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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/uml.xml,v 1.14 2004/04/25 18:09:45 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/uml.xml,v 1.26 2006/06/26 16:16:58 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3 3
4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 5
6<guide link="/doc/en/uml.xml"> 6<guide link="/doc/en/uml.xml">
7<title>Gentoo Linux Developer's guide to system testing with User-Mode Linux</title> 7<title>Gentoo Linux Developer's guide to system testing with User-Mode Linux</title>
8
9<author title="Editor">
8<author title="Editor"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail></author> 10 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
11</author>
9<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org --> 12<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
10 John Davis 13 John Davis
11</author> 14</author>
12
13<author title="Editor"> 15<author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 16 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
15</author> 17</author>
16<author title="Editor"> 18<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 19 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
18</author> 20</author>
19 21
20<abstract> 22<abstract>
21 This guide shows Gentoo Linux developers how to set up and use 23This guide shows Gentoo Linux developers how to set up and use
22 user-mode linux for testing potentially system-breaking changes. 24user-mode linux for testing potentially system-breaking changes.
23</abstract> 25</abstract>
24 26
27<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
25<license/> 29<license/>
26 30
27<version>0.3</version> 31<version>0.14</version>
28<date>January 16, 2004</date> 32<date>2006-06-26</date>
29 33
30<chapter> 34<chapter>
31<title>Obtaining User-Mode Linux</title> 35<title>Obtaining User-Mode Linux</title>
32<section> 36<section>
33<body> 37<body>
34 38
39<impo>
40Before you can use user-mode Linux, you <e>must</e> be using a non-NPTL
41profile, and you must be using &lt;<c>glibc</c>-2.4. Follow the instructions
42for <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml#instructions">changing
43profiles</uri>. You will need to run <c>emerge -e world</c> after switching to
44a non-NPTL profile.
45</impo>
46
35<p> 47<p>
36As the user-mode linux website 48As the user-mode Linux website
37(<uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>) states, user-mode linux 49(<uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>) states, user-modeL linux
38allows a user to "run Linux inside itself". Specifically, 50allows a user to "run Linux inside itself". Specifically,
39user-mode linux provides a virtual machine on which a user can "[r]un buggy 51user-mode linux provides a virtual machine on which a user can "[r]un buggy
40software, experiment with new Linux kernels or distributions, and poke around 52software, experiment with new Linux kernels or distributions, and poke around
41in the internals of Linux, all without risking your main Linux setup." Changes 53in the internals of Linux, all without risking your main Linux setup."
42to Gentoo core packages such as <e>sys-apps/baselayout</e> or 54Experimental changes to Gentoo core packages such as <e>sys-apps/baselayout</e>
43<e>sys-libs/glibc</e> have the potential to break the system and render it 55or <e>sys-libs/glibc</e> have the potential to break the system and render it
44unbootable; with user-mode linux we can test these changes without having to 56unbootable; with user-mode Linux we can test these changes without having to
45worry about breaking the live system. 57worry about breaking the live system.
46</p> 58</p>
47 59
48<p> 60<p>
49Installing user-mode linux is essentially identical to a normal kernel 61Most 2.6 kernels have UML support. Although you can use your current kernel
50install. First install the kernel sources (appropriately patched for 62sources, it might be wiser to keep the UML kernel tree(s) separate. After all,
51user-mode linux), and then configure the user-mode linux kernel in the 63you'll be building a new kernel with a different configuration and you might
52usual fashion: 64want to have heterogenous systems on your main Linux system (several different
65UML kernels).
66</p>
67
53</p> 68<p>
69So download a nice kernel tree (like the vanilla one from <uri
70link="http://www.kernel.org">kernel.org</uri>) and extract it to some local
71development location.
72</p>
54 73
55<pre caption="Installing UML kernel sources"> 74<p>
56# <i>emerge sys-kernel/usermode-sources</i> 75Next, configure this UML kernel as you would do for any other system, but append
76<e>ARCH=um</e> so that the kernel build software knows that the kernel
77is meant to run as a guest process on the main system.
78</p>
79
80<pre caption="Building the UML kernel">
57# <i>cd /usr/src/uml/linux</i> 81# <i>cd /srv/aegis/src/uml-linux</i>
58# <i>make menuconfig <comment>ARCH=um</comment></i> 82# <i>make menuconfig <comment>ARCH=um</comment></i>
59# <i>make linux <comment>ARCH=um</comment></i> 83# <i>make linux <comment>ARCH=um</comment></i>
60# <i>cp linux /usr/local/bin/linux</i> 84# <i>cp linux /usr/local/bin/linux</i>
61</pre> 85</pre>
62 86
63<warn> 87<warn>
64The <e>ARCH=um</e> fragment is <e>extremely</e> important! 88The <e>ARCH=um</e> fragment is <e>extremely</e> important!
65</warn> 89</warn>
66 90
67<impo> 91<p>
92Make sure that <path>/usr/local/bin</path> is in your path. Edit
93<path>/etc/env.d/00basic</path> to that the PATH variable contains
94<path>/usr/local/bin</path> and rerun <c>env-update</c>:
95</p>
96
97<pre caption="Editing 00basic">
98# <i>nano -w /etc/env.d/00basic</i>
99# <i>env-update</i>
100# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
101</pre>
102
103<p>
68For the user-mode linux kernel to properly boot a Gentoo system the 104For the user-mode Linux kernel to properly boot a Gentoo system the
69kernel needs to be configured to <e>not</e> automatically mount 105kernel needs to be configured to <e>not</e> automatically mount
70<path>/dev</path> (devfs) by default. Also, you will almost certainly 106<path>/dev</path> (devfs) by default. Also, you will almost certainly
71want to make sure that you have <e>tmpfs</e> (the "Virtual Memory 107want to make sure that you have <e>tmpfs</e> (the "Virtual Memory
72Filesystem") compiled in, since by default the Gentoo linux bootscripts 108Filesystem") compiled in, since by default the Gentoo Linux bootscripts
73store their information in a small tmpfs partition. 109store their information in a small tmpfs partition.
74(The binary kernels available from the user-mode website do automatically 110(The binary kernels available from the user-mode website do automatically
75mount <path>/dev</path>, and they don't have tmpfs compiled in; don't bother 111mount <path>/dev</path>, and they don't have tmpfs compiled in; don't bother
76with them). 112with them).
77</impo> 113</p>
78 114
79<p> 115<p>
80I highly recommend reading the user-mode linux documentation, but the 116I highly recommend reading the user-mode linux documentation, but the
81basic idea is that running the <path>/usr/local/bin/linux</path> program 117basic idea is that running the <path>/usr/local/bin/linux</path> program
82boots the user-mode kernel and tries to bring up the system stored in 118boots the user-mode kernel and tries to bring up the system stored in
83the file <path>root_fs</path> that should be located in the current working 119the file <path>root_fs</path> that should be located in the current working
84directory. 120directory.
85</p> 121</p>
86 122
87<p> 123<p>
88It won't hurt to also install the user-mode linux tools. 124It won't hurt to also install the user-mode Linux tools.
89</p> 125</p>
90 126
91<pre caption="Installing UML tools"> 127<pre caption="Installing UML tools">
92# <i>emerge sys-apps/usermode-utilities</i> 128# <i>emerge sys-apps/usermode-utilities</i>
93</pre> 129</pre>
94 130
95<p> 131<p>
96These tools facilitate networking (among other things) between the user-mode 132These tools facilitate networking (among other things) between the user-mode
97linux virtual system and the host Linux system. 133Linux virtual system and the host Linux system.
98</p> 134</p>
99 135
100</body> 136</body>
101</section> 137</section>
102</chapter> 138</chapter>
116 152
117<p> 153<p>
118Generating the <path>root_fs</path> file itself will be 154Generating the <path>root_fs</path> file itself will be
119our last step. First we will generate a Gentoo filesystem in 155our last step. First we will generate a Gentoo filesystem in
120an ordinary chroot. We need the stage tarball available, which 156an ordinary chroot. We need the stage tarball available, which
121could be downloaded separately, extracted from a liveCD, or 157could be downloaded separately, extracted from an Installation CD, or
122extracted from a liveCD .iso. 158extracted from an Installation CD .iso.
123</p> 159</p>
124 160
125<pre caption="Mounting a liveCD .iso"> 161<pre caption="Mounting an Installation CD .iso">
126# <i>mkdir /mnt/loop</i> 162# <i>mkdir /mnt/loop</i>
127# <i>mount -o loop /path/to/build-&lt;TAB&gt;.iso /mnt/loop</i> 163# <i>mount -o loop /path/to/install-&lt;TAB&gt;.iso /mnt/loop</i>
128</pre> 164</pre>
129 165
130<p> 166<p>
131Setting up the chroot is essentially identical to an ordinary Gentoo 167Setting up the chroot is essentially identical to an ordinary Gentoo
132Linux build. 168Linux build.
133</p> 169</p>
134 170
135<pre caption="Creating the Gentoo chroot mount"> 171<pre caption="Creating the Gentoo chroot mount">
136# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i> 172# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
137# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i> 173# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
138# <i>tar xvjpf /path/to/build-&lt;TAB&gt;.tar.bz2</i> 174# <i>tar xvjpf /path/to/stage&lt;TAB&gt;.tar.bz2</i>
139</pre> 175</pre>
140 176
141<p> 177<p>
142Go ahead and unmount the .iso. You don't need it anymore. 178Go ahead and unmount the .iso. You don't need it anymore.
143</p> 179</p>
144 180
145<pre caption="Prepare to install Gentoo">
146# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
147# <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
148# <i>mkdir -p /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
149# <i>mkdir -p /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
150# <i>mount -o bind /usr/portage/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
151# <i>mount -o bind /usr/portage/packages /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
152# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
153<!--per bug 16134, added emerge sync to supress warning, etc-->
154# <i>emerge sync</i>
155# <i>env-update</i>
156# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
157</pre>
158
159<p>
160By bind-mounting <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and
161<path>/usr/portage/packages</path> we avoid having to download
162or build packages that are already present on the Gentoo host.
163</p> 181<p>
164 182Build the system in the usual fashion: chroot into <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> and
183follow the Gentoo installation instructions.
165<p> 184</p>
166Bootstrap and build the system in the usual fashion:
167</p>
168
169<pre caption="Start the Gentoo installation">
170<!--removed the emerge sync below because it is done above-->
171# <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
172# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
173# <i>nano -w /etc/make.profile/packages</i>
174# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</i>
175# <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh &amp;&amp; emerge --usepkg system</i>
176</pre>
177
178<warn>
179<!--Changed grub to virtual/bootloader-->
180The <path>/etc/make.profile/packages</path> file needs to be
181edited to remove the virtual/bootloader ebuild from the default system if it
182is listed (just remove the "*" from the beginning of the "*virtual/bootloader"
183line). The virtual/bootloader ebuild tries to mount the /boot partition, which
184will fail in our chroot.
185</warn>
186
187<note>
188Make sure you examine <path>/etc/make.profile/packages</path>
189and <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> to be sure that
190any to-be-tested packages that you want to install aren't masked out.
191As currently written, <path>scripts/bootstrap.sh</path> will compile
192the bootstrap packages from source. To use already-existing packages,
193add <c>alias emerge="emerge --usepkg"</c> somewhere near the top of
194the bootstrap script.
195</note>
196 185
197<p> 186<p>
198Add any additional packages you desire. Feel free to give your virtual 187Add any additional packages you desire. Feel free to give your virtual
199Gentoo system a hostname, if you so desire. In <path>/etc/fstab</path> 188Gentoo system a hostname, if you so desire. In <path>/etc/fstab</path>
200you will want <path>/dev/ROOT</path> to be <path>/dev/ubd/0</path>, with 189you will want <path>/dev/ROOT</path> to be <path>/dev/ubda</path>, with
201a fs type of either ext2, ext3, or reiserfs. Set <path>/dev/SWAP</path> 190a fs type of either ext2, ext3, or reiserfs. Set <path>/dev/SWAP</path>
202to be <path>/dev/ubd/1</path>, and comment out <path>/dev/BOOT</path>. 191to be <path>/dev/ubdb</path>, and comment out <path>/dev/BOOT</path>.
203</p> 192</p>
204 193
205<p> 194<p>
206At this point, remember to set your root password. 195At this point, remember to set your root password.
207</p> 196</p>
209<pre caption="Setting root password"> 198<pre caption="Setting root password">
210# <i>passwd</i> 199# <i>passwd</i>
211</pre> 200</pre>
212 201
213<p> 202<p>
203Now we need to make some changes to the boot scripts. Remove consolefont and
204keymaps from the boot runlevel:
205</p>
206
207<pre caption="Removing unneeded initscripts">
208# <i>rc-update del consolefont boot</i>
209# <i>rc-update del keymaps boot</i>
210</pre>
211
212<p>
214Exit the chroot, unmount all of the bind mounts, 213Exit the chroot, unmount all of the bind mounts,
215tar up the new Gentoo distro, and clean up: 214tar up the new Gentoo distro, and clean up.
216</p> 215</p>
217 216
218<pre caption="Finalising the installation"> 217<pre caption="Finalising the installation">
219# <i>exit</i>
220# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
221# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages</i>
222# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
223# <i>du -ks /mnt/gentoo</i>
224<!-- wtf is this? 261744 /mnt/gentoo-->
225<!-- added dir change to be more explicit-->
226# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i> 218# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
227# <i>tar cvjpf ~/gentoo.tbz2 *</i> 219# <i>tar cvjpf ~/gentoo.tbz2 *</i>
228# <i>cd</i> 220# <i>cd</i>
229# <i>rm -rf /mnt/gentoo</i> 221# <i>rm -rf /mnt/gentoo</i>
230</pre> 222</pre>
231
232<p>
233You might also want to consider reviewing the final steps of the
234<uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">Gentoo Linux x86 Installation Guide</uri>.
235</p>
236 223
237</body> 224</body>
238</section> 225</section>
239<section> 226<section>
240<title>Making root_fs</title> 227<title>Making root_fs</title>
269 256
270<pre caption="Start UML kernel thread"> 257<pre caption="Start UML kernel thread">
271# <i>linux ubd0=root_fs ubd1=swap_fs</i> 258# <i>linux ubd0=root_fs ubd1=swap_fs</i>
272</pre> 259</pre>
273 260
274<note> 261<p>
275User-mode linux uses xterms for the virtual consoles that 262User-mode Linux uses xterms for the virtual consoles that
276are run at boot time, so you need to make sure that the 263are run at boot time, so you need to make sure that the
277terminal from which you run user-mode linux has $DISPLAY 264terminal from which you run user-mode Linux has $DISPLAY
278properly set (along with proper xhost/xauth permissions). 265properly set (along with proper xhost/xauth permissions).
279</note>
280
281<p> 266</p>
267
268<p>
282With any luck you should be able to log into your user-mode linux 269With any luck you should be able to log into your user-mode Linux
283Gentoo system. The only thing keeping this user-mode linux version 270Gentoo system. The only thing keeping this user-mode Linux version
284of Gentoo from being fully functional is networking from the virtual 271of Gentoo from being fully functional is networking from the virtual
285machine to the host. 272machine to the host.
286</p> 273</p>
287 274
288</body> 275</body>
290</chapter> 277</chapter>
291 278
292<chapter> 279<chapter>
293<title>Networking</title> 280<title>Networking</title>
294<section> 281<section>
282<title>Using an Existing Network</title>
295<body> 283<body>
296 284
285<p>
286Make sure that the host kernel has the following settings compiled as modules:
297<p> 287</p>
298Thanks to Martin Schlemmer (Azarah), I now know how 288
299to get networking to function from within a user-mode 289<pre caption="Host kernel configuration">
300system. The idea is that we set up a private network 290Networking --&gt;
301consisting of the user-mode system and the host system, 291 IP: Netfilter Configuration --&gt;
302and then the user-mode system routes all of its packets 292 IP tables support --&gt;
303to the host, which then forwards packets to the net. 293 Full NAT --&gt;
304Make sure that the host kernel has 294 &lt;M&gt; MASQUERADE target support
305Networking --> IP: Netfilter Configuration --> IP tables support 295
306--> Full NAT --> MASQUERADE target support and 296 Network Device Support --&gt;
307Network Device Support --> Ethertap network tap 297 &lt;M&gt; TUN/TAP Support
308compiled as modules; then do the following on the 298</pre>
309<e>host</e> machine: 299
300<p>
301Run the following commands on the <e>host</e> machine:
310</p> 302</p>
311 303
312<pre caption="Setup networking"> 304<pre caption="Setup networking">
313# <i>modprobe ethertap</i> 305# <i>modprobe tun</i>
306<comment>(If you receive a FATAL error here, try deleting /dev/net/tun and retry)</comment>
314# <i>modprobe iptable_nat</i> 307# <i>modprobe iptable_nat</i>
315# <i>iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE</i> 308# <i>iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE</i>
316# <i>echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward</i> 309# <i>echo 1 &gt; /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward</i>
317</pre> 310</pre>
318 311
319<p> 312<p>
320The iptables line sets up IP Masquerading between the private 313The iptables line sets up IP Masquerading between the private
321network that our user-mode system will be on and the internet 314network that our user-mode system will be on and the internet
328Now we bring up the user-mode system and see if networking 321Now we bring up the user-mode system and see if networking
329is functional. 322is functional.
330</p> 323</p>
331 324
332<pre caption="Get UML up and running"> 325<pre caption="Get UML up and running">
333# <i>linux ubd0=root_fs ubd1=swap_fs eth0=ethertap,tap0,,192.168.0.254</i> 326# <i>linux ubd0=root_fs ubd1=swap_fs eth0=tuntap,,,192.168.0.254</i>
334<comment>(login to user-mode system)</comment> 327<comment>(login to user-mode system)</comment>
335# <i>ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.1 up</i> 328# <i>ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.1 up</i>
336# <i>ping -c 2 192.168.0.254</i> 329# <i>ping -c 2 192.168.0.254</i>
337PING 192.168.0.254 (192.168.0.254): 56 octets data 330PING 192.168.0.254 (192.168.0.254): 56 octets data
33864 octets from 192.168.0.254: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0.8 ms 33164 octets from 192.168.0.254: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0.8 ms
370<c>emerge</c> at will! 363<c>emerge</c> at will!
371</p> 364</p>
372 365
373</body> 366</body>
374</section> 367</section>
368<section>
369<title>Using a Virtual Network</title>
370<body>
371
372<p>
373Before you get all too excited, this is not a virtual private network. It is a
374network that is only accessible by the UML instances. The
375<c>usermode-utilities</c> package provides a tool called <c>uml_switch</c> which
376defines the end points of the switch.
377</p>
378
379<pre caption="Activating end points of a UML switch">
380<comment>(If the switch information should stay in the foreground:)</comment>
381$ <i>uml_switch -unix ~/tmp/switch.sock</i>
382
383<comment>(If it should be backgrounded:)</comment>
384$ <i>uml_switch -unix ~/tmp/switch.sock &amp;&gt; ~/tmp/switch.log &amp;</i>
385</pre>
386
387<p>
388To start the UML instances on the switch, run the next command. Your
389(virtual) network interface will be connected to the <c>uml_switch</c> process
390and will be using the given MAC address.
391</p>
392
393<pre caption="Running first UML instance">
394$ <i>linux ubd0=first_rootfs ubd1=first_swapfs eth0=daemon,10:00:01:02:00:00,,~/tmp/switch.sock</i>
395</pre>
396
397<p>
398You can still connect the system to the existing network, or have a second
399process attached to both the virtual one and the existing one:
400</p>
401
402<pre caption="Running second UML instance">
403$ <i>linux ubd0=second_rootfs ubd1=second_swapfs eth0=daemon,10:00:01:02:00:01,,~/tmp/switch.sock \
404 eth1=tuntap,,,192.168.1.43</i>
405</pre>
406
407<p>
408More information about the tuntap setting can be found in the previous section.
409</p>
410
411</body>
412</section>
375</chapter> 413</chapter>
376<chapter> 414<chapter>
377<title>Testing the .iso</title> 415<title>Testing the .iso</title>
378<section> 416<section>
379<body> 417<body>
380 418
381<p> 419<p>
382Perhaps the true ideal of Gentoo Linux testing would be 420Perhaps the true ideal of Gentoo Linux testing would be
383to boot the .iso with user-mode linux and do the complete 421to boot the .iso with user-mode Linux and do the complete
384Gentoo install from within the user-mode linux virtual system. 422Gentoo install from within the user-mode Linux virtual system.
385</p> 423</p>
386 424
387<p> 425<p>
388Booting the .iso, or actually the initrd from the .iso, is pretty 426Booting the .iso, or actually the initrd from the .iso, is pretty
389straightforward. 427straightforward.
390</p> 428</p>
391 429
392<pre caption="Booting the ISO"> 430<pre caption="Booting the ISO">
393# <i>mount -o loop /path/to/build-&lt;TAB&gt;.iso /mnt/loop</i> 431# <i>mount -o loop /path/to/install-&lt;TAB&gt;.iso /mnt/loop</i>
394# <i>cp /mnt/loop/isolinux/rescue.gz .</i> 432# <i>cp /mnt/loop/isolinux/gentoo.igz .</i>
395# <i>linux load_ramdisk=1 prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=22000 \</i> 433# <i>linux load_ramdisk=1 prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=22000 \</i>
396&gt; <i>initrd=rescue.gz root=/dev/ram0 ubd0=root_fs ubd1=swap_fs \</i> 434&gt; <i>initrd=rescue.gz root=/dev/ram0 ubd0=root_fs ubd1=swap_fs \</i>
397&gt; <i>ubd2=/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 eth0=ethertap,tap0,,192.168.0.254</i> 435&gt; <i>ubd2=/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 eth0=tuntap,,,192.168.0.254</i>
398</pre> 436</pre>
399 437
400<p> 438<p>
401Now you can follow the Gentoo install doc essentially verbatim, 439Now you can follow the Gentoo install doc essentially verbatim,
402although you'll need to know that the root filesystem will be 440although you'll need to know that the root filesystem will be
406</p> 444</p>
407 445
408</body> 446</body>
409</section> 447</section>
410</chapter> 448</chapter>
449
450<chapter>
451<title>Resources</title>
452<section>
453<body>
454
455<ul>
456 <li>
457 <uri link="http://edeca.net/articles/bridging/index.html">Bridging with
458 UML</uri>
459 </li>
460 <li>
461 <uri link="http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/">UML Homepage</uri>
462 </li>
463 <li>
464 <uri link="http://www.theshore.net/~caker/uml/">Caker's UML Notes</uri>
465 </li>
466 <li>
467 <uri link="http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=3647">UML
468 Mailinglist archives</uri>
469 </li>
470</ul>
471
472</body>
473</section>
474</chapter>
475
411</guide> 476</guide>

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