name a few - consuming a different amount of energy. Major parts are
91     consumed by the LCD display, CPU, chipset and hard drives. Often one is able to
92     activate OS-independent Power Management in the BIOS, but an intelligent setup
93     in the operating system adapting to different situations can achieve much more.
94     </p>
95    
96     </body>
97     </section>
98     </chapter>
99    
100     <chapter>
101     <title>Prerequisites</title>
102     <section>
103     <body>
104    
105     <p>
106 nightmorph 1.17 Before discussing the details of making individual devices Power Management
107 rane 1.20 aware, make sure certain requirements are met. After controlling BIOS settings,
108     some kernel options want to be enabled - these are in short ACPI, sleep states
109     and CPU frequency scaling. As power saving most of the time comes along with
110     performance loss or increased latency, it should only be enabled when running
111     on batteries. That's where a new runlevel <e>battery</e> comes in handy.
112 swift 1.1 </p>
113    
114     </body>
115     </section>
116     <section>
117 rane 1.19 <title>The BIOS Part</title>
118 swift 1.1 <body>
119    
120     <p>
121     First have a look into your BIOS Power Management settings. The best way is to
122     combine BIOS and operating system policies, but for the moment it's better to
123     disable most of the BIOS part. This makes sure it doesn't interfere with your
124     policies. Don't forget to re-check BIOS settings after you configured
125     everything else.
126     </p>
127    
128     </body>
129     </section>
130     <section>
131 rane 1.19 <title>Setting USE Flags</title>
132 nightmorph 1.17 <body>
133    
134     <p>
135     Please check that the <c>acpi</c> USE flag is set in
136     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Other USE flags that might be interesting for your
137     system are <c>apm</c>, <c>lm_sensors</c>, <c>nforce2</c>, <c>nvidia</c>,
138     <c>pmu</c>. See <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use*.desc</path> for details. If
139     you forgot to set one of these flags, you can recompile affected packages using
140 rane 1.19 the <c>--newuse</c> flag in <c>emerge</c>, see <c>man emerge</c>.
141 nightmorph 1.17 </p>
142    
143     </body>
144     </section>
145     <section>
146 rane 1.19 <title>Configuring The Kernel</title>
147 swift 1.1 <body>
148    
149     <p>
150     ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support in the kernel is
151     still work in progress. Using a recent kernel will make sure you'll get the
152     most out of it.
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156 rane 1.20 There are different kernel sources in Portage. I'd recommend using
157 jkt 1.33 <c>gentoo-sources</c> or <c>tuxonice-sources</c>. The latter contains patches
158 jkt 1.34 for TuxOnIce, see the chapter about <uri link="#doc_chap7">sleep states</uri>
159     for more details. When configuring the kernel, activate at least these options:
160 swift 1.1 </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="Minimum kernel setup for Power Management (Kernel 2.6)">
163     Power Management Options ---&gt;
164     [*] Power Management Support
165     [ ] Software Suspend
166    
167     ACPI( Advanced Configuration and Power Interface ) Support ---&gt;
168     [*] ACPI Support
169     [ ] Sleep States
170 so 1.15 [ ] /proc/acpi/sleep (deprecated)
171 neysx 1.12 [*] AC Adapter
172     [*] Battery
173 swift 1.1 &lt;M&gt; Button
174 so 1.15 &lt;M&gt; Video
175     [ ] Generic Hotkey
176 swift 1.1 &lt;M&gt; Fan
177     &lt;M&gt; Processor
178     &lt;M&gt; Thermal Zone
179     &lt; &gt; ASUS/Medion Laptop Extras
180 so 1.15 &lt; &gt; IBM ThinkPad Laptop Extras
181 swift 1.1 &lt; &gt; Toshiba Laptop Extras
182 so 1.15 (0) Disable ACPI for systems before Jan 1st this year
183 swift 1.1 [ ] Debug Statements
184 so 1.15 [*] Power Management Timer Support
185     &lt; &gt; ACPI0004,PNP0A05 and PNP0A06 Container Driver (EXPERIMENTAL)
186 rane 1.20
187 swift 1.1 CPU Frequency Scaling ---&gt;
188     [*] CPU Frequency scaling
189 so 1.15 [ ] Enable CPUfreq debugging
190     &lt; &gt; CPU frequency translation statistics
191     [ ] CPU frequency translation statistics details
192 swift 1.1 Default CPUFreq governor (userspace)
193     &lt;*&gt; 'performance' governor
194     &lt;*&gt; 'powersave' governor
195 swift 1.8 &lt;*&gt; 'ondemand' cpufreq policy governor
196 so 1.15 &lt;*&gt; 'conservative' cpufreq governor
197 swift 1.1 &lt;*&gt; CPU frequency table helpers
198     &lt;M&gt; ACPI Processor P-States driver
199     &lt;*&gt; <i>CPUFreq driver for your processor</i>
200     </pre>
201    
202     <p>
203 so 1.15 Decide yourself whether you want to enable Software Suspend, and Sleep States
204     (see below). If you own an ASUS, Medion, IBM Thinkpad or Toshiba laptop, enable
205 neysx 1.12 the appropriate section.
206 swift 1.8 </p>
207    
208     <p>
209 rane 1.20 The kernel has to know how to enable CPU frequency scaling on your processor.
210     As each type of CPU has a different interface, you've got to choose the right
211 rane 1.19 driver for your processor. Be careful here - enabling <c>Intel Pentium 4 clock
212     modulation</c> on a Pentium M system will lead to strange results for example.
213 swift 1.8 Consult the kernel documentation if you're unsure which one to take.
214 swift 1.1 </p>
215    
216     <p>
217     Compile your kernel, make sure the right modules get loaded at startup and boot
218 rane 1.20 into your new ACPI-enabled kernel. Next run <c>emerge sys-power/acpid</c> to
219     get the acpi daemon. This one informs you about events like switching from AC
220     to battery or closing the lid. Make sure the modules are loaded if you didn't
221     compile them into the kernel and start acpid by executing <c>/etc/init.d/acpid
222     start</c>. Run <c>rc-update add acpid default</c> to load it on startup. You'll
223     soon see how to use it.
224 swift 1.1 </p>
225    
226     <pre caption="Installing acpid">
227 yoswink 1.10 # <i>emerge sys-power/acpid</i>
228 swift 1.1 # <i>/etc/init.d/acpid start</i>
229     # <i>rc-update add acpid default</i>
230     </pre>
231    
232     </body>
233     </section>
234     <section>
235 rane 1.19 <title>Creating A "battery" Runlevel</title>
236 swift 1.1 <body>
237    
238     <p>
239     The default policy will be to enable Power Management only when needed -
240     running on batteries. To make the switch between AC and battery convenient,
241 rane 1.19 create a runlevel <c>battery</c> that holds all the scripts starting and
242 swift 1.1 stopping Power Management.
243     </p>
244    
245     <note>
246     You can safely skip this section if you don't like the idea of having another
247     runlevel. However, skipping this step will make the rest a bit trickier to set
248 rane 1.19 up. The next sections assume a runlevel <c>battery</c> exists.
249 swift 1.1 </note>
250    
251     <pre caption="Creating a battery runlevel">
252     # <i>cd /etc/runlevels</i>
253     # <i>cp -a default battery</i>
254     </pre>
255    
256     <p>
257 rane 1.19 Finished. Your new runlevel <c>battery</c> contains everything like
258     <c>default</c>, but there is no automatic switch between both yet. Time to
259 swift 1.1 change it.
260     </p>
261    
262     </body>
263     </section>
264     <section>
265 rane 1.19 <title>Reacting On ACPI Events</title>
266 swift 1.1 <body>
267    
268     <p>
269     Typical ACPI events are closing the lid, changing the power source or pressing
270 swift 1.8 the sleep button. An important event is changing the power source, which should
271 so 1.15 cause a runlevel switch. A small script will take care of it.
272     </p>
273    
274     <p>
275     First you need a script which changes the runlevel to <c>default</c>
276     respectively <c>battery</c> depending on the power source. The script uses the
277     <c>on_ac_power</c> command from <c>sys-power/powermgmt-base</c> - make sure the
278     package is installed on your system.
279     </p>
280    
281     <pre caption="Installing powermgt-base">
282 rane 1.19 # <i>emerge powermgmt-base</i>
283 so 1.15 </pre>
284    
285     <p>
286 rane 1.20 You are now able to determine the power source by executing <c>on_ac_power
287     &amp;&amp; echo AC available || echo Running on batteries</c> in a shell. The
288     script below is responsible for changing runlevels. Save it as
289 so 1.15 <path>/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</path>.
290 swift 1.8 </p>
291    
292 neysx 1.12 <pre caption="/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh">
293 swift 1.8 #!/bin/bash
294    
295 neysx 1.12 <comment># BEGIN configuration</comment>
296 swift 1.8 RUNLEVEL_AC="default"
297     RUNLEVEL_BATTERY="battery"
298 neysx 1.12 <comment># END configuration</comment>
299 swift 1.8
300 swift 1.1
301 neysx 1.12 if [ ! -d "/etc/runlevels/${RUNLEVEL_AC}" ]
302     then
303 nightmorph 1.17 logger "${0}: Runlevel ${RUNLEVEL_AC} does not exist. Aborting."
304     exit 1
305 neysx 1.12 fi
306 swift 1.8
307 neysx 1.12 if [ ! -d "/etc/runlevels/${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}" ]
308     then
309 nightmorph 1.17 logger "${0}: Runlevel ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY} does not exist. Aborting."
310     exit 1
311 neysx 1.12 fi
312 swift 1.1
313 neysx 1.12 if on_ac_power
314     then
315 rane 1.19 if [[ "$(&lt;/var/lib/init.d/softlevel)" != "${RUNLEVEL_AC}" ]]
316 nightmorph 1.17 then
317     logger "Switching to ${RUNLEVEL_AC} runlevel"
318     /sbin/rc ${RUNLEVEL_AC}
319     fi
320 rane 1.19 elif [[ "$(&lt;/var/lib/init.d/softlevel)" != "${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}" ]]
321 neysx 1.12 then
322 nightmorph 1.17 logger "Switching to ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY} runlevel"
323     /sbin/rc ${RUNLEVEL_BATTERY}
324 neysx 1.12 fi
325 swift 1.8 </pre>
326    
327 so 1.15 <p>
328     Dont forget to run <c>chmod +x /etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</c> to
329     make the script executable. The last thing that needs to be done is calling the
330     script whenever the power source changes. That's done by catching ACPI events
331     with the help of <c>acpid</c>. First you need to know which events are
332     generated when the power source changes. The events are called
333 rane 1.19 <c>ac_adapter</c> and <c>battery</c> on most laptops, but it might be different
334 so 1.15 on yours.
335     </p>
336    
337     <pre caption="Determining ACPI events for changing the power source">
338 swift 1.32 # <i>tail -f /var/log/messages | grep "received event"</i>
339 so 1.15 </pre>
340    
341     <p>
342 rane 1.20 Run the command above and pull the power cable. You should see something like
343     this:
344 so 1.15 </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Sample output for power source changes">
347     [Tue Sep 20 17:39:06 2005] received event "ac_adapter AC 00000080 00000000"
348     [Tue Sep 20 17:39:06 2005] received event "battery BAT0 00000080 00000001"
349     </pre>
350    
351     <p>
352 rane 1.19 The interesting part is the quoted string after <c>received event</c>. It will
353 so 1.15 be matched by the event line in the files you are going to create below. Don't
354     worry if your system generates multiple events or always the same. As long as
355     any event is generated, runlevel changing will work.
356     </p>
357    
358 swift 1.8 <pre caption="/etc/acpi/events/pmg_ac_adapter">
359 neysx 1.12 <comment># replace "ac_adapter" below with the event generated on your laptop</comment>
360 so 1.15 <comment># For example, ac_adapter.* will match ac_adapter AC 00000080 00000000</comment>
361 swift 1.8 event=ac_adapter.*
362 neysx 1.12 action=/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh %e
363 swift 1.8 </pre>
364    
365     <pre caption="/etc/acpi/events/pmg_battery">
366 neysx 1.12 <comment># replace "battery" below with the event generated on your laptop</comment>
367 so 1.15 <comment># For example, battery.* will match battery BAT0 00000080 00000001</comment>
368 swift 1.8 event=battery.*
369 neysx 1.12 action=/etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh %e
370 swift 1.8 </pre>
371 swift 1.1
372 swift 1.8 <p>
373 so 1.15 Finally acpid has to be restarted to recognize the changes.
374 swift 1.8 </p>
375 swift 1.1
376 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Finishing runlevel switching with acpid">
377 rane 1.19 # <i>/etc/init.d/acpid restart</i>
378 swift 1.1 </pre>
379    
380     <p>
381     Give it a try: Plug AC in and out and watch syslog for the "Switching to AC
382 rane 1.20 mode" or "Switching to battery mode" messages. See the <uri
383     link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting section</uri> if the script is not able to
384     detect the power source correctly.
385 swift 1.1 </p>
386    
387     <p>
388     Due to the nature of the event mechanism, your laptop will boot into runlevel
389 rane 1.19 <c>default</c> regardless of the AC/battery state. This is fine when running
390 rane 1.20 from AC, but we'd like to boot into the battery runlevel otherwise. One
391     solution would be to add another entry to the boot loader with the parameter
392 so 1.15 <c>softlevel=battery</c>, but it's likely to forget choosing it. A better way
393 rane 1.20 is faking an ACPI event in the end of the boot process and letting
394     <path>pmg_switch_runlevel.sh</path> script decide whether a runlevel change is
395     necessary. Open <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path> in your favourite editor
396     and add these lines:
397 swift 1.1 </p>
398    
399 so 1.15 <pre caption="Runlevel adjustment at boot time by editing local.start">
400 swift 1.1 <comment># Fake acpi event to switch runlevel if running on batteries</comment>
401 neysx 1.12 /etc/acpi/actions/pmg_switch_runlevel.sh "battery/battery"
402 swift 1.1 </pre>
403    
404     <p>
405 rane 1.20 Prepared like this you can activate Power Management policies for individual
406 swift 1.1 devices.
407     </p>
408    
409     </body>
410     </section>
411     </chapter>
412    
413     <chapter>
414     <title>CPU Power Management</title>
415     <section>
416 nightmorph 1.17 <body>
417    
418     <p>
419     Mobile processors can operate at different frequencies. Some allow changing
420     voltage as well. Most of the time your CPU doesn't need to run at full speed
421     and scaling it down will save much energy - often without any performance
422     decrease.
423     </p>
424    
425     </body>
426     </section>
427     <section>
428 rane 1.19 <title>Some Technical Terms</title>
429 swift 1.8 <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     CPU frequency scaling brings up some technical terms that might be unknown to
433     you. Here's a quick introduction.
434     </p>
435    
436     <p>
437 so 1.15 First of all, the kernel has to be able to change the processor's frequency.
438 rane 1.19 The <b>CPUfreq processor driver</b> knows the commands to do it on your CPU.
439 rane 1.20 Thus it's important to choose the right one in your kernel. You should already
440     have done it above. Once the kernel knows how to change frequencies, it has to
441     know which frequency it should set. This is done according to the <b>policy</b>
442     which consists of a <b>CPUfreq policy</b> and a <b>governor</b>. A CPUfreq
443     policy are just two numbers which define a range the frequency has to stay
444     between - minimal and maximal frequency. The governor now decides which of the
445     available frequencies in between minimal and maximal frequency to choose. For
446     example, the <b>powersave governor</b> always chooses the lowest frequency
447     available, the <b>performance governor</b> the highest one. The <b>userspace
448     governor</b> makes no decision but chooses whatever the user (or a program in
449     userspace) wants - which means it reads the frequency from
450 swift 1.8 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_setspeed</path>.
451     </p>
452    
453     <p>
454     This doesn't sound like dynamic frequency changes yet and in fact it isn't.
455 rane 1.20 Dynamics however can be accomplished with various approaches. For example, the
456     <b>ondemand governor</b> makes its decisions depending on the current CPU load.
457     The same is done by various userland tools like <c>cpudyn</c>, <c>cpufreqd</c>,
458     <c>powernowd</c> and many more. ACPI events can be used to enable or disable
459     dynamic frequency changes depending on power source.
460 swift 1.8 </p>
461    
462     </body>
463     </section>
464     <section>
465 rane 1.19 <title>Setting The Frequency Manually</title>
466 swift 1.1 <body>
467    
468     <p>
469     Decreasing CPU speed and voltage has two advantages: On the one hand less
470     energy is consumed, on the other hand there is thermal improvement as your
471     system doesn't get as hot as running on full speed. The main disadvantage is
472     obviously the loss of performance. Decreasing processor speed is a trade off
473     between performance loss and energy saving.
474     </p>
475    
476     <note>
477     Not every laptop supports frequency scaling. If unsure, have a look at the list
478 rane 1.19 of supported processors in the <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri>
479     section to verify yours is supported.
480 swift 1.1 </note>
481    
482     <p>
483 neysx 1.12 It's time to test whether CPU frequency changing works. Let's install another
484     tool which is very handy for debugging purposes: <c>sys-power/cpufrequtils</c>
485 swift 1.1 </p>
486    
487 neysx 1.12 <pre caption="Checking CPU frequency">
488     # <i>emerge cpufrequtils</i>
489     # <i>cpufreq-info</i>
490 swift 1.1 </pre>
491    
492     <p>
493 neysx 1.12 Here is an example output:
494 swift 1.1 </p>
495    
496 neysx 1.12 <pre caption="Sample output from cpufreq-info">
497 so 1.15 cpufrequtils 0.3: cpufreq-info (C) Dominik Brodowski 2004
498 neysx 1.12 Report errors and bugs to linux@brodo.de, please.
499     analyzing CPU 0:
500     driver: centrino
501     CPUs which need to switch frequency at the same time: 0
502     hardware limits: 600 MHz - 1.40 GHz
503     available frequency steps: 600 MHz, 800 MHz, 1000 MHz, 1.20 GHz, 1.40 GHz
504 so 1.15 available cpufreq governors: conservative, ondemand, powersave, userspace, performance
505 neysx 1.12 current policy: frequency should be within 924 MHz and 1.40 GHz.
506     The governor "performance" may decide which speed to use
507     within this range.
508 so 1.15 current CPU frequency is 1.40 GHz.
509 neysx 1.12 </pre>
510    
511 swift 1.1 <p>
512 neysx 1.12 Now play around with <c>cpufreq-set</c> to make sure frequency switching works.
513     Run <c>cpufreq-set -g ondemand</c> for example to activate the ondemand
514     governor and verify the change with <c>cpufreq-info</c>. If it doesn't work as
515 rane 1.20 expected, you might find help in the <uri link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting
516     section</uri> in the end of this guide.
517 swift 1.1 </p>
518    
519     </body>
520     </section>
521     <section>
522     <title>Automated frequency adaption</title>
523     <body>
524    
525     <p>
526     The above is quite nice, but not doable in daily life. Better let your system
527 so 1.15 set the appropriate frequency automatically. There are many different
528     approaches to do this. The following table gives a quick overview to help you
529 rane 1.21 decide on one of them. It's roughly separated in three categories <b>kernel</b>
530 rane 1.20 for approaches that only need kernel support, <b>daemon</b> for programs that
531     run in the background and <b>graphical</b> for programs that provide a GUI for
532     easy configuration and changes.
533 swift 1.1 </p>
534    
535     <table>
536     <tr>
537     <th>Name</th>
538 swift 1.8 <th>Category</th>
539     <th>Switch decision</th>
540     <th>Kernel governors</th>
541     <th>Further governors</th>
542     <th>Comments</th>
543     </tr>
544     <tr>
545     <ti>'ondemand' governor</ti>
546     <ti>Kernel</ti>
547     <ti>CPU load</ti>
548     <ti>N.A.</ti>
549     <ti>N.A.</ti>
550     <ti>
551 so 1.15 Chooses maximal frequency on CPU load and slowly steps down when the CPU is
552     idle. Further tuning through files in
553 swift 1.8 <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/ondemand/</path>. Still requires
554     userland tools (programs, scripts) if governor switching or similar is
555     desired.
556     </ti>
557 swift 1.1 </tr>
558     <tr>
559 so 1.15 <ti>'conservative' governor</ti>
560     <ti>Kernel</ti>
561     <ti>CPU load</ti>
562     <ti>N.A.</ti>
563     <ti>N.A.</ti>
564     <ti>
565 neysx 1.16 Unlike the ondemand governor, conversative doesn't jump to maximum
566     frequency when CPU load is high, but increases the frequency step by step.
567     Further tuning through files in
568     <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/ondemand/</path>. Still requires
569     userland tools (programs, scripts) if governor switching or similar is
570     desired.
571 so 1.15 </ti>
572     </tr>
573     <tr>
574 swift 1.1 <ti><uri link="http://mnm.uib.es/~gallir/cpudyn/">cpudyn</uri></ti>
575 swift 1.8 <ti>Daemon</ti>
576     <ti>CPU load</ti>
577 neysx 1.12 <ti>Performance, powersave</ti>
578 swift 1.8 <ti>Dynamic</ti>
579     <ti>
580     Also supports disk standby - notice however that <e>laptop mode</e> in most
581     cases will do a better job.
582     </ti>
583 swift 1.1 </tr>
584     <tr>
585 swift 1.8 <ti><uri link="http://sourceforge.net/projects/cpufreqd/">cpufreqd</uri></ti>
586     <ti>Daemon</ti>
587 nightmorph 1.17 <ti>Battery state, CPU load, temperature, running programs and more</ti>
588 swift 1.8 <ti>All available</ti>
589     <ti>None</ti>
590     <ti>
591 nightmorph 1.17 Sophisticated (but somewhat complicated) setup. Extendible through plugins
592     like sensor monitoring (lm_sensors) or coordinating some NVidia based
593     graphics card memory and core. Cpufreqd is SMP aware and can optionally be
594     controlled manually at runtime.
595 swift 1.8 </ti>
596     </tr>
597     <tr>
598     <ti>
599     <uri link="http://www.deater.net/john/powernowd.html">powernowd</uri>
600     </ti>
601     <ti>Daemon</ti>
602     <ti>CPU load</ti>
603     <ti>None</ti>
604     <ti>Passive, sine, aggressive</ti>
605     <ti>
606     Supports SMP.
607     </ti>
608 swift 1.1 </tr>
609     <tr>
610 nightmorph 1.31 <ti>
611     <uri
612     link="http://projects.simpledesigns.com.pl/project/ncpufreqd/">ncpufreqd</uri>
613     </ti>
614 so 1.15 <ti>Daemon</ti>
615     <ti>Temperature</ti>
616     <ti>None</ti>
617     <ti>Powersave, performance</ti>
618     <ti>
619     Toggles the used governor between performance and powersave depending on
620     system temperature. Very useful on laptops with notorious heat problems.
621     </ti>
622     </tr>
623     <tr>
624 swift 1.1 <ti><uri link="http://www.goop.org/~jeremy/speedfreq/">speedfreq</uri></ti>
625 swift 1.8 <ti>Daemon</ti>
626     <ti>CPU load</ti>
627     <ti>None</ti>
628     <ti>Dynamic, powersave, performance, fixed speed</ti>
629     <ti>
630 so 1.15 Easy to configure with a nice client/server interface. Requires a 2.6
631     kernel. Unmaintained, broken and thus removed from Portage. Please switch
632     to cpufreqd if you're still using it.
633 swift 1.8 </ti>
634     </tr>
635     <tr>
636     <ti><uri link="http://cpuspeedy.sourceforge.net/">gtk-cpuspeedy</uri></ti>
637     <ti>Graphical</ti>
638     <ti>None</ti>
639     <ti>None</ti>
640     <ti>None</ti>
641 swift 1.1 <ti>
642 swift 1.8 Gnome application, a graphical tool to set CPU frequency manually. It does
643 neysx 1.12 not offer any automation.
644 swift 1.1 </ti>
645     </tr>
646     <tr>
647 swift 1.8 <ti>klaptopdaemon</ti>
648     <ti>Graphical</ti>
649     <ti>Battery state</ti>
650     <ti>All available</ti>
651     <ti>None</ti>
652     <ti>
653     KDE only, 'ondemand' governor required for dynamic frequency scaling.
654     </ti>
655 swift 1.1 </tr>
656     </table>
657    
658     <p>
659 so 1.15 While adjusting the frequency to the current load looks simple at a first
660     glance, it's not such a trivial task. A bad algorithm can cause switching
661     between two frequencies all the time or wasting energy when setting frequency
662 rane 1.20 to an unnecessary high level.
663 swift 1.1 </p>
664    
665     <p>
666 neysx 1.12 Which one to choose? If you have no idea about it, try <c>cpufreqd</c>:
667 swift 1.1 </p>
668    
669     <pre caption="Installing cpufreqd">
670     # <i>emerge cpufreqd</i>
671     </pre>
672    
673     <p>
674 neysx 1.12 <c>cpufreqd</c> can be configured by editing <path>/etc/cpufreqd.conf</path>.
675     The default one that ships with cpufreqd may look a bit confusing. I recommend
676 nightmorph 1.22 replacing it with the one from former Gentoo developer Henrik Brix Andersen
677     (see below). Please notice that you need cpufreqd-2.0.0 or later. Earlier
678     versions have a different syntax for the config file.
679 swift 1.1 </p>
680    
681 nightmorph 1.17 <pre caption="/etc/cpufreqd.conf (cpufreqd-2.0.0 and later)">
682 swift 1.1 [General]
683     pidfile=/var/run/cpufreqd.pid
684 nightmorph 1.17 poll_interval=3
685     enable_plugins=acpi_ac, acpi_battery
686 nightmorph 1.18 enable_remote=1
687     remote_group=wheel
688 neysx 1.12 verbosity=5
689 nightmorph 1.17 [/General]
690 swift 1.1
691     [Profile]
692 neysx 1.12 name=ondemand
693     minfreq=0%
694     maxfreq=100%
695     policy=ondemand
696 nightmorph 1.17 [/Profile]
697 swift 1.1
698     [Profile]
699 so 1.15 name=conservative
700     minfreq=0%
701     maxfreq=100%
702     policy=conservative
703 nightmorph 1.17 [/Profile]
704 so 1.15
705     [Profile]
706 neysx 1.12 name=powersave
707     minfreq=0%
708     maxfreq=100%
709 swift 1.1 policy=powersave
710 nightmorph 1.17 [/Profile]
711 swift 1.1
712     [Profile]
713 neysx 1.12 name=performance
714     minfreq=0%
715     maxfreq=100%
716     policy=performance
717 nightmorph 1.17 [/Profile]
718 swift 1.1
719     [Rule]
720 neysx 1.12 name=battery
721     ac=off
722 so 1.15 profile=conservative
723 nightmorph 1.17 [/Rule]
724 swift 1.1
725     [Rule]
726 neysx 1.12 name=battery_low
727 swift 1.1 ac=off
728 neysx 1.12 battery_interval=0-10
729     profile=powersave
730 nightmorph 1.17 [/Rule]
731 swift 1.1
732     [Rule]
733 neysx 1.12 name=ac
734     ac=on
735 so 1.15 profile=ondemand
736 nightmorph 1.17 [/Rule]
737 neysx 1.12 </pre>
738    
739     <p>
740 rane 1.19 Now you can start the cpufreqd daemon. Add it to the <c>default</c> and
741     <c>battery</c> runlevel as well.
742 swift 1.1 </p>
743    
744 neysx 1.12 <pre caption="Starting cpufreqd">
745     # <i>rc-update add cpufreqd default battery</i>
746     # <i>rc</i>
747     </pre>
748    
749 nightmorph 1.17 <p>
750     Sometimes it can be desirable to select another policy than the daemon chooses,
751     for example when battery power is low, but you know that AC will be available
752 rane 1.20 soon. In that case you can turn on cpufreqd's manual mode with <c>cpufreqd-set
753     manual</c> and select one of your configured policies (as listed by
754     <c>cpufreqd-get</c>). You can leave manual mode by executing <c>cpufreqd-set
755     dynamic</c>.
756 nightmorph 1.17 </p>
757    
758 neysx 1.12 <warn>
759     Do not run more than one of the above programs at the same time. It may cause
760     confusion like switching between two frequencies all the time.
761     </warn>
762    
763 swift 1.8 </body>
764     </section>
765     <section>
766     <title>Verifying the result</title>
767     <body>
768    
769 swift 1.1 <p>
770     The last thing to check is that your new policies do a good job. An easy way to
771 swift 1.8 do so is monitoring CPU speed while working with your laptop:
772 swift 1.1 </p>
773    
774     <pre caption="Monitoring CPU speed">
775 yoswink 1.13 # <i>watch grep \"cpu MHz\" /proc/cpuinfo</i>
776 swift 1.1 </pre>
777    
778     <p>
779 rane 1.20 If <path>/proc/cpuinfo</path> doesn't get updated (see <uri
780 swift 1.32 link="#doc_chap8">Troubleshooting</uri>), monitor the CPU frequency with
781     <c>sys-apps/x86info</c>:
782 swift 1.1 </p>
783    
784     <pre caption="Alternative CPU speed monitoring">
785 neysx 1.12 # <i>watch x86info -mhz</i>
786 swift 1.1 </pre>
787    
788     <p>
789     Depending on your setup, CPU speed should increase on heavy load, decrease on
790 rane 1.19 no activity or just stay at the same level. When using <c>cpufreqd</c> and
791 rane 1.20 verbosity set to 5 or higher in <path>cpufreqd.conf</path> you'll get
792     additional information about what's happening reported to <c>syslog</c>.
793 swift 1.1 </p>
794    
795     </body>
796     </section>
797     </chapter>
798    
799     <chapter>
800     <title>LCD Power Management</title>
801     <section>
802     <body>
803    
804     <p>
805 rane 1.20 As you can see in <uri link="#doc_chap1_fig1">figure 1.1</uri>, the LCD
806     display consumes the biggest part of energy (might not be the case for
807     non-mobile CPU's). Thus it's quite important not only to shut the display off
808     when not needed, but also to reduce it's backlight if possible. Most laptops
809     offer the possibility to control the backlight dimming.
810 swift 1.1 </p>
811    
812 nightmorph 1.17 </body>
813     </section>
814     <section>
815     <title>Standby settings</title>
816     <body>
817    
818 swift 1.1 <p>
819 nightmorph 1.17 The first thing to check is the standby/suspend/off timings of the display. As
820     this depends heavily on your windowmanager, I'll let you figure it out
821 rane 1.20 yourself. Just two common places: Blanking the terminal can be done with
822 nightmorph 1.17 <c>setterm -blank &lt;number-of-minutesM&gt;</c>, <c>setterm -powersave on</c>
823     and <c>setterm -powerdown &lt;number-of-minutesM&gt;</c>. For X.org, modify
824     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> similar to this:
825 swift 1.1 </p>
826    
827 so 1.15 <pre caption="LCD suspend settings in X.org and XFree86">
828 swift 1.1 Section "ServerLayout"
829     Identifier [...]
830     [...]
831     Option "BlankTime" "5" <comment># Blank the screen after 5 minutes (Fake)</comment>
832     Option "StandbyTime" "10" <comment># Turn off screen after 10 minutes (DPMS)</comment>
833     Option "SuspendTime" "20" <comment># Full suspend after 20 minutes</comment>
834     Option "OffTime" "30" <comment># Turn off after half an hour</comment>
835     [...]
836     EndSection
837    
838     [...]
839    
840     Section "Monitor"
841     Identifier [...]
842     Option "DPMS" "true"
843     [...]
844     EndSection
845     </pre>
846    
847     <p>
848     This is the same for XFree86 and <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path>.
849     </p>
850    
851 nightmorph 1.17 </body>
852     </section>
853     <section>
854     <title>Backlight dimming</title>
855     <body>
856    
857 swift 1.1 <p>
858     Probably more important is the backlight dimming. If you have access to the
859     dimming settings via a tool, write a small script that dims the backlight in
860 rane 1.19 battery mode and place it in your <c>battery</c> runlevel. The following script
861 nightmorph 1.17 should work on most IBM Thinkpads and Toshiba laptops. You've got to enable the
862 rane 1.20 appropriate option in your kernel (IBM Thinkpads only). For Toshiba laptops,
863 nightmorph 1.23 install <c>sys-power/acpitool</c> and skip configuration of <c>ibm_acpi</c> as
864 rane 1.20 described below.
865 neysx 1.12 </p>
866    
867     <warn>
868     Support for setting brightness is marked experimental in ibm-acpi. It accesses
869     hardware directly and may cause severe harm to your system. Please read the
870     <uri link="http://ibm-acpi.sourceforge.net/">ibm-acpi website</uri>
871     </warn>
872    
873     <p>
874     To be able to set the brightness level, the ibm_acpi module has to be loaded
875     with the experimental parameter.
876     </p>
877    
878     <pre caption="automatically loading the ibm_acpi module">
879     <comment>(Please read the warnings above before doing this!)</comment>
880 rane 1.19 # <i>echo "options ibm_acpi experimental=1" >> /etc/modules.d/ibm_acpi</i>
881 nightmorph 1.26 # <i>/sbin/update-modules</i>
882 rane 1.19 # <i>echo ibm_acpi >> /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
883     # <i>modprobe ibm_acpi</i>
884 neysx 1.12 </pre>
885    
886     <p>
887     This should work without error messages and a file
888     <path>/proc/acpi/ibm/brightness</path> should be created after loading the
889 rane 1.20 module. An init script will take care of choosing the brightness according to
890     the power source.
891 neysx 1.12 </p>
892    
893     <pre caption="/etc/conf.d/lcd-brightness">
894     <comment># See /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness for available values</comment>
895 nightmorph 1.17 <comment># Please read /usr/src/linux/Documentation/ibm-acpi.txt</comment>
896 neysx 1.12
897 nightmorph 1.23 <comment># brightness level in ac mode. Default is 7.</comment>
898 neysx 1.12 BRIGHTNESS_AC=7
899    
900     <comment># brightness level in battery mode. Default is 4.</comment>
901     BRIGHTNESS_BATTERY=4
902     </pre>
903    
904     <pre caption="/etc/init.d/lcd-brightness">
905     #!/sbin/runscript
906    
907     set_brightness() {
908     if on_ac_power
909     then
910     LEVEL=${BRIGHTNESS_AC:-7}
911     else
912     LEVEL=${BRIGHTNESS_BATTERY:-4}
913     fi
914    
915     if [ -f /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness ]
916     then
917     ebegin "Setting LCD brightness"
918     echo "level ${LEVEL}" > /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness
919     eend $?
920 nightmorph 1.17 elif [[ -e /usr/bin/acpitool &amp;&amp; -n $(acpitool -T | grep "LCD brightness") ]]
921     then
922     ebegin "Setting LCD brightness"
923     acpitool -l $LEVEL >/dev/null || ewarn "Unable to set lcd brightness"
924     eend $?
925 neysx 1.12 else
926     ewarn "Setting LCD brightness is not supported."
927 nightmorph 1.17 ewarn "For IBM Thinkpads, check that ibm_acpi is loaded into the kernel"
928 nightmorph 1.23 ewarn "For Toshiba laptops, you've got to install sys-power/acpitool"
929 neysx 1.12 fi
930     }
931    
932     start() {
933     set_brightness
934     }
935    
936     stop () {
937     set_brightness
938     }
939     </pre>
940    
941     <p>
942     When done, make sure brightness is adjusted automatically by adding it to the
943     battery runlevel.
944 swift 1.1 </p>
945    
946 neysx 1.12 <pre caption="Enabling automatic brightness adjustment">
947 rane 1.19 # <i>chmod +x /etc/init.d/lcd-brightness</i>
948     # <i>rc-update add lcd-brightness battery</i>
949     # <i>rc</i>
950 neysx 1.12 </pre>
951    
952 swift 1.1 </body>
953     </section>
954     </chapter>
955    
956     <chapter>
957     <title>Disk Power Management</title>
958     <section>
959 nightmorph 1.17 <body>
960 rane 1.19
961 nightmorph 1.17 <p>
962     Hard disks consume less energy in sleep mode. Therefore it makes sense to
963     activate power saving features whenever the hard disk is not used for a certain
964     amount of time. I'll show you two alternative possibilities to do it. First,
965     laptop-mode will save most energy due to several measures which prevent or at
966     least delay write accesses. The drawback is that due to the delayed write
967     accesses a power outage or kernel crash will be more dangerous for data loss.
968     If you don't like this, you have to make sure that there are no processes which
969     write to your hard disk frequently. Afterwards you can enable power saving
970 rane 1.19 features of your hard disk with <c>hdparm</c> as the second alternative.
971 nightmorph 1.17 </p>
972    
973     </body>
974     </section>
975     <section>
976     <title>Increasing idle time - laptop-mode</title>
977 swift 1.1 <body>
978    
979     <p>
980 nightmorph 1.27 Recent 2.6 kernels include the so-called <c>laptop-mode</c>. When activated,
981     dirty buffers are written to disk on read calls or after 10 minutes (instead of
982     30 seconds). This minimizes the time the hard disk needs to be spun up.
983 swift 1.1 </p>
984    
985 nightmorph 1.17 <pre caption="Automated start of laptop-mode">
986     # <i>emerge laptop-mode-tools</i>
987     </pre>
988 swift 1.1
989 nightmorph 1.17 <p>
990     <c>laptop-mode-tools</c> has its configuration file in
991     <path>/etc/laptop-mode/laptop-mode.conf</path>. Adjust it the way you like it,
992     it's well commented. Run <c>rc-update add laptop_mode battery</c> to start it
993     automatically.
994     </p>
995    
996     <p>
997     Recent versions (1.11 and later) of laptop-mode-tools include a new tool
998     <c>lm-profiler</c>. It will monitor your system's disk usage and running
999     network services and suggests to disable unneeded ones. You can either disable
1000     them through laptop-mode-tools builtin runlevel support (which will be reverted
1001 rane 1.19 by Gentoo's <c>/sbin/rc</c>) or use your <c>default</c>/<c>battery</c>
1002 nightmorph 1.17 runlevels (recommended).
1003     </p>
1004    
1005     <pre caption="Sample output from running lm-profiler">
1006 rane 1.19 # <i>lm-profiler</i>
1007 nightmorph 1.17 Profiling session started.
1008     Time remaining: 600 seconds
1009     [4296896.602000] amarokapp
1010     Time remaining: 599 seconds
1011     [4296897.714000] sort
1012     [4296897.970000] mv
1013     Time remaining: 598 seconds
1014     Time remaining: 597 seconds
1015     [4296900.482000] reiserfs/0
1016     </pre>
1017    
1018     <p>
1019     After profiling your system for ten minutes, lm-profiler will present a list of
1020     services which might have caused disk accesses during that time.
1021     </p>
1022    
1023     <pre caption="lm-profiler suggests to disable some services">
1024     Program: "atd"
1025     Reason: standard recommendation (program may not be running)
1026     Init script: /etc/init.d/atd (GUESSED)
1027    
1028 rane 1.19 Do you want to disable this service in battery mode? [y/N]: <i>n</i>
1029 swift 1.1 </pre>
1030    
1031     <p>
1032 nightmorph 1.17 To disable atd as suggested in the example above, you would run <c>rc-update
1033     del atd battery</c>. Be careful not to disable services that are needed for
1034 rane 1.20 your system to run properly - <c>lm-profiler</c> is likely to generate some
1035     false positives. Do not disable a service if you are unsure whether it's
1036     needed.
1037 nightmorph 1.17 </p>
1038    
1039     </body>
1040     </section>
1041     <section>
1042 rane 1.19 <title>Limiting Write Accesses</title>
1043 nightmorph 1.17 <body>
1044    
1045     <p>
1046     If you don't want to use laptop-mode, you must take special care to disable
1047     services that write to your disk frequently - <c>syslogd</c> is a good
1048     candidate, for example. You probably don't want to shut it down completely, but
1049     it's possible to modify the config file so that "unnecessary" things don't get
1050 rane 1.20 logged and thus don't create disk traffic. <c>Cups</c> writes to disk
1051     periodically, so consider shutting it down and only enable it manually when
1052     needed.
1053 nightmorph 1.17 </p>
1054    
1055     <pre caption="Disabling cups in battery mode">
1056     # <i>rc-update del cupsd battery</i>
1057     </pre>
1058    
1059     <p>
1060     You can also use <c>lm-profiler</c> from laptop-mode-tools (see above) to find
1061     services to disable. Once you eliminated all of them, go on with configuring
1062     hdparm.
1063     </p>
1064    
1065     </body>
1066     </section>
1067     <section>
1068     <title>hdparm</title>
1069     <body>
1070    
1071     <p>
1072 nightmorph 1.28 The second possibility is using <c>hdparm</c>. Skip this if
1073     you are using laptop-mode. Otherwise, edit <path>/etc/conf.d/hdparm</path> and
1074     add the following values to your drive entries. This example assumes your hard
1075     drive is called <b>hda</b>:
1076 swift 1.1 </p>
1077    
1078 nightmorph 1.28 <pre caption="Using /etc/conf.d/hdparm for disk standby">
1079     hda_args="-q -S12"
1080     </pre>
1081 neysx 1.12
1082 nightmorph 1.28 <p>
1083     This will activate power management for your hard drive. If you ever want to
1084     deactivate power management, you can edit <path>/etc/conf.d/hdparm</path> and
1085     change the values to <c>-q -S0</c>, or just run <c>hdparm -q -S0 /dev/hda</c>.
1086     </p>
1087 swift 1.1
1088     <p>
1089 nightmorph 1.28 See <c>man hdparm</c> for the options. Though you can always start <c>hdparm</c>
1090     manually when you are on battery power by running <c>/etc/init.d/hdparm
1091     start</c>, it's much easier to automate its startup and shutdown. To do so, add
1092     <c>hdparm</c> to the battery runlevel so that it will automatically enable power
1093     management.
1094 swift 1.1 </p>
1095    
1096     <pre caption="Automate disk standby settings">
1097 nightmorph 1.28 # <i>rc-update add hdparm battery</i>
1098 swift 1.1 </pre>
1099    
1100     <impo>
1101     Be careful with sleep/spin down settings of your hard drive. Setting it to
1102     small values might wear out your drive and lose warranty.
1103     </impo>
1104    
1105     </body>
1106     </section>
1107     <section>
1108     <title>Other tricks</title>
1109     <body>
1110    
1111     <p>
1112     Another possibility is to deactivate swap in battery mode. Before writing a
1113     swapon/swapoff switcher, make sure there is enough RAM and swap isn't used
1114     heavily, otherwise you'll be in big problems.
1115     </p>
1116    
1117     <p>
1118     If you don't want to use laptop-mode, it's still possible to minimize disk
1119 rane 1.19 access by mounting certain directories as <c>tmpfs</c> - write accesses are not
1120 swift 1.1 stored on a disk, but in main memory and get lost with unmounting. Often it's
1121     useful to mount <path>/tmp</path> like this - you don't have to pay special
1122     attention as it gets cleared on every reboot regardless whether it was mounted
1123     on disk or in RAM. Just make sure you have enough RAM and no program (like a
1124     download client or compress utility) needs extraordinary much space in
1125     <path>/tmp</path>. To activate this, enable tmpfs support in your kernel and
1126     add a line to <path>/etc/fstab</path> like this:
1127     </p>
1128    
1129     <pre caption="Editing /etc/fstab to make /tmp even more volatile">
1130     none /tmp tmpfs size=32m 0 0
1131     </pre>
1132    
1133     <warn>
1134     Pay attention to the size parameter and modify it for your system. If you're
1135 rane 1.21 unsure, don't try this at all, it can become a performance bottleneck easily. In
1136 swift 1.1 case you want to mount <path>/var/log</path> like this, make sure to merge the
1137     log files to disk before unmounting. They are essential. Don't attempt to mount
1138 rane 1.19 <path>/var/tmp</path> like this. Portage uses it for compiling...
1139 swift 1.1 </warn>
1140    
1141     </body>
1142     </section>
1143     </chapter>
1144    
1145     <chapter>
1146 rane 1.19 <title>Power Management For Other Devices</title>
1147 swift 1.1 <section>
1148 rane 1.19 <title>Graphics Cards</title>
1149 so 1.15 <body>
1150    
1151     <p>
1152     In case you own an ATI graphics card supporting PowerPlay (dynamic clock
1153 nightmorph 1.25 scaling for the graphics processing unit GPU), you can activate this
1154 rane 1.20 feature in X.org. Open <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> and add (or enable) the
1155     <c>DynamicClocks</c> option in the Device section. Please notice that this
1156     feature will lead to crashes on some systems.
1157 so 1.15 </p>
1158    
1159     <pre caption="Enabling ATI PowerPlay support in X.org">
1160     Section "Device"
1161     [...]
1162     Option "DynamicClocks" "on"
1163     EndSection
1164     </pre>
1165    
1166     </body>
1167     </section>
1168     <section>
1169 swift 1.1 <title>Wireless Power Management</title>
1170     <body>
1171    
1172     <p>
1173 nightmorph 1.17 Wireless LAN cards consume quite a bit of energy. Put them in Power Management
1174 nightmorph 1.28 mode just like your hard drives.
1175 swift 1.1 </p>
1176    
1177 nightmorph 1.17 <note>
1178     This script assumes your wireless interface is called <c>wlan0</c>; replace
1179     this with the actual name of your interface.
1180     </note>
1181    
1182 nightmorph 1.28 <p>
1183 nightmorph 1.29 Add the following option to <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> to automatically enable
1184 nightmorph 1.28 power management for your wireless card:
1185     </p>
1186 swift 1.1
1187 nightmorph 1.28 <pre caption="Automated WLAN Power Management">
1188     iwconfig_wlan0="power on"
1189 swift 1.1 </pre>
1190    
1191     <p>
1192 nightmorph 1.28 See <c>man iwconfig</c> for details and more options like the period between
1193     wakeups or timeout settings. If your driver and access point support changing
1194     the beacon time, this is a good starting point to save even more energy.
1195 swift 1.1 </p>
1196    
1197     </body>
1198     </section>
1199     <section>
1200     <title>USB Power Management</title>
1201     <body>
1202    
1203     <p>
1204     There are two problems with USB devices regarding energy consumption: First,
1205     devices like USB mice, digital cameras or USB sticks consume energy while
1206     plugged in. You cannot avoid this (nevertheless remove them in case they're not
1207     needed). Second, when there are USB devices plugged in, the USB host controller
1208     periodically accesses the bus which in turn prevents the CPU from going into
1209 rane 1.20 sleep mode. The kernel offers an experimental option to enable suspension of
1210 so 1.15 USB devices through driver calls or one of the <path>power/state</path> files
1211     in <path>/sys</path>.
1212 swift 1.1 </p>
1213    
1214 so 1.15 <pre caption="Enabling USB suspend support in the kernel">
1215     Device Drivers
1216     USB support
1217     [*] Support for Host-side USB
1218     [*] USB suspend/resume (EXPERIMENTAL)
1219     </pre>
1220    
1221 swift 1.1 </body>
1222     </section>
1223     </chapter>
1224    
1225     <chapter>
1226 rane 1.19 <title>Sleep States: sleep, standby, and suspend to disk</title>
1227 swift 1.1 <section>
1228     <body>
1229    
1230     <p>
1231     ACPI defines different sleep states. The more important ones are
1232     </p>
1233    
1234 rane 1.20 <ul>
1235 swift 1.1 <li>S1 aka Standby</li>
1236     <li>S3 aka Suspend to RAM aka Sleep</li>
1237     <li>S4 aka Suspend to Disk aka Hibernate</li>
1238     </ul>
1239    
1240     <p>
1241     They can be called whenever the system is not in use, but a shutdown is not
1242     wanted due to the long boot time.
1243     </p>
1244    
1245     </body>
1246     </section>
1247     <section>
1248 so 1.15 <title>Sleep (S3)</title>
1249 swift 1.1 <body>
1250    
1251     <p>
1252 so 1.15 The ACPI support for these sleep states is marked experimental for good reason.
1253     APM sleep states seem to be more stable, however you can't use APM and ACPI
1254     together.
1255     </p>
1256    
1257     <pre caption="Kernel configuration for the various suspend types">
1258     Power Management Options ---&gt;
1259     [*] Power Management support
1260     ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) Support ---&gt;
1261     [*] ACPI Support
1262     [*] Sleep States
1263     </pre>
1264    
1265     <p>
1266 nightmorph 1.17 Once your kernel is properly configured, you can use the
1267 so 1.15 <c>hibernate-script</c> to activate suspend or sleep mode. Let's install that
1268     first.
1269     </p>
1270    
1271     <pre caption="Installing the hibernate-script">
1272 rane 1.19 # <i>emerge hibernate-script</i>
1273 so 1.15 </pre>
1274    
1275     <p>
1276 nightmorph 1.25 Some configuration has to be done in <path>/etc/hibernate</path>. The default
1277 nightmorph 1.24 package introduces a few configuration files for each sleep state. Options that
1278     are common to all suspend methods are placed in <path>common.conf</path>; make
1279     sure this file is properly set up for your system.
1280 so 1.15 </p>
1281    
1282     <p>
1283 nightmorph 1.24 To configure sleep, edit <path>sysfs-ram.conf</path> in
1284     <path>/etc/hibernate</path>. <c>UseSysfsPowerState mem</c> is already setup
1285 nightmorph 1.25 correctly, but if you need to make further changes to this particular sleep
1286     state (or any other sleep state) you should add them to
1287 nightmorph 1.24 <path>/etc/hibernate/hibernate.conf</path>. The comments and option names will
1288     guide you. If you use nfs or samba shares over the network, make sure to
1289     shutdown the appropriate init scripts to avoid timeouts.
1290 so 1.15 </p>
1291    
1292 nightmorph 1.24 <note>
1293     For more information on setting up sleep states, read <c>man
1294     hibernate.conf</c>.
1295     </note>
1296    
1297 so 1.15 <p>
1298     Ready? Now is the last chance to backup any data you want to keep after
1299     executing the next command. Notice that you probably have to hit a special key
1300 rane 1.19 like <c>Fn</c> to resume from sleep.
1301 so 1.15 </p>
1302    
1303     <pre caption="Calling sleep">
1304 rane 1.19 # <i>hibernate-ram</i>
1305 so 1.15 </pre>
1306    
1307     <p>
1308 rane 1.20 If you're still reading, it seems to work. You can also setup standby (S1) in a
1309 nightmorph 1.24 similar way by editing <path>sysfs-ram.conf</path> and changing
1310     "UseSysfsPowerState mem" to "UseSysfsPowerState standby". S3 and S4 are the more
1311     interesting sleep states due to greater energy savings however.
1312 so 1.15 </p>
1313    
1314     </body>
1315     </section>
1316     <section>
1317     <title>Hibernate (S4)</title>
1318     <body>
1319    
1320     <p>
1321     This section introduces hibernation, where a snapshot of the running system is
1322     written to disk before powering off. On resume, the snapshot is loaded and you
1323     can go on working at exactly the point you called hibernate before.
1324 swift 1.1 </p>
1325    
1326     <warn>
1327 so 1.15 Don't exchange non hot-pluggable hardware when suspended. Don't attempt to load
1328     a snapshot with a different kernel image than the one it was created with.
1329     Shutdown any NFS or samba server/client before hibernating.
1330 swift 1.1 </warn>
1331    
1332     <p>
1333 so 1.15 There are two different implementations for S4. The original one is swsusp,
1334 jkt 1.33 then there is the newer tuxonice (former suspend2) with a nicer interface (including fbsplash
1335     support). A <uri link="http://tuxonice.net/features.html#compare"> feature
1336     comparison</uri> is available at the <uri link="http://www.tuxonice.net">tuxonice
1337 rane 1.20 Homepage</uri>. There used to be Suspend-to-Disk (pmdisk), a fork of swsusp,
1338     but it has been merged back.
1339 swift 1.1 </p>
1340    
1341     <p>
1342 jkt 1.33 TuxOnIce is not included in the mainline kernel yet, therefore you either have
1343 rane 1.20 to patch your kernel sources with the patches provided by <uri
1344 jkt 1.33 link="http://tuxonice.net">tuxonice.net</uri> or use
1345     <c>sys-kernel/tuxonice-sources</c>.
1346 swift 1.1 </p>
1347    
1348     <p>
1349 jkt 1.33 The kernel part for both swusp and TuxOnIce is as follows:
1350 swift 1.1 </p>
1351    
1352     <pre caption="Kernel configuration for the various suspend types">
1353     Power Management Options ---&gt;
1354     <comment>(hibernate with swsusp)</comment>
1355 so 1.15 [*] Software Suspend
1356     <comment>(replace /dev/SWAP with your swap partition)</comment>
1357     (/dev/SWAP) Default resume partition
1358 rane 1.20
1359 jkt 1.33 <comment>(hibernate with TuxOnIce)</comment>
1360     Enhanced Hibernation (TuxOnIce)
1361 swift 1.1 --- Image Storage (you need at least one writer)
1362 so 1.15 [*] File Writer
1363 swift 1.1 [*] Swap Writer
1364 so 1.15 --- General Options
1365 swift 1.1 [*] LZF image compression
1366 so 1.15 <comment>(replace /dev/SWAP with your swap partition)</comment>
1367     (swap:/dev/SWAP) Default resume device name
1368     [ ] Allow Keep Image Mode
1369 swift 1.1 </pre>
1370    
1371     <p>
1372 so 1.15 The configuration for swsusp is rather easy. If you didn't store the location
1373     of your swap partition in the kernel config, you can also pass it as a
1374     parameter with the <c>resume=/dev/SWAP</c> directive. If booting is not
1375     possible due to a broken image, use the <c>noresume</c> kernel parameter. The
1376 rane 1.20 <c>hibernate-cleanup</c> init script invalidates swsusp images during the boot
1377     process.
1378 swift 1.1 </p>
1379    
1380 so 1.15 <pre caption="Invalidating swsusp images during the boot process">
1381 rane 1.19 # <i>rc-update add hibernate-cleanup boot</i>
1382 so 1.15 </pre>
1383    
1384 swift 1.1 <p>
1385 so 1.15 To activate hibernate with swsusp, use the hibernate script and set
1386 nightmorph 1.24 <c>UseSysfsPowerState disk</c> in <path>/etc/hibernate/sysfs-disk</path>.
1387 swift 1.1 </p>
1388    
1389     <warn>
1390     Backup your data before doing this. Run <c>sync</c> before executing one of the
1391     commands to have cached data written to disk. First try it outside of X, then
1392     with X running, but not logged in.
1393     </warn>
1394 rane 1.20
1395 swift 1.1 <p>
1396     If you experience kernel panics due to uhci or similar, try to compile USB
1397     support as module and unload the modules before sending your laptop to sleep
1398 nightmorph 1.24 mode. There are configuration options for this in <path>common.conf</path>
1399 swift 1.1 </p>
1400    
1401 so 1.15 <pre caption="Hibernating with swsusp">
1402 nightmorph 1.24 # <i>nano -w /etc/hibernate/common.conf</i>
1403 so 1.15 <comment>(Make sure you have a backup of your data)</comment>
1404 rane 1.19 # <i>hibernate</i>
1405 so 1.15 </pre>
1406    
1407 swift 1.1 <p>
1408 jkt 1.34 The following section discusses the setup of TuxOnIce including fbsplash support
1409     for a nice graphical progress bar during suspend and resume.
1410 so 1.15 </p>
1411    
1412     <p>
1413 rane 1.20 The first part of the configuration is similar to the configuration of swsusp.
1414     In case you didn't store the location of your swap partition in the kernel
1415     config, you have to pass it as a kernel parameter with the
1416 jkt 1.33 <c>resume=swap:/dev/SWAP</c> directive. If booting is not possible due to a
1417     broken image, append the <c>noresume</c> parameter. Additionally, the
1418 jkt 1.34 <c>hibernate-cleanup</c> init script invalidates TuxOnIce images during the boot
1419     process.
1420 so 1.15 </p>
1421    
1422 jkt 1.33 <pre caption="Invalidating TuxOnIce images during the boot process">
1423 rane 1.19 # <i>rc-update add hibernate-cleanup boot</i>
1424 so 1.15 </pre>
1425    
1426 rane 1.20 <p>
1427 jkt 1.33 Now edit <path>/etc/hibernate/suspend2.conf</path>, enable the <c>TuxOnIce</c>
1428 nightmorph 1.24 options you need. Do not enable the <c>fbsplash</c> options in
1429     <c>common.conf</c> just yet.
1430 swift 1.1 </p>
1431    
1432 jkt 1.33 <pre caption="Hibernating with TuxOnIce">
1433 nightmorph 1.24 # <i>nano -w /etc/hibernate/suspend2.conf</i>
1434 so 1.15 <comment>(Make sure you have a backup of your data)</comment>
1435 rane 1.19 # <i>hibernate</i>
1436 swift 1.8 </pre>
1437    
1438 so 1.15 <p>
1439 rane 1.20 Please configure <c>fbsplash</c> now if you didn't do already. To enable
1440 jkt 1.34 fbsplash support during hibernation, the <c>sys-apps/tuxonice-userui</c> package
1441     is needed. Additionally, you've got to enable the <c>fbsplash</c> USE flag.
1442 so 1.15 </p>
1443    
1444 jkt 1.33 <pre caption="Installing tuxonice-userui">
1445     # <i>echo "sys-apps/tuxonice-userui fbsplash" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
1446 nightmorph 1.24 <comment>(It may be marked ~arch, so first it must be keyworded)</comment>
1447 jkt 1.33 # <i>echo "sys-apps/tuxonice-userui" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
1448     # <i>emerge tuxonice-userui</i>
1449 so 1.15 </pre>
1450    
1451     <p>
1452     The ebuild tells you to make a symlink to the theme you want to use. For
1453     example, to use the <c>livecd-2005.1</c> theme, run the following command:
1454     </p>
1455    
1456     <pre caption="Using the livecd-2005.1 theme during hibernation">
1457 rane 1.19 # <i>ln -sfn /etc/splash/livecd-2005.1 /etc/splash/suspend2</i>
1458 so 1.15 </pre>
1459    
1460     <p>
1461     If you don't want a black screen in the first part of the resume process, you
1462 jkt 1.33 have to add the <c>tuxoniceui_fbsplash</c> tool to your initrd image. Assuming
1463 so 1.15 you created the initrd image with <c>splash_geninitramfs</c> and saved it as
1464 rane 1.20 <path>/boot/fbsplash-emergence-1024x768</path>, here's how to do that.
1465 so 1.15 </p>
1466    
1467 jkt 1.33 <pre caption="Adding tuxoniceui_fbsplash to an initrd image">
1468 rane 1.19 # <i>mount /boot</i>
1469     # <i>mkdir ~/initrd.d</i>
1470     # <i>cp /boot/fbsplash-emergence-1024x768 ~/initrd.d/</i>
1471     # <i>cd ~/initrd.d</i>
1472     # <i>gunzip -c fbsplash-emergence-1024x768 | cpio -idm --quiet -H newc</i>
1473     # <i>rm fbsplash-emergence-1024x768</i>
1474 jkt 1.33 # <i>cp /usr/sbin/tuxoniceui_fbsplash sbin/</i>
1475     # <i>find . | cpio --quiet --dereference -o -H newc | gzip -9 > /boot/fbsplash-tuxonice-emergence-1024x768</i>
1476 so 1.15 </pre>
1477    
1478     <p>
1479 nightmorph 1.24 Afterwards adjust <path>grub.conf</path> (or <path>lilo.conf</path>) so that
1480 jkt 1.33 your TuxOnIce kernel uses
1481     <path>/boot/fbsplash-tuxonice-emergence-1024x768</path> as initrd image. You can
1482 nightmorph 1.24 now test a dry run to see if everything is setup correctly.
1483 so 1.15 </p>
1484    
1485     <pre caption="Test run for fbsplash hibernation">
1486 jkt 1.33 # <i>tuxoniceui_fbsplash -t</i>
1487 so 1.15 </pre>
1488    
1489     <p>
1490 nightmorph 1.24 Afterwards open <path>/etc/hibernate/common.conf</path> and activate the
1491     fbsplash options. Execute <c>hibernate</c> and enjoy.
1492 so 1.15 </p>
1493    
1494 swift 1.1 </body>
1495     </section>
1496     </chapter>
1497    
1498     <chapter>
1499     <title>Troubleshooting</title>
1500     <section>
1501     <body>
1502    
1503     <p>
1504     <e>Q:</e> I'm trying to change the CPU frequency, but
1505     <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_governor</path> does not
1506     exist.
1507     </p>
1508    
1509     <p>
1510     <e>A:</e> Make sure your processor supports CPU frequency scaling and you chose
1511     the right CPUFreq driver for your processor. Here is a list of processors that
1512 jkt 1.34 are supported by cpufreq (kernel 2.6.7): ARM Integrator, ARM-SA1100, ARM-SA1110,
1513     AMD Elan - SC400, SC410, AMD mobile K6-2+, AMD mobile K6-3+, AMD mobile Duron,
1514     AMD mobile Athlon, AMD Opteron, AMD Athlon 64, Cyrix Media GXm, Intel mobile
1515     PIII and Intel mobile PIII-M on certain chipsets, Intel Pentium 4, Intel Xeon,
1516     Intel Pentium M (Centrino), National Semiconductors Geode GX, Transmeta Crusoe,
1517     VIA Cyrix 3 / C3, UltraSPARC-III, SuperH SH-3, SH-4, several "PowerBook" and
1518     "iBook2" and various processors on some ACPI 2.0-compatible systems (only if
1519     "ACPI Processor Performance States" are available to the ACPI/BIOS interface).
1520 swift 1.1 </p>
1521    
1522     <p>
1523     <e>Q:</e> My laptop supports frequency scaling, but
1524     <path>/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/</path> is empty.
1525     </p>
1526    
1527     <p>
1528     <e>A:</e> Look for ACPI related error messages with <c>dmesg | grep ACPI</c>.
1529     Try to update the BIOS, especially if a broken DSDT is reported. You can also
1530     try to fix it yourself (which is beyond the scope of this guide).
1531     </p>
1532    
1533     <p>
1534 rane 1.19 <e>Q:</e> My laptop supports frequency scaling, but according to
1535     <path>/proc/cpuinfo</path> the speed never changes.
1536 swift 1.1 </p>
1537    
1538     <p>
1539 swift 1.8 <e>A:</e> Probably you have activated symmetric multiprocessing support
1540     (CONFIG_SMP) in your kernel. Deactivate it and it should work. Some older
1541 rane 1.20 kernels had a bug causing this. In that case, run <c>emerge x86info</c>, update
1542 jkt 1.34 your kernel as asked and check the current frequency with <c>x86info -mhz</c>.
1543 swift 1.1 </p>
1544    
1545     <p>
1546     <e>Q:</e> I can change the CPU frequency, but the range is not as wide as in
1547     another OS.
1548     </p>
1549    
1550     <p>
1551     <e>A:</e> You can combine frequency scaling with ACPI throttling to get a lower
1552 jkt 1.34 minimum frequency. Notice that throttling doesn't save much energy and is mainly
1553     used for thermal management (keeping your laptop cool and quiet). You can read
1554     the current throttling state with <c>cat /proc/acpi/processor/CPU/throttling</c>
1555     and change it with <c>echo -n "0:x" > /proc/acpi/processor/CPU/limit</c>, where
1556     x is one of the Tx states listed in
1557 swift 1.1 <path>/proc/acpi/processor/CPU/throttling</path>.
1558     </p>
1559    
1560     <p>
1561 swift 1.8 <e>Q:</e> When configuring the kernel, powersave, performance and userspace
1562     governors show up, but that ondemand thing is missing. Where do I get it?
1563     </p>
1564    
1565     <p>
1566     <e>A:</e> The ondemand governor is only included in recent kernel sources. Try
1567     updating them.
1568     </p>
1569    
1570     <p>
1571 swift 1.1 <e>Q:</e> Battery life time seems to be worse than before.
1572     </p>
1573    
1574     <p>
1575     <e>A:</e> Check your BIOS settings. Maybe you forgot to re-enable some of the
1576     settings.
1577     </p>
1578    
1579     <p>
1580     <e>Q:</e> My battery is charged, but KDE reports there would be 0% left and
1581     immediately shuts down.
1582     </p>
1583    
1584     <p>
1585     <e>A:</e> Check that battery support is compiled into your kernel. If you use
1586     it as a module, make sure the module is loaded.
1587     </p>
1588    
1589     <p>
1590 rane 1.20 <e>Q:</e> My system logger reports things like "logger: ACPI group battery /
1591     action battery is not defined".
1592 nightmorph 1.17 </p>
1593    
1594     <p>
1595 rane 1.20 <e>A:</e> This message is generated by the <path>/etc/acpi/default.sh</path>
1596     script that is shipped with acpid. You can safely ignore it. If you like to get
1597     rid of it, you can comment the appropriate line in
1598     <path>/etc/acpi/default.sh</path> as shown below:
1599 nightmorph 1.17 </p>
1600    
1601     <pre caption="Disabling warnings about unknown acpi events">
1602     *) # logger "ACPI action $action is not defined"
1603     </pre>
1604    
1605     <p>
1606 swift 1.1 <e>Q:</e> I have a Dell Inspiron 51XX and I don't get any ACPI events.
1607     </p>
1608    
1609     <p>
1610     <e>A:</e> This seems to be a kernel bug. Read on <uri
1611     link="http://bugme.osdl.org/show_bug.cgi?id=1752">here</uri>.
1612     </p>
1613    
1614     <p>
1615 rane 1.20 <e>Q:</e> I activated the <c>DynamicClocks</c> option in <path>xorg.conf</path>
1616     and now X.org crashes / the screen stays black / my laptop doesn't shutdown
1617 so 1.15 properly.
1618     </p>
1619    
1620     <p>
1621 rane 1.20 <e>A:</e> This happens on some systems. You have to disable
1622     <c>DynamicClocks</c>.
1623 so 1.15 </p>
1624    
1625     <p>
1626 jkt 1.33 <e>Q:</e> I want to use TuxOnIce, but it tells me my swap partition is too
1627 so 1.15 small. Resizing is not an option.
1628     </p>
1629    
1630     <p>
1631 rane 1.20 <e>A:</e> If there is enough free space on your system, you can use the
1632 jkt 1.34 filewriter instead of the swapwriter. The <c>hibernate-script</c> supports it as
1633     well. More information can be found in
1634 jkt 1.33 <path>/usr/src/linux/Documentation/power/tuxonice.txt</path>.
1635 so 1.15 </p>
1636    
1637     <p>
1638 swift 1.1 <e>Q:</e> I just bought a brand new battery, but it only lasts for some
1639     minutes! What am I doing wrong?
1640     </p>
1641    
1642     <p>
1643     <e>A:</e> First follow your manufacturer's advice on how to charge the battery
1644 rane 1.20 correctly.
1645 swift 1.1 </p>
1646    
1647     <p>
1648     <e>Q:</e> The above didn't help. What should I do then?
1649     </p>
1650    
1651     <p>
1652     <e>A:</e> Some batteries sold as "new" are in fact old ones. Try the following:
1653     </p>
1654    
1655     <pre caption="Querying battery state">
1656     $ <i>grep capacity /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info</i>
1657     design capacity: 47520 mWh
1658     last full capacity: 41830 mWh
1659     </pre>
1660    
1661     <p>
1662     If the "last full capacity" differs significantly from the design capacity,
1663     your battery is probably broken. Try to claim your warranty.
1664     </p>
1665    
1666 swift 1.8 <p>
1667     <e>Q:</e> My problem is not listed above. Where should I go next?
1668     </p>
1669    
1670     <p>
1671 nightmorph 1.17 <e>A:</e> Don't fear to contact me, <mail link="earthwings@gentoo.org">Dennis
1672 rane 1.20 Nienhüser</mail>, directly. The <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
1673     Forums</uri> are a good place to get help as well. If you prefer IRC, try the
1674     <c>#gentoo-laptop</c> channel at <uri
1675     link="irc://irc.freenode.net">irc.freenode.net</uri>.
1676 swift 1.8 </p>
1677    
1678 swift 1.1 </body>
1679     </section>
1680     </chapter>
1681     </guide>

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