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1 neysx 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.6 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/utf-8.xml,v 1.5 2005/02/24 14:57:18 cam Exp $ -->
3 neysx 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/utf-8.xml">
6     <title>Using UTF-8 with Gentoo</title>
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="slarti@gentoo.org">Thomas Martin</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Contributor">
12     <mail link="devil@gentoo.org.ua">Alexander Simonov</mail>
13     </author>
15     <abstract>
16     This guide shows you how to set up and use the UTF-8 Unicode character set with
17     your Gentoo Linux system, after explaining the benefits of Unicode and more
18     specifically UTF-8.
19     </abstract>
21     <license />
23 swift 1.6 <version>1.5</version>
24     <date>2005-03-17</date>
25 neysx 1.1
26     <chapter>
27     <title>Character Encodings</title>
28     <section>
29     <title>What is a Character Encoding?</title>
30     <body>
32     <p>
33     Computers do not understand text themselves. Instead, every character is
34     represented by a number. Traditionally, each set of numbers used to represent
35     alphabets and characters (known as a coding system, encoding or character set)
36     was limited in size due to limitations in computer hardware.
37     </p>
39     </body>
40     </section>
41     <section>
42     <title>The History of Character Encodings</title>
43     <body>
45     <p>
46     The most common (or at least the most widely accepted) character set is
47     <b>ASCII</b> (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). It is widely
48     held that ASCII is the most successful software standard ever. Modern ASCII
49     was standardised in 1986 (ANSI X3.4, RFC 20, ISO/IEC 646:1991, ECMA-6) by the
50     American National Standards Institute.
51     </p>
53     <p>
54     ASCII is strictly seven-bit, meaning that it uses bit patterns representable
55     with seven binary digits, which provides a range of 0 to 127 in decimal. These
56     include 32 non-visible control characters, most between 0 and 31, with the
57     final control character, DEL or delete at 127. Characters 32 to 126 are
58     visible characters: a space, punctuation marks, Latin letters and numbers.
59     </p>
61     <p>
62     The eighth bit in ASCII was originally used as a parity bit for error checking.
63     If this is not desired, it is left as 0. This means that, with ASCII, each
64     character is represented by a single byte.
65     </p>
67     <p>
68     Although ASCII was enough for communication in modern English, in other
69     European languages that include accented characters, things were not so easy.
70     The ISO 8859 standards were developed to meet these needs. They were backwards
71     compatible with ASCII, but instead of leaving the eighth bit blank, they used
72     it to allow another 127 characters in each encoding. ISO 8859's limitations
73     soon came to light, and there are currently 15 variants of the ISO 8859
74     standard (8859-1 through to 8859-15). Outside of the ASCII-compatible byte
75     range of these character sets, there is often conflict between the letters
76     represented by each byte. To complicate interoperability between character
77     encodings further, Windows-1252 is used in some versions of Microsoft Windows
78     instead for Western European languages. This is a superset of ISO 8859-1,
79     however it is different in several ways. These sets do all retain ASCII
80     compatibility, however.
81     </p>
83     <p>
84     The necessary development of completely different single-byte encodings for
85     non-Latin alphabets, such as EUC (Extended Unix Coding) which is used for
86     Japanese and Korean (and to a lesser extent Chinese) created more confusion,
87     while other operating systems still used different character sets for the same
88     languages, for example, Shift-JIS and ISO-2022-JP. Users wishing to view
89     cyrillic glyphs had to choose between KOI8-R for Russian and Bulgarian or
90     KOI8-U for Ukrainian, as well as all the other cyrillic encodings such as the
91     unsuccessful ISO 8859-5, and the common Windows-1251 set. All of these
92     character sets broke most compatibility with ASCII (although KOI8 encodings
93     place cyrillic characters in Latin order, so in case the eighth bit is
94     stripped, text is still decipherable on an ASCII terminal through case-reversed
95     transliteration.)
96     </p>
98     <p>
99     This has led to confusion, and also to an almost total inability for
100     multilingual communication, especially across different alphabets. Enter
101     Unicode.
102     </p>
104     </body>
105     </section>
106     <section>
107     <title>What is Unicode?</title>
108     <body>
110     <p>
111     Unicode throws away the traditional single-byte limit of character sets, and
112     even with two bytes per-character this allows a maximum 65,536 characters.
113     Although this number is extremely high when compared to seven-bit and eight-bit
114     encodings, it is still not enough for a character set designed to be used for
115     symbols and scripts used only by scholars, and symbols that are only used in
116     mathematics and other specialised fields.
117     </p>
119     <p>
120     Unicode has been mapped in many different ways, but the two most common are
121     <b>UTF</b> (Unicode Transformation Format) and <b>UCS</b> (Universal Character
122     Set). A number after UTF indicates the number of bits in one unit, while the
123     number after UCS indicates the number of bytes. UTF-8 has become the most
124     widespread means for the interchange of Unicode text as a result of its
125     eight-bit clean nature, and it is the subject of this document.
126     </p>
128     </body>
129     </section>
130     <section>
131     <title>UTF-8</title>
132     <body>
134     <p>
135     UTF-8 is a variable-length character encoding, which in this instance means
136     that it uses 1 to 4 bytes per symbol. So, the first UTF-8 byte is used for
137     encoding ASCII, giving the character set full backwards compatibility with
138     ASCII. UTF-8 means that ASCII and Latin characters are interchangeable with
139     little increase in the size of the data, because only the first bit is used.
140     Users of Eastern alphabets such as Japanese, who have been assigned a higher
141     byte range are unhappy, as this results in as much as a 50% redundancy in their
142     data.
143     </p>
145     </body>
146     </section>
147     <section>
148     <title>What UTF-8 Can Do for You</title>
149     <body>
151     <p>
152     UTF-8 allows you to work in a standards-compliant and internationally accepted
153     multilingual environment, with a comparitively low data redundancy. UTF-8 is
154     the preferred way for transmitting non-ASCII characters over the Internet,
155     through Email, IRC or almost any other medium. Despite this, many people regard
156     UTF-8 in online communication as abusive. It is always best to be aware of the
157     attitude towards UTF-8 in a specific channel, mailing list or Usenet group
158     before using <e>non-ASCII</e> UTF-8.
159     </p>
161     </body>
162     </section>
163     </chapter>
165     <chapter>
166     <title>Setting up UTF-8 with Gentoo Linux</title>
167     <section>
168     <title>Finding or Creating UTF-8 Locales</title>
169     <body>
171     <p>
172     Now that you understand the principles behind Unicode, you're ready to start
173     using UTF-8 with your system.
174     </p>
176     <p>
177     The preliminary requirement for UTF-8 is to have a version of glibc installed
178     that has national language support. The recommend means to do this is the
179     <path>/etc/locales.build</path> file in combination with the <c>userlocales</c>
180     USE flag. It is beyond the scope of this document to explain the usage of this
181     file though, luckily, the usage of this file is well documented in the comments
182     within it. It is also explained in the <uri
183     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3_sect3"> Gentoo Localisation
184     Guide</uri>.
185     </p>
187     <p>
188     Next, we'll need to decide whether a UTF-8 locale is already available for our
189     language, or whether we need to create one.
190     </p>
192     <pre caption="Checking for an existing UTF-8 locale">
193     <comment>(Replace "en_GB" with your desired locale setting)</comment>
194     # <i>locale -a | grep 'en_GB'</i>
195     en_GB
196     en_GB.utf8
197     </pre>
199     <p>
200     From the output of this command line, we need to take the result with a suffix
201     similar to <c>.utf8</c>. If there is no result with a suffix similar to
202     <c>.utf8</c>, we need to create a UTF-8 compatible locale.
203     </p>
205     <note>
206     Only execute the following code listing if you do not have a UTF-8 locale
207     available for your language.
208     </note>
210     <pre caption="Creating a UTF-8 locale">
211     <comment>(Replace "en_GB" with your desired locale setting)</comment>
212     # <i>localedef -i en_GB -f UTF-8 en_GB.utf8</i>
213     </pre>
215     </body>
216     </section>
217     <section>
218     <title>Setting the Locale</title>
219     <body>
221     <p>
222     Although by now you might be determined to use UTF-8 system wide, the author
223     does not recommend setting UTF-8 for the root user. Instead, it is best to set
224     the locale in your user's <path>~/.profile</path> (or, if you are using a C
225     shell, <path>~/.login</path>).
226     </p>
228     <note>
229     If you are not sure which file to use, use <path>~/.profile</path>. Also, if
230     you are unsure which code listing to use, use the Bourne version.
231     </note>
233     <pre caption="Setting the locale with environment variables (Bourne version)">
234     export LANG="en_GB.utf8"
235     export LC_ALL="en_GB.utf8"
236     </pre>
238     <pre caption="Setting the locale with environment variables (C shell version)">
239     setenv LANG "en_GB.utf8"
240     setenv LC_ALL "en_GB.utf8"
241     </pre>
243     <p>
244     Now, logout and back in to apply the change. We want these environment
245     variables in our entire environment, so it is best to logout and back in, or at
246     the very least to source <path>~/.profile</path> or <path>~/.login</path> in
247     the console from which you have started other processes.
248     </p>
250     </body>
251     </section>
252     </chapter>
254     <chapter>
255     <title>Application Support</title>
256     <section>
257     <body>
259     <p>
260     When Unicode first started gaining momentum in the software world, multibyte
261     character sets were not well suited to languages like C, in which many of the
262     day-to-day programs people use are written. Even today, some programs are not
263     able to handle UTF-8 properly. Fortunately, most are!
264     </p>
266     </body>
267     </section>
268     <section>
269     <title>Filenames, NTFS, and FAT</title>
270     <body>
272     <p>
273     There are several NLS options in the Linux kernel configuration menu, but it is
274     important to not become confused! For the most part, the only thing you need to
275     do is to build UTF-8 NLS support into your kernel, and change the default NLS
276     option to utf8.
277     </p>
279     <pre caption="Kernel configuration steps for UTF-8 NLS">
280     File Systems --&gt;
281     Native Language Support --&gt;
282     (utf8) Default NLS Option
283     &lt;*&gt; NLS UTF8
284     <comment>(Also &lt;*&gt; other character sets that are in use in
285     your FAT filesystems or Joilet CD-ROMs.)</comment>
286     </pre>
288     <p>
289     If you plan on mounting NTFS partitions, you may need to specify an <c>nls=</c>
290     option with mount. For more information, see <c>man mount</c>.
291     </p>
293     <p>
294     For changing the encoding of filenames, <c>app-text/convmv</c> can be used.
295     </p>
297     <pre caption="Example usage of convmv">
298     # <i>emerge --ask app-text/convmv</i>
299     # <i>convmv -f current-encoding -t utf-8 filename</i>
300     </pre>
302     <p>
303     For changing the <e>contents</e> of files, use the <c>iconv</c> utility,
304     bundled with <c>glibc</c>:
305     </p>
307     <pre caption="Example usage of iconv">
308     <comment>(substitute iso-8859-1 with the charset you are converting from)</comment>
309     <comment>(Check the output is sane)</comment>
310     # <i>iconv -f iso-8859-1 -t utf-8 filename</i>
311     <comment>(Convert a file, you must create another file)</comment>
312     # <i>iconv -f iso-8859-1 -t utf-8 filename > newfile</i>
313     </pre>
315     <p>
316     <c>app-text/recode</c> can also be used for this purpose.
317     </p>
319     </body>
320     </section>
321     <section>
322     <title>The System Console</title>
323     <body>
325     <impo>
326     You need >=sys-apps/baselayout-1.11.9 for Unicode on the console.
327     </impo>
329     <p>
330     To enable UTF-8 on the console, you should edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and
331     set <c>UNICODE="yes"</c>, and also read the comments in that file -- it is
332     important to have a font that has a good range of characters if you plan on
333     making the most of Unicode.
334     </p>
336     <p>
337     The <c>KEYMAP</c> variable, set in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, should
338     have a Unicode keymap specified. To do this, simply prepend the keymap already
339     specified there with -u.
340     </p>
342     <pre caption="Example /etc/conf.d/keymaps snippet">
343     <comment>(Change "uk" to your local layout)</comment>
344     KEYMAP="-u uk"
345     </pre>
347     </body>
348     </section>
349     <section>
350     <title>Ncurses and Slang</title>
351     <body>
353     <note>
354     Ignore any mention of Slang in this section if you do not have it installed or
355     do not use it.
356     </note>
358     <p>
359     It is wise to add <c>unicode</c> to your global USE flags in
360     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, and then to remerge <c>sys-libs/ncurses</c> and
361     also <c>sys-libs/slang</c> if appropriate:
362     </p>
364     <pre caption="Emerging ncurses and slang">
365     <comment>(We avoid putting these libraries in our world file with --oneshot)</comment>
366     # <i>emerge --oneshot --verbose --ask sys-libs/ncurses sys-libs/slang</i>
367     </pre>
369     <p>
370     We also need to rebuild packages that link to these, now the USE changes have
371 swift 1.6 been applied. The tool we use (<c>revdep-rebuild</c>) is part of the
372     <c>gentoolkit</c> package.
373 neysx 1.1 </p>
375     <pre caption="Rebuilding of programs that link to ncurses or slang">
376     # <i>revdep-rebuild --soname libncurses.so.5</i>
377     # <i>revdep-rebuild --soname libslang.so.1</i>
378     </pre>
380     </body>
381     </section>
382     <section>
383     <title>KDE, GNOME and Xfce</title>
384     <body>
386     <p>
387     All of the major desktop environments have full Unicode support, and will
388     require no further setup than what has already been covered in this guide. This
389     is because the underlying graphical toolkits (Qt or GTK+2) are UTF-8 aware.
390     Subsequently, all applications running on top of these toolkits should be
391     UTF-8-aware out of the box.
392     </p>
394     <p>
395     The exceptions to this rule come in Xlib and GTK+1. GTK+1 requires a
396     iso-10646-1 FontSpec in the ~/.gtkrc, for example
397     <c>-misc-fixed-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso10646-1</c>. Also, applications using
398     Xlib or Xaw will need to be given a similar FontSpec, otherwise they will not
399     work.
400     </p>
402     <note>
403     If you have a version of the gnome1 control center around, use that instead.
404     Pick any iso10646-1 font from there.
405     </note>
407     <pre caption="Example ~/.gtkrc (for GTK+1) that defines a Unicode compatible font">
408     style "user-font"
409     {
410     fontset="-misc-fixed-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-iso10646-1"
411     }
412     widget_class "*" style "user-font"
413     </pre>
415     <p>
416     If an application has support for both a Qt and GTK+2 GUI, the GTK+2 GUI will
417     generally give better results with Unicode.
418     </p>
420     </body>
421     </section>
422     <section>
423     <title>X11 and Fonts</title>
424     <body>
426     <impo>
427 swift 1.2 <c>x11-base/xorg-x11</c> has far better support for Unicode than XFree86
428     and is <e>highly</e> recommended.
429 neysx 1.1 </impo>
431     <p>
432     TrueType fonts have support for Unicode, and most of the fonts that ship with
433     Xorg have impressive character support, although, obviously, not every single
434     glyph available in Unicode has been created for that font. To build fonts
435     (including the Bitstream Vera set) with support for East Asian letters with X,
436     make sure you have the <c>cjk</c> USE flag set. Many other applications utilise
437     this flag, so it may be worthwhile to add it as a permanent USE flag.
438     </p>
440     <p>
441     Also, several font packages in Portage are Unicode aware.
442     </p>
444     <pre caption="Optional: Install some more Unicode-aware fonts">
445     # <i>emerge terminus-font intlfonts freefonts cronyx-fonts corefonts</i>
446     </pre>
448     </body>
449     </section>
450     <section>
451     <title>Window Managers and Terminal Emulators</title>
452     <body>
454     <p>
455     Window managers not built on GTK or Qt generally have very good Unicode
456     support, as they often use the Xft library for handling fonts. If your window
457     manager does not use Xft for fonts, you can still use the FontSpec mentioned in
458     the previous section as a Unicode font.
459     </p>
461     <p>
462     Terminal emulators that use Xft and support Unicode are harder to come by.
463     Aside from Konsole and gnome-terminal, the best options in Portage are
464     <c>x11-terms/rxvt-unicode</c>, <c>xfce-extra/terminal</c>,
465 cam 1.5 <c>gnustep-apps/terminal</c>, <c>x11-terms/mlterm</c>, <c>x11-terms/mrxvt</c> or
466 neysx 1.1 plain <c>x11-terms/xterm</c> when built with the <c>unicode</c> USE flag and
467     invoked as <c>uxterm</c>. <c>app-misc/screen</c> supports UTF-8 too, when
468     invoked as <c>screen -u</c> or the following is put into the
469     <path>~/.screenrc</path>:
470     </p>
472     <pre caption="~/.screenrc for UTF-8">
473     defutf8 on
474     </pre>
476     </body>
477     </section>
478     <section>
479     <title>Vim, Emacs, Xemacs and Nano</title>
480     <body>
482     <p>
483     Vim, Emacs and Xemacs provide full UTF-8 support, and also have builtin
484     detection of UTF-8 files. For further information in Vim, use <c>:help
485     mbyte.txt</c>.
486     </p>
488     <p>
489     Nano currently does not provide support for UTF-8, although it has been planned
490     for a long time. With luck, this will change in future. At the time of writing,
491     UTF-8 support is in Nano's CVS, and should be included in the next release.
492     </p>
494     </body>
495     </section>
496     <section>
497     <title>Shells</title>
498     <body>
500     <p>
501     Currently, <c>bash</c> provides full Unicode support through the GNU readline
502     library. Z Shell users are in a somewhat worse position -- no parts of the
503     shell have Unicode support, although there is a concerted effort to add
504     multibyte character set support underway at the moment.
505     </p>
507     <p>
508     The C shell, <c>tcsh</c> and <c>ksh</c> do not provide UTF-8 support at all.
509     </p>
511     </body>
512     </section>
513     <section>
514     <title>Irssi</title>
515     <body>
517     <p>
518 cam 1.5 Since 0.8.10, Irssi has complete UTF-8 support, although it does require a user
519     to set an option.
520 neysx 1.1 </p>
522     <pre caption="Enabling UTF-8 in Irssi">
523     /set term_charset UTF-8
524     </pre>
526     <p>
527     For channels where non-ASCII characters are often exchanged in non-UTF-8
528     charsets, the <c>/recode</c> command may be used to convert the characters.
529     Type <c>/help recode</c> for more information.
530     </p>
532     </body>
533     </section>
534     <section>
535     <title>Mutt</title>
536     <body>
538     <p>
539     The Mutt mail user agent has very good Unicode support. To use UTF-8 with Mutt,
540     put the following in your <path>~/.muttrc</path>:
541     </p>
543     <pre caption="~/.muttrc for UTF-8">
544     set send_charset="utf8" <comment>(outgoing character set)</comment>
545     set charset="utf8" <comment>(display character set)</comment>
546     </pre>
548     <note>
549     You may still see '?' in mail you read with Mutt. This is a result of people
550     using Latin (ISO 8859) or another charset for email transmission. It is best to
551     tell them to use UTF-8 for mail, and point them to the IETF RFC 2277 (see
552     References at the end of this document). Also note that in some lists,
553     subscribers may not like UTF-8. Be sure that the group or person you are
554     communicating with does not mind UTF-8.
555     </note>
557     <p>
558     Further information is available from the <uri
559     link="http://wiki.mutt.org/index.cgi?MuttFaq/Charset"> Mutt WikiWiki</uri>.
560     </p>
562     </body>
563     </section>
564     <section>
565     <title>Testing it all out</title>
566     <body>
568     <p>
569     There are numerous UTF-8 test websites around. <c>net-www/w3m</c>,
570     <c>net-www/links</c>, <c>net-www/elinks</c>, <c>net-www/lynx</c> and all
571 cam 1.3 Mozilla based browsers (including Firefox) support UTF-8. Konqueror and Opera
572     have full UTF-8 support too.
573 neysx 1.1 </p>
575     <p>
576     When using one of the text-only web browsers, make absolutely sure you are
577     using a Unicode-aware terminal.
578     </p>
580     <p>
581     If you see certain characters displayed as boxes with letters or numbers
582     inside, this means that your font does not have a character for the symbol or
583     glyph that the UTF-8 wants. Instead, it displays a box with the hex code of the
584     UTF-8 symbol.
585     </p>
587     <ul>
588     <li>
589     <uri link="http://www.w3.org/2001/06/utf-8-test/UTF-8-demo.html">A W3C
590     UTF-8 Test Page</uri>
591     </li>
592     <li>
593     <uri link="http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/indexe.htm?/unicode/unitest.htm">
594     A UTF-8 test page provided by the University of Frankfurt</uri>
595     </li>
596     </ul>
598     </body>
599     </section>
600     <section>
601     <title>Input Methods</title>
602     <body>
604     <p>
605     <e>Dead keys</e> may be used to input characters in X that are not included on
606     your keyboard. These work by pressing your right Alt key (or in some countries,
607     AltGr) and an optional key from the non-alphabetical section of the keyboard to
608     the left of the return key at once, releasing them, and then pressing a letter.
609     The dead key should modify it. Input can be further modified by using the Shift
610     key at the same time as pressing the AltGr and modifier.
611     </p>
613     <p>
614     To enable dead keys in X, you need a layout that supports it. Most European
615     layouts already have dead keys with the default variant. However, this is not
616     true of North American layouts. Although there is a degree of inconsistency
617     between layouts, the easiest solution seems to be to use a layout in the form
618     "en_US" rather than "us", for example. The layout is set in
619     <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> like so:
620     </p>
622     <pre caption="/etc/X11/xorg.conf snippet">
623     Section "InputDevice"
624     Identifier "Keyboard0"
625     Driver "kbd"
626     Option "XkbLayout" "en_US" <comment># Rather than just "us"</comment>
627     <comment>(Other Xkb options here)</comment>
628     EndSection
629     </pre>
631     <note>
632     The preceding change only needs to be applied if you are using a North American
633     layout, or another layout where dead keys do not seem to be working. European
634     users should have working dead keys as is.
635     </note>
637     <p>
638     This change will come into effect when your X server is restarted. To apply the
639     change now, use the <c>setxkbmap</c> tool, for example, <c>setxkbmap en_US</c>.
640     </p>
642     <p>
643     It is probably easiest to describe dead keys with examples. Although the
644     results are locale dependent, the concepts should remain the same regardless of
645     locale. The examples contain UTF-8, so to view them you need to either tell
646     your browser to view the page as UTF-8, or have a UTF-8 locale already
647     configured.
648     </p>
650     <p>
651     When I press AltGr and [ at once, release them, and then press a, 'ä' is
652     produced. When I press AltGr and [ at once, and then press e, 'ë' is produced.
653     When I press AltGr and ; at once, 'á' is produced, and when I press AltGr and ;
654     at once, release them, and then press e, 'é' is produced.
655     </p>
657     <p>
658     By pressing AltGr, Shift and [ at once, releasing them, and then pressing a, a
659     Scandinavian 'å' is produced. Similarly, when I press AltGr, Shift and [ at
660     once, release <e>only</e> the [, and then press it again, '˚' is produced.
661     Although it looks like one, this (U+02DA) is not the same as a degree symbol
662     (U+00B0). This works for other accents produced by dead keys — AltGr and [,
663     releasing only the [, then pressing it again makes '¨'.
664     </p>
666     <p>
667     AltGr can be used with alphabetical keys alone. For example, AltGr and m, a
668     Greek lower-case letter mu is produced: 'µ'.
669     </p>
671     </body>
672     </section>
673     <section>
674     <title>Resources</title>
675     <body>
677     <ul>
678     <li>
679     <uri link="http://www.wikipedia.com/wiki/Unicode">The Wikipedia entry for
680     Unicode</uri>
681     </li>
682     <li>
683     <uri link="http://www.wikipedia.com/wiki/UTF-8">The Wikipedia entry for
684     UTF-8</uri>
685     </li>
686     <li><uri link="http://www.unicode.org">Unicode.org</uri></li>
687     <li><uri link="http://www.utf-8.com">UTF-8.com</uri></li>
688     <li><uri link="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt">RFC 3629</uri></li>
689     <li><uri link="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2277.txt">RFC 2277</uri></li>
690     </ul>
692     </body>
693     </section>
694     </chapter>
695     </guide>

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