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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.36 2004/11/08 10:12:54 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" >
6 <title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author" >
8 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Author" >
11 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org" >Zack Gilburd</mail>
15 </author>
16 <abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract>
17 <version>1.0.15</version>
18 <date>November 19, 2004</date>
19 <!--
21 Contents
23 I. Introduction
24 II. Postfix Basics
25 III. Courier-imap
26 IV. Cyrus-sasl
27 V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
28 VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
30 VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
31 IX. The vmail user
32 X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
33 XI. Squirrelmail
34 XII. Mailman
35 XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
36 XIV. Wrap Up
37 XV. Troubleshooting
39 --><chapter>
40 <title>Introduction</title>
41 <section>
42 <body>
43 <p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
44 <p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
45 <p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
46 <p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
47 <p>The following packages are used in this setup:
49 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
50 <p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql pam-mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
51 <impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
52 <impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
53 <impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
54 <impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
55 <note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
56 </body>
57 </section>
58 </chapter>
60 <chapter>
61 <title>Postfix Basics</title>
62 <section>
63 <body>
64 <pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i>
65 </pre>
66 <warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn>
67 <p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
68 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
69 myhostname = $host.domain.name
70 mydomain = $domain.name
71 inet_interfaces = all
72 mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
73 mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24,
74 home_mailbox = .maildir/
75 local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
76 default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre>
77 <p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p>
78 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" >
79 # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
80 # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
81 #
82 ==========================================================================
83 smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
85 <codenote>Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the above line</codenote>
86 </pre>
87 <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p>
88 <pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" >
89 # <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
90 <codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote>
91 <codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote>
93 # <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
94 </pre>
95 <p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p>
96 <note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note>
97 </body>
98 </section>
99 </chapter>
100 <chapter>
101 <title>Courier-imap</title>
102 <section>
103 <body>
104 <pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i>
105 </pre>
106 <pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" >
107 # <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
108 <codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote>
109 <codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote>
110 <codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote>
112 # <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
113 # <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
114 <codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote>
116 # <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
117 # <i>mkimapdcert</i>
118 </pre>
119 <pre caption="Start the courier services you need." >
120 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
121 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
122 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
123 # <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
124 </pre>
125 <p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p>
126 </body>
127 </section>
128 </chapter>
129 <chapter>
130 <title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
131 <section>
132 <body>
133 <p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p>
134 <note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note>
135 <pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" >
136 <comment>(We don't have ldap and we're using sasl's mysql capabilities
137 so we need to set the appropriate USE flags, but only if your USE flags
138 doesn't already contain the mysql USE flag and not the ldap one)</comment>
139 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
140 # <i>echo "dev-libs/cyrus-sasl -ldap mysql" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.use</i>
141 # <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
142 </pre>
143 <p>Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.</p>
144 <pre caption="Starting sasl" >
145 # <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
146 pwcheck_method: auxprop
147 auxprop_plugin: sql
148 sql_engine: mysql
149 sql_hostnames: localhost
150 sql_user: mailsql
151 sql_passwd: <comment>&lt;password&gt;</comment>
152 sql_database: mailsql
153 sql_select: select clear from users where email = '%u@%r'
154 mech_list: plain login
155 pwcheck_method: saslauthd
156 mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN
157 <codenote>It's important to turn off auth methods we are not using.</codenote>
158 <codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote>
159 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
160 </pre>
161 </body>
162 </section>
163 </chapter>
164 <chapter>
165 <title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
166 <section>
167 <body>
168 <p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p>
169 <pre>
170 # <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
171 # <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
173 <codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote>
174 countryName_default
175 stateOrProvinceName_default
176 localityName_default
177 0.organizationName_default
178 commonName_default
179 emailAddress_default.
181 <codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote>
184 # <i>cd misc</i>
185 # <i>nano -w CA.pl</i>
186 <codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
187 <codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
188 <codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
189 <codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
191 # create a certificate
192 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
194 # create a certificate request
195 system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
197 # <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
198 # <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
199 # <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
200 # <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
201 # <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i>
202 # <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
203 <codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote>
205 # <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
206 # <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
207 # <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
208 <codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote>
209 <codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote>
210 </pre>
211 </body>
212 </section>
213 </chapter>
214 <chapter>
215 <title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
216 <section>
217 <body>
218 <p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p>
219 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
220 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
222 smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
223 smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
224 smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
225 broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
226 smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
228 <codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote>
229 <codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote>
230 <codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote>
231 <codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote>
232 <codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote>
233 <codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote>
235 smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
236 permit_sasl_authenticated,
237 permit_mynetworks,
238 reject_unauth_destination
241 smtpd_use_tls = yes
242 #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
243 smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem
244 smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
245 smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
246 smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
247 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
248 smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
249 tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
251 <codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote>
252 <codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote>
254 # <i>postfix reload</i>
255 </pre>
256 <p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p>
257 <pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" >
258 # <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
260 Trying
261 Connected to localhost.
262 Escape character is '^]'.
263 220 mail.domain.com ESMTP Postfix
264 <i>EHLO domain.com</i>
265 250-mail.domain.com
267 250-SIZE 10240000
268 250-VRFY
269 250-ETRN
270 250-STARTTLS
273 250-XVERP
274 250 8BITMIME
275 <i>^]</i>
276 telnet> <i>quit</i>
277 </pre>
278 <p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
279 </p>
280 </body>
281 </section>
282 </chapter>
283 <chapter>
284 <title>MySQL</title>
285 <section>
286 <body>
287 <p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~spyderous/dotfiles/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p>
288 <pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" >
289 # <i>emerge mysql</i>
291 # <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
292 <codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote>
293 <codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote>
294 <codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote>
296 # <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
297 # <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
298 # <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
300 # <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
302 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
303 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
304 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
306 -> <i>quit</i>
307 <codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote>
309 # <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
310 </pre>
312 <p>
313 Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included:
314 </p>
316 <ul>
317 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
318 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
319 <li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li>
320 <li>users - all user account information</li>
321 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
322 </ul>
324 <pre caption="alias table sample" >
325 id alias destination
326 1 root foo@bar.com
327 2 postmaster foo@bar.com
328 </pre>
329 <pre caption="user table sample" >
330 <codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote>
331 id email clear name uid gid homedir \
332 maildir quota postfix
333 10 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
334 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y
335 13 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
336 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
337 </pre>
339 <p>
340 The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
341 user and group.
342 </p>
344 <pre caption="transport table sample" >
345 id domain destination
346 1 bar.com local:
347 2 virt-bar.org virtual:
348 </pre>
349 <pre caption="virtual table sample" >
350 id email destination
351 3 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address
352 </pre>
353 </body>
354 </section>
355 </chapter>
356 <chapter>
357 <title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
358 <section>
359 <body>
360 <p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p>
361 <pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" >
362 # <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i>
363 </pre>
364 <p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.</p>
366 <p>
367 Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
368 </p>
370 <ul>
371 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
372 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
373 </ul>
375 <pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" >
376 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
377 # <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i>
378 # <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i>
379 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
381 ServerName host.domain.name
382 ServerAdmin your@email.address
383 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert
384 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key
386 # <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i>
387 </pre>
388 <note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note>
389 <p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p>
390 <pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" >
391 # <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i>
392 <codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote>
394 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
395 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
396 // (this user must have read-only
397 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot;
398 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables)
399 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
400 $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
401 </pre>
402 <p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p>
403 </body>
404 </section>
405 </chapter>
406 <chapter>
407 <title>The vmail user</title>
408 <section>
409 <body>
410 <p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
411 <pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
412 # <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
413 # <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
414 # <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
415 # <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
416 # <i>chown vmail: /home/vmail</i>
417 </pre>
418 <p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
419 </body>
420 </section>
421 </chapter>
422 <chapter>
423 <title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
424 <section>
425 <body>
426 <p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p>
427 <pre>
428 # <i>emerge pam_mysql</i>
429 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i>
430 <codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote>
432 #auth required pam_nologin.so
433 #auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
434 #account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
435 #session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
437 auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
438 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
439 account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
440 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
442 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
443 # <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
444 <codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
445 </pre>
446 <p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p>
447 <pre>
448 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i>
449 authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot;
451 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
452 AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
454 # <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i>
455 MYSQL_SERVER localhost
456 MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
457 MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
458 MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
460 #MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext)
465 MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
469 # <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i>
470 # <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
471 </pre>
472 <p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p>
473 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" >
474 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
475 # mysql-aliases.cf
477 user = mailsql
478 password = $password
479 dbname = mailsql
480 table = alias
481 select_field = destination
482 where_field = alias
483 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
484 </pre>
485 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" >
486 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
487 # mysql-relocated.cf
489 user = mailsql
490 password = $password
491 dbname = mailsql
492 table = relocated
493 select_field = destination
494 where_field = email
495 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
496 </pre>
497 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" >
498 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
499 # mysql-transport.cf
501 user = mailsql
502 password = $password
503 dbname = mailsql
504 table = transport
505 select_field = destination
506 where_field = domain
507 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
508 </pre>
509 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" >
510 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
511 #myql-virtual-gid.cf
513 user = mailsql
514 password = $password
515 dbname = mailsql
516 table = users
517 select_field = gid
518 where_field = email
519 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
520 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
521 </pre>
522 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" >
523 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
524 #myql-virtual-maps.cf
526 user = mailsql
527 password = $password
528 dbname = mailsql
529 table = users
530 select_field = maildir
531 where_field = email
532 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
533 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
534 </pre>
535 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" >
536 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
537 # mysql-virtual-uid.cf
539 user = mailsql
540 password = $password
541 dbname = mailsql
542 table = users
543 select_field = uid
544 where_field = email
545 additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
546 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
547 </pre>
548 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" >
549 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
550 # mysql-virtual.cf
552 user = mailsql
553 password = $password
554 dbname = mailsql
555 table = virtual
556 select_field = destination
557 where_field = email
558 hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
559 </pre>
560 <p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p>
561 <pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" >
562 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
563 alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
564 relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
566 local_transport = local
567 local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
569 virtual_transport = virtual
570 virtual_mailbox_domains =
571 virt-bar.com,
572 $other-virtual-domain.com
574 virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
575 virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
576 virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
577 virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
578 virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
579 virtual_mailbox_base = /
580 #virtual_mailbox_limit =
581 </pre>
583 <p>
584 For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
585 <path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
586 </p>
588 <pre caption="Changing file permission">
589 # <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
590 # <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
591 </pre>
593 <p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p>
594 <note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note>
595 <pre># <i>postfix reload</i>
596 </pre>
597 <p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p>
598 </body>
599 </section>
600 </chapter>
601 <chapter>
602 <title>Squirrelmail</title>
603 <section>
604 <body>
605 <pre>
606 # <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
607 <codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote>
609 # <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i>
610 # <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
611 # <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
612 <codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote>
613 <codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote>
614 <codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote>
615 </pre>
616 </body>
617 </section>
618 </chapter>
619 <chapter>
620 <title>Mailman</title>
621 <section>
622 <body>
623 <p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p>
624 <p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p>
625 <pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild">
626 # <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i>
627 MAILGID="280"
628 <codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote>
629 <codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote>
630 </pre>
631 <pre>
632 # <i>emerge mailman</i>
633 <codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
634 <codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
635 <codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
636 <codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
638 # <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
639 </pre>
640 <pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
641 # <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
642 <codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote>
643 DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
644 DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
645 </pre>
646 <pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
647 # <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
648 MTA = "Postfix"
649 POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
650 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
651 add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
652 <codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote>
653 </pre>
654 <pre>
655 <codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote>
657 # <i>su mailman</i>
658 # <i>cd ~</i>
659 # <i>bin/newlist test</i>
660 Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address
661 Initial test password:
662 Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
663 <codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote>
664 <codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote>
665 # <i>bin/genaliases</i>
666 <codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote>
667 <codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote>
669 # <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
670 # STANZA START: test
671 # CREATED:
672 test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
673 test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
674 test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
675 test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
676 test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
677 test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
678 test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
679 test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
680 test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
681 test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
682 # STANZA END: test
684 # <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
685 # <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
686 <codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote>
687 </pre>
689 <pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
690 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
691 owner_request_special = no
692 recipient_delimiter = +
693 <codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote>
695 alias_maps =
696 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases,
697 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
699 virtual_alias_maps =
700 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
701 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
702 <codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote>
703 <codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote>
704 <codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote>
705 <codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote>
706 <codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote>
707 </pre>
708 <p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p>
709 </body>
710 </section>
711 </chapter>
712 <chapter>
713 <title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
714 <section>
715 <body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body>
716 </section>
717 </chapter>
718 <chapter>
719 <title>Wrap Up</title>
720 <section>
721 <body>
722 <p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p>
723 <pre caption="Wrap up" >
724 # <i>postfix reload</i>
725 # <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
726 </pre>
727 <p>
728 <e>Have fun!</e>
729 </p>
730 </body>
731 </section>
732 </chapter>
733 <chapter>
734 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
735 <section>
736 <title>Introduction</title>
737 <body>
738 <p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p>
739 </body>
740 </section>
741 <section>
742 <title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title>
743 <body>
744 <p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p>
745 <pre>
746 # <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
747 </pre>
748 </body>
749 </section>
750 <section>
751 <title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
752 <body>
753 <p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p>
754 <pre>
755 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
756 # <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
757 </pre>
758 </body>
759 </section>
760 <section>
761 <title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
762 <body>
763 <p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p>
764 <pre>
765 # <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
766 # <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
767 # <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
768 # <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
769 </pre>
770 </body>
771 </section>
772 <section>
773 <title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title>
774 <body>
775 <p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p>
776 <pre>
777 # <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
778 # <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
779 # <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
780 # <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i>
781 </pre>
782 <p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p>
783 <pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
784 # <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
785 debug_peer_level = 5
786 debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
787 <codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote>
788 <codenote>commands as well.</codenote>
789 </pre>
790 </body>
791 </section>
792 <section>
793 <title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title>
794 <body>
795 <p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p>
796 <pre>
797 # <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
798 <codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote>
799 <codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote>
801 Trying
802 Connected to localhost.
803 Escape character is '^]'.
804 * OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
805 </pre>
806 </body>
807 </section>
808 <section>
809 <title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title>
810 <body>
811 <p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p>
812 <pre>
813 # <i>emerge strace</i>
814 # <i>strace $command</i>
815 # <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
816 </pre>
817 </body>
818 </section>
819 <section>
820 <title>Step 7: Research</title>
821 <body>
822 <p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p>
824 <ul>
825 <li>
826 <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
827 <li>
828 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li>
829 <li>
830 <uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
831 <li>
832 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li>
833 <li>
834 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li>
835 <li>
836 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li>
837 <li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li>
838 </ul>
840 </body>
841 </section>
842 </chapter>
843 </guide>

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