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1<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.21 2003/12/07 18:21:26 pylon Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml,v 1.62 2010/10/14 06:14:35 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide link=" /doc/en/virt-mail-howto.xml" > 5<guide>
6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System Guide</title> 6<title>Virtual Mailhosting System with Postfix Guide</title>
7
7<author title="Author" > 8<author title="Author">
8<mail link="antifa@gentoo.org" >Ken Nowack</mail> 9 <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail>
9</author> 10</author>
10<author title="Author" > 11<author title="Author">
11<mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org" >Ezra Gorman</mail> 12 <mail link="ezra@revoltltd.org">Ezra Gorman</mail>
12</author> 13</author>
13<abstract>This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl. </abstract> 14<author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
16</author>
17<author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="seather@scygro.za.net">Scygro</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22</author>
23<author title="Editor">
24 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
25</author>
26
27<abstract>
28This document details how to create a virtual mailhosting system based upon
29postfix, mysql, courier-imap, and cyrus-sasl.
30</abstract>
31
14<version>1.0.6</version> 32<version>2</version>
15<date>December 7, 2003</date> 33<date>2010-10-13</date>
16<!--
17 34
18Contents
19
20I. Introduction
21II. Postfix Basics
22III. Courier-imap
23IV. Cyrus-sasl
24V. SSL Certificates for Postfix and Apache
25VI. Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix
26VII. MySQL
27VIII. Apache and phpMyAdmin
28IX. The vmail user
29X. Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts
30XI. Squirrelmail
31XII. Mailman
32XIII. Content Filtering and Anti-Virus
33XIV. Wrap Up
34XV. Troubleshooting
35
36--><chapter> 35<chapter>
37<title>Introduction</title> 36<title>Introduction</title>
38<body> 37<section>
39<p>For most gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.</p>
40<p>A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise the system? How do you manage it all?</p>
41<p>This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database, utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice, central and easy mysql database. </p>
42<p>There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and <uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options. </p>
43<p>The following packages are used in this setup:
44
45 apache, courier-imap, pam_mysql, postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql, php, and mailman.</p>
46<p>Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> before compiling the packages: <c>USE=&quot;mysql imap libwww maildir sasl ssl&quot;</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.</p>
47<impo>This howto was written for postfix-2.0.x. If you are using postfix &lt; 2 some of the variables in this document will be different. It is recommended that you upgrade. Some other packages included in this howto are version sensitive as well. You are advised to read the documentation included with packages if you run into issues with this.</impo>
48<impo>This document uses apache-1.3.x. Apache-2 has been marked stable in portage. However there are still a number of issues with php integration. Until php support in apache-2.0.x is marked stable, this guide will continue to use the 1.3.x version.</impo>
49<impo>You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.</impo>
50<impo>Make sure <path>/etc/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for your mail server. Verify your hostname is set correctly with <c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in <path>/etc/hosts</path>.</impo>
51<note>It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document. Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip the squirrelmail section.</note>
52</body> 38<body>
39
40<p>
41For most Gentoo users, a simple mail client and fetchmail will do. However, if
42you're hosting a domain with your system, you'll need a full blown MTA (Mail
43Transfer Agent). And if you're hosting multiple domains, then you'll definitely
44need something more robust to handle all of the email for your users. This
45system was designed to be an elegant solution to that problem.
46</p>
47
48<p>
49A virtual mail system needs to be able to handle email for numerous domains
50with multiple users over a variety of interfaces. This presents some issues
51that must be dealt with. For instance, what if you have two users on different
52domains that want the same user name? If you are providing imap access and
53smtp-auth, how do combine the various authentication daemons into a single
54system? How do you provide security for the numerous components that comprise
55the system? How do you manage it all?
56</p>
57
58<p>
59This howto will show you how to set up with a mail system capable of handling
60mail for as many domains as your hardware can handle, supports virtual mail
61users that don't require shell accounts, has domain specific user names, can
62authenticate web, imap, smtp, and pop3 clients against a single database,
63utilizes ssl for transport layer security, has a web interface, can handle
64mailing lists for any domain on the machine, and is controlled by a nice,
65central and easy mysql database.
66</p>
67
68<p>
69There are quite a variety of ways to go about setting up a virtual mailhosting
70system. With so may options, another may be the best choice for your specific
71needs. Consider investigating <uri>http://www.qmail.org/</uri> and
72<uri>http://www.exim.org/</uri> to explore your options.
73</p>
74
75<p>
76The following packages are used in this setup: apache, courier-imap,
77courier-authlib postfix, mod_php, phpmyadmin, squirrelmail, cyrus-sasl, mysql,
78php, and mailman.
79</p>
80
81<p>
82Make sure to turn on the following USE variables in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
83before compiling the packages: <c>USE="mysql imap libwww maildir
84sasl ssl"</c>. Otherwise you will most likely have to recompile things to
85get the support you need for all the protocols. Further, it's a good idea to
86turn off any other mail and network variables, like ipv6.
87</p>
88
89<impo>
90You need a domain name to run a public mail server, or at least an MX record
91for a domain. Ideally you would have control of at least two domains to take
92advantage of your new virtual domain functionality.
93</impo>
94
95<impo>
96Make sure <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path> is set to the right hostname for
97your mail server. You can apply any changes you make to this file by running
98<c>/etc/init.d/hostname restart</c>. Verify your hostname is set correctly with
99<c>hostname</c>. Also verify that there are no conflicting entries in
100<path>/etc/hosts</path>.
101</impo>
102
103<note>
104It is recommended that you read this entire document and familiarize yourself
105with all the steps before attempting the install. If you run into problems with
106any of the steps, check the troubleshooting guide at the end of this document.
107Also, not all the referenced packages are necessary, this set up is very
108flexible. For instance, if you do not desire a web interface, feel free to skip
109the squirrelmail section.
110</note>
111
112</body>
113</section>
53</chapter> 114</chapter>
115
54<chapter> 116<chapter>
55<title>Postfix Basics</title> 117<title>Postfix Basics</title>
118<section>
56<body> 119<body>
57<pre caption="Install postfix" ># <i>emerge postfix</i> 120
121<pre caption="Install postfix">
122# <i>emerge postfix</i>
123</pre>
124
125<warn>
126Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or
127netqmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.
128</warn>
129
130<p>
131After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following
132options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>. Remember to replace
133<c>$variables</c> with your own names.
58</pre> 134</p>
59<warn>Verify that you have not installed any other MTA, such as ssmtp, exim, or qmail, or you will surely have BIG problems.</warn> 135
60<p>After postfix is installed, it's time to configure it. Change the following options in <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path>:</p>
61<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 136<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
62myhostname = $host.domain.name 137myhostname = $host.domain.name
63mydomain = $domain.name 138mydomain = $domain.name
64inet_interfaces = all 139inet_interfaces = all
65mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain 140mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain $mydomain
66mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8 141mynetworks = my.ip.net.work/24, 127.0.0.0/8
67home_mailbox = .maildir/ 142home_mailbox = .maildir/
68local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 143local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
69default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10 </pre> 144default_destination_concurrency_limit = 10
145</pre>
146
147<p>
70<p>Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will turn on verbose output for debugging:</p> 148Next change the following in <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path>. This will
149turn on verbose output for debugging:
150</p>
151
71<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf" > 152<pre caption="/etc/postfix/master.cf">
72# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args 153# service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
73# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50) 154# (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (50)
74# 155#
75========================================================================== 156==========================================================================
157<comment>(Just add the "-v" after the smtpd in the following line)</comment>
76smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v 158smtp inet n - n - - smtpd -v
159</pre>
77 160
78<codenote>Just add the <c>-v</c> after the smtpd in the above line</codenote> 161<p>
162Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There
163should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.
79</pre> 164</p>
80<p>Next, edit <path>/etc/mail/aliases</path> to add your local aliases. There should at least be an alias for root like: <c>root: your@email.address</c>.</p> 165
81<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time" > 166<pre caption="Starting postfix for the first time">
82# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i> 167# <i>/usr/bin/newaliases</i>
83<codenote>This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this </codenote> 168<comment>(This will install the new aliases. You only need to do this
84<codenote>when you update or install aliases.</codenote> 169when you update or install aliases.)</comment>
85 170
86# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i> 171# <i>/etc/init.d/postfix start</i>
87</pre> 172</pre>
88<p>Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the next step.</p> 173
89<note>I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning before you progress to the next step of the howto. </note> 174<p>
175Now that postfix is running, fire up your favorite console mail client and send
176yourself an email. I use <c>mutt</c> for all my console mail. Verify that
177postfix is delivering mail to local users, once that's done, we're on to the
178next step.
179</p>
180
181<note>
182I strongly recommend that you verify this basic postfix setup is functioning
183before you progress to the next step of the howto.
184</note>
185
90</body> 186</body>
187</section>
91</chapter> 188</chapter>
189
92<chapter> 190<chapter>
93<title>Courier-imap</title> 191<title>Courier-imap</title>
192<section>
94<body> 193<body>
95<pre caption="Install courier-imap" ># <i>emerge courier-imap</i> 194
195<pre caption="Install courier-imap and courier-authlib">
196# <i>emerge courier-imap courier-authlib</i>
96</pre> 197</pre>
198
97<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration" > 199<pre caption="Courier-imap configuration">
98# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i> 200# <i>cd /etc/courier-imap</i>
99<codenote>If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3, </codenote> 201<comment>(If you want to use the ssl capabilities of courier-imap or pop3,
100<codenote>you'll need to create certs for this purpose.</codenote> 202you'll need to create certs for this purpose.
101<codenote>This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.</codenote> 203This step is recommended. If you do not want to use ssl, skip this step.)</comment>
102 204
103# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i> 205# <i>nano -w pop3d.cnf</i>
104# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i> 206# <i>nano -w imapd.cnf</i>
105<codenote>Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.</codenote> 207<comment>(Change the C, ST, L, CN, and email parameters to match your server.)</comment>
106 208
107# <i>mkpop3dcert</i> 209# <i>mkpop3dcert</i>
108# <i>mkimapdcert</i> 210# <i>mkimapdcert</i>
109</pre> 211</pre>
212
110<pre caption="Start the courier services you need." > 213<pre caption="Start the courier services you need.">
111# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i> 214# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd start</i>
112# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i> 215# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-imapd-ssl start</i>
113# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i> 216# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d start</i>
114# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i> 217# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-pop3d-ssl start</i>
115</pre> 218</pre>
116<p>Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've started work for receiving and sending mail. Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've installed already works before progressing.</p> 219
220<p>
221Start up your favorite mail client and verify that all connections you've
222started work for receiving and sending mail. Of course, you won't be able to log
223on to any of the services because authentication hasn't been configured yet, but
224it is wise to check if the connections themselves work or not.
225</p>
226
227<p>
228Now that the basics work, we're going to do a whole bunch of stuff at once to
229get the rest of the system running. Again, please verify that what we've
230installed already works before progressing.
231</p>
232
117</body> 233</body>
234</section>
118</chapter> 235</chapter>
236
119<chapter> 237<chapter>
120<title>Cyrus-sasl</title> 238<title>Cyrus-sasl</title>
239<section>
121<body> 240<body>
122<p>Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of actually passing your auth variables to pam, which will in turn pass that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto, we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against mysql in the end anyway.</p> 241
123<note>Now for some reason, sasl will not play nicely with pam against the shadow file. I banged my head against this problem for, well, a long time. If anyone knows why sasl will not auth against the shadow file in its current gentoo incarnation, please <mail link="ken@kickasskungfu.com" >email me</mail> as I'd love to hear a solution to this.</note> 242<p>
243Next we're going to install cyrus-sasl. Sasl is going to play the role of
244actually passing your auth variables to courier-auth, which will in turn pass
245that information to mysql for authentication of smtp users. For this howto,
246we'll not even try to verify that sasl is working until mysql is set up and
247contains a test user. Which is fine since we'll be authenticating against
248mysql in the end anyway.
249</p>
250
124<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild" > 251<pre caption="Configuring and installing the cyrus-sasl ebuild">
125# <i>USE='-ldap -mysql' emerge cyrus-sasl</i> 252# <i>emerge cyrus-sasl</i>
126<codenote>We don't have ldap and we're not using sasl's mysql capabilities </codenote>
127<codenote>so we need to turn them off for this build.</codenote>
128</pre> 253</pre>
254
255<p>
129<p>Next, edit <path>/usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</path>.</p> 256Next, edit <path>/etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</path>.
257</p>
258
130<pre caption="Starting sasl" > 259<pre caption="Starting sasl">
131# <i>nano -w /usr/lib/sasl2/smtp.conf</i> 260# <i>nano -w /etc/sasl2/smtpd.conf</i>
261mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
132pwcheck_method: saslauthd 262pwcheck_method: saslauthd
133mech_list: LOGIN PLAIN 263# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/saslauthd</i>
134<codenote>It's important to turn off auth mehtods we are not using.</codenote> 264SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTH_MECH} -a rimap -r"
135<codenote>They cause problems for some mail clients.</codenote> 265SASLAUTHD_OPTS="${SASLAUTHD_OPTS} -O localhost"
136# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i> 266# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd start</i>
137</pre> 267</pre>
268
138</body> 269</body>
270</section>
139</chapter> 271</chapter>
272
140<chapter> 273<chapter>
141<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title> 274<title>SSL Certs for Postfix and Apache</title>
275<section>
142<body> 276<body>
277
278<p>
143<p>Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.</p> 279Next we're going to make a set of ssl certificates for postfix and apache.
144<pre> 280</p>
281
282<pre caption="Making ssl certicates">
145# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i> 283# <i>cd /etc/ssl/</i>
146# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i> 284# <i>nano -w openssl.cnf</i>
147 285
148<codenote>Change the following default values for your domain:</codenote> 286<comment>Change the following default values for your domain:</comment>
149countryName_default 287countryName_default
150stateOrProvinceName_default 288stateOrProvinceName_default
151localityName_default 289localityName_default
1520.organizationName_default 2900.organizationName_default
153commonName_default 291commonName_default
154emailAddress_default. 292emailAddress_default.
155 293
156<codenote>If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.</codenote> 294<comment>(If the variables are not already present, just add them in a sensible place.)</comment>
157
158 295
159# <i>cd misc</i> 296# <i>cd misc</i>
160# <i>nano -w CA.pl</i> 297# <i>./CA.pl -newreq-nodes</i>
161<codenote>We need to add -nodes to the # create a certificate and</codenote>
162<codenote>#create a certificate request code in order to let our new ssl</codenote>
163<codenote>certs be loaded without a password. Otherwise when you</codenote>
164<codenote>reboot your ssl certs will not be available.</codenote>
165
166# create a certificate
167system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
168
169# create a certificate request
170system (&quot;$REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS&quot;);
171
172# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i> 298# <i>./CA.pl -newca</i>
173# <i>./CA.pl -newreq</i>
174# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i> 299# <i>./CA.pl -sign</i>
175# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 300# <i>cp newcert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
176# <i>cp newreq.pem /etc/postfix</i> 301# <i>cp newkey.pem /etc/postfix</i>
177# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i> 302# <i>cp demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/postfix</i>
178<codenote>Now we do the same thing for apache</codenote> 303<comment>(Now we do the same thing for apache.)</comment>
179 304
180# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i> 305# <i>openssl req -new > new.cert.csr</i>
181# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i> 306# <i>openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -out new.cert.key</i>
182# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i> 307# <i>openssl x509 -in new.cert.csr -out new.cert.cert -req -signkey new.cert.key -days 365</i>
183<codenote>Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.</codenote> 308<comment>(Just leave the resulting certificates here for now.
184<codenote>We'll install them after Apache is installed.</codenote> 309We'll install them after Apache is installed.)</comment>
185</pre> 310</pre>
311
186</body> 312</body>
313</section>
314
187</chapter> 315</chapter>
188<chapter> 316<chapter>
189<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title> 317<title>Adding SSL and SASL support to Postfix</title>
318<section>
190<body> 319<body>
191<p>Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they will be easy to find.</p> 320
321<p>
322Now edit the postfix config's to make it aware of your new sasl and ssl
323capabilities. Add the following parameters to the end of the file where they
324will be easy to find.
325</p>
326
192<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 327<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
193# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 328# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
194 329
195smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes 330smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
196smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes 331smtpd_sasl2_auth_enable = yes
197smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous 332smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
198broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes 333broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
199smtpd_sasl_local_domain = 334smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
200 335
201<codenote>The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method </codenote> 336<comment>(The broken_sasl_auth_clients option and the login auth method
202<codenote>are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.</codenote> 337are for outlook and outlook express only and are undocumented.
203<codenote>Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?</codenote> 338Isn't having to hack software for stupid, broken, M$ BS great?
204<codenote>smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using</codenote> 339smtpd_sasl_local_domain appends a domain name to clients using
205<codenote>smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get</codenote> 340smtp-auth. Make sure it's blank or your user names will get
206<codenote>mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.</codenote> 341mangled by postfix and be unable to auth.)</comment>
207 342
208smtpd_recipient_restrictions = 343smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
209 permit_sasl_authenticated, 344 permit_sasl_authenticated,
210 permit_mynetworks, 345 permit_mynetworks,
211 reject_unauth_destination 346 reject_unauth_destination
212
213 347
348<comment>(The next two options enable outgoing encryption.)</comment>
349smtp_use_tls = yes
350smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
214smtpd_use_tls = yes 351smtpd_use_tls = yes
215#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes 352#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
216smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newreq.pem 353smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/newkey.pem
217smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem 354smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/newcert.pem
218smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem 355smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/cacert.pem
219smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 356smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
220smtpd_tls_received_header = yes 357smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
221smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s 358smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
222tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom 359tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
223 360
224<codenote>smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system. </codenote> 361<comment>(smtpd_tls_auth_only is commented out to ease testing the system.
225<codenote>You can turn this on later if you desire.</codenote> 362You can turn this on later if you desire.)</comment>
226 363
227# <i>postfix reload</i> 364# <i>postfix reload</i>
228</pre> 365</pre>
366
367<p>
229<p>Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.</p> 368Now we're going to verify that the config's we added were picked up by postfix.
369For this we are going to use <c>telnet</c> (provided by for instance
370<c>net-misc/netkit-telnetd</c>) although you can also use <c>nc</c> (provided by
371<c>net-analyzer/netcat</c>):
372</p>
373
230<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support" > 374<pre caption="Verifying sasl and tls support">
231# <i>telnet localhost 25</i> 375# <i>telnet localhost 25</i>
232 376
233Trying 127.0.0.1... 377Trying 127.0.0.1...
234Connected to localhost. 378Connected to localhost.
235Escape character is '^]'. 379Escape character is '^]'.
246250-XVERP 390250-XVERP
247250 8BITMIME 391250 8BITMIME
248<i>^]</i> 392<i>^]</i>
249telnet> <i>quit</i> 393telnet> <i>quit</i>
250</pre> 394</pre>
251<p>Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information. 395
396<p>
397Verify that the above AUTH and STARTTLS lines now appear in your postfix
398install. As I said before, as it stands now AUTH will not work. that's because
399sasl will try to auth against it's sasldb, instead of the shadow file for some
400unknown reason, which we have not set up. So we're going to just plow through
401and set up mysql to hold all of our auth and virtual domain information.
252 </p> 402</p>
403
253</body> 404</body>
405</section>
406</chapter>
407
254</chapter> 408<chapter>
409<title>The vmail user</title>
410<section>
411<body>
412
413<p>
414Before we set up our virtual mailhosting environment, we create a functional
415user under which the virtual mailboxes will be hosted. For clarity's sake we
416will call this <e>vmail</e>:
417</p>
418
419<pre caption="Adding the vmail user">
420# <i>useradd -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false -m vmail</i>
421</pre>
422
423<p>
424So now you've set up the vmail account. You can create multiple accounts if you
425want (to keep some structure in your set of virtual mail accounts). The user id,
426group id and home dirs are referenced in the MySQL tables.
427</p>
428
429<p>
430Next to the user account we also need to create the location where the mailboxes
431will reside:
432</p>
433
434<pre caption="Creating mailboxes">
435# <i>mkdir -p /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo</i>
436# <i>chown -R vmail:vmail /home/vmail/virt-domain.com</i>
437# <i>maildirmake /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo/.maildir</i>
438</pre>
439
440</body>
441</section>
442</chapter>
443
255<chapter> 444<chapter>
256<title>MySQL</title> 445<title>MySQL</title>
446<section>
257<body> 447<body>
258<p>Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri link="http://kickasskungfu.com/~ken/genericmailsql.sql" >genericmailsql.sql</uri> dumpfile for this step.</p> 448
449<p>
450Next we're going to install and configure MySQL. You'll need the <uri
451link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/files/genericmailsql.sql">genericmailsql.sql</uri>
452dumpfile for this step.
453</p>
454
259<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL" > 455<pre caption="Installing and configuring MySQL">
260# <i>emerge mysql</i> 456# <i>emerge mysql</i>
261 457
262# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i> 458# <i>/usr/bin/mysql_install_db</i>
263<codenote>After this command runs follow the onscreen directions</codenote> 459<comment>(After this command runs follow the onscreen directions
264<codenote>for adding a root password with mysql,</codenote> 460for adding a root password with mysql, otherwise your db will
265<codenote>not mysqladmin, otherwise your db will be wide open.</codenote> 461be wide open.)</comment>
266 462
267# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i> 463# <i>/etc/init.d/mysql start</i>
268# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i> 464# <i>mysqladmin -u root -p create mailsql</i>
269# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i> 465# <i>mysql -u root -p mailsql &lt; genericmailsql.sql</i>
270
271# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i> 466# <i>mysql -u root -p mysql</i>
272mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i> 467mysql> <i>GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE</i>
273 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i> 468 -> <i>ON mailsql.*</i>
274 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i> 469 -> <i>TO mailsql@localhost</i>
275 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i> 470 -> <i>IDENTIFIED BY '$password';</i>
471Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
276 472
277 -> <i>quit</i> 473mysql> <i>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;</i>
474Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
475
476mysql> <i>quit</i>
278<codenote>Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.</codenote> 477<comment>(Verify that the new mailsql user can connect to the mysql server.)</comment>
279 478
280# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i> 479# <i>mysql -u mailsql -p mailsql</i>
281</pre> 480</pre>
481
482<p>
282<p>Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The following tables are included: 483Your new database has default values and tables set up for two domains. The
484following tables are included:
485</p>
486
283 <ul> 487<ul>
284<li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li> 488 <li>alias - local email alias and mailman alias information.</li>
285<li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li> 489 <li>relocated - relocated user email address maps</li>
490 <li>
286<li>transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are hosting</li> 491 transport - default mail transport information for all domains you are
492 hosting
493 </li>
287<li>users - all user account information</li> 494 <li>users - all user account information</li>
288<li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li> 495 <li>virtual - virtual domain email alias maps</li>
289</ul> 496</ul>
290</p> 497
291<pre caption="alias table sample" > 498<pre caption="alias table sample">
292id alias destination 499id alias destination
2931 root foo@bar.com 5001 root foo@bar.com
2942 postmaster foo@bar.com 5012 postmaster foo@bar.com
295</pre> 502</pre>
503
296<pre caption="user table sample" > 504<pre caption="user table sample">
297<codenote>Line wrapped for clarity</codenote> 505<comment>(Line wrapped for clarity.)</comment>
298id email clear name uid gid homedir \ 506id email clear name uid gid homedir \
299 maildir quota postfix 507 maildir quota postfix
30010 foo@virt-bar.org $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \ 50810 foo@virt-domain.com $password realname virtid virtid /home/vmail \
301 /home/vmail/virt-bar.org/foo/.maildir/ y 509 /home/vmail/virt-domain.com/foo/.maildir/ y
30213 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \ 51013 foo@bar.com $password realname localid localid /home/foo \
303 /home/foo/.maildir/ y 511 /home/foo/.maildir/ y
512</pre>
513
514<p>
515The values of the <c>virtid</c> uid and gid should be those of the <c>vmail</c>
516user and group.
304</pre> 517</p>
518
305<pre caption="transport table sample" > 519<pre caption="transport table sample">
306id domain destination 520id domain destination
3071 bar.com local: 5211 bar.com local:
3082 virt-bar.org virtual: 5222 virt-domain.com virtual:
309</pre> 523</pre>
524
310<pre caption="virtual table sample" > 525<pre caption="virtual table sample">
311id email destination 526id email destination
3123 root@virt-bar.org other@email.address 5273 root@virt-domain.com other@email.address
313</pre> 528</pre>
529
314</body> 530</body>
531</section>
315</chapter> 532</chapter>
533
316<chapter> 534<chapter>
317<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title> 535<title>Apache and phpMyAdmin</title>
536<section>
318<body> 537<body>
538
539<p>
319<p>Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database more easily. </p> 540Next we'll set up apache and add an interface to interact with the database
541more easily.
542</p>
543
320<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin" > 544<pre caption="Setting up apache and phpmyadmin">
321# <i>emerge apache mod_php phpmyadmin</i> 545# <i>emerge apache phpmyadmin</i>
546</pre>
547
548<p>
549There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php,
550including guides provided by the <uri link="/proj/en/php/">Gentoo PHP
551Project</uri>. There are also numerous posts on
552<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the
553installation. So, that said, we're not going to cover it here. Set up the
554apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the
555wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this,
556search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean
557that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be
558able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There
559are many howtos on this including:
560<uri>http://www.csoft.net/docs/micro/htaccess.html.en</uri>.
322</pre> 561</p>
323<p>There are plenty of guides out there about how to set up apache with php. Like this one: <uri>http://www.linuxguruz.org/z.php?id=31</uri>. There are also numerous posts on <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> detailing how to solve problems with the installation (search for 'apache php'). So, that said, I'm not going to cover it here. Set up the apache and php installs, then continue with this howto. Now, a word for the wise: .htaccess the directory that you put phpmyadmin in. If you do not do this, search engine spiders will come along and index the page which in turn will mean that anyone will be able to find your phpmyadmin page via google and in turn be able to come change your database however they want which is <e>BAD!</e> There are many howtos on this including: <uri>http://docs.csoft.net/micro/black-htaccess.html</uri>.</p> 562
324<p>Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are: 563<p>
564Now we're going to install the Apache certificates we made previously. The
565Apache-SSL directives that you need to use the resulting cert are:
566</p>
567
325 <ul> 568<ul>
326<li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li> 569 <li>SSLCertificateFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.cert</li>
327<li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li> 570 <li>SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/certs/new.cert.key</li>
328</ul> 571</ul>
329</p> 572
330<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates" > 573<pre caption="Install Apache SSL certificates">
331# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 574# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.cert /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
332# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache/conf/ssl/</i> 575# <i>cp /etc/ssl/misc/new.cert.key /etc/apache2/ssl/</i>
333# <i>nano -w /etc/apache/conf/vhosts/ssl.default-vhost.conf</i> 576# <i>cd /etc/apache2/vhosts.d</i>
577<comment>(Check if you have an ssl-vhost template already.
578 Copy that one instead of the default_vhost if that is the case)</comment>
579# <i>cp 00_default_vhost.conf ssl-vhost.conf</i>
580# <i>nano -w ssl-vhost.conf</i>
581
334<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 582<comment>(Change the following parameters)</comment>
583NameVirtualHost host.domain.name:443
335 584
585&lt;VirtualHost host.domain.name:443&gt;
336ServerName host.domain.name 586 ServerName host.domain.name
337ServerAdmin your@email.address 587 ServerAdmin your@email.address
588
589 DocumentRoot "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin";
590 &lt;Directory "/var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin"&gt;
591 ...
592 &lt;/Directory&gt;
593
338SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.cert 594 SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.cert
339SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache/conf/ssl/new.cert.key 595 SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/new.cert.key
596 SSLEngine on
597 ...
598&lt;/VirtualHost&gt;
340 599
600# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/apache2</i>
601<comment>(Add -D SSL -D PHP5 to the APACHE2_OPTS)</comment>
602
341# <i>/etc/init.d/apache restart</i> 603# <i>/etc/init.d/apache2 restart</i>
342</pre> 604</pre>
343<note>If you have an existing apache install, you'll likely have to perform a full server reboot to install your new certificates. Check your logs to verify apache restarted successfully.</note> 605
606<p>
344<p>Next, configure phpMyAdmin.</p> 607Next, configure phpMyAdmin.
608</p>
609
345<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin" > 610<pre caption="Configuring phpMyAdmin">
346# <i>nano -w /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php</i> 611# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/phpmyadmin</i>
612# <i>cp config.sample.inc.php config.inc.php</i>
613# <i>nano -w config.inc.php</i>
347<codenote>Change the following parameters</codenote> 614<comment>(Change the following parameters.)</comment>
615$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = 'someverysecretpassphraze';
348 616
349$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname 617$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] = 'localhost'; // MySQL hostname
350$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings 618$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL control user settings
351 // (this user must have read-only 619 // (this user must have read-only
352$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the &quot;mysql/user&quot; 620$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = '$password'; // access to the "mysql/user"
353 // and &quot;mysql/db&quot; tables) 621 // and "mysql/db" tables)
354$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user 622$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'mailsql'; // MySQL user
355$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password 623$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = '$password'; // MySQL password
356</pre> 624</pre>
357<p>Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your transport table to add information about your domains. The default values supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is accurate. For instance, make sure the local users home dir exists and that the correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in general, it's a good idea to send a &quot;Welcome&quot; mail to a new user after you setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created. </p> 625
626<p>
627Now enter the phpmyadmin page and browse the tables. You'll want to add in your
628local aliases, edit your user table to add a test user, and change your
629transport table to add information about your domains. The default values
630supplied with the dumpfile should be a sufficient guide to what values need to
631go where. Make sure that if you put information in the database that it is
632accurate. For instance, make sure the local user's home dir exists and that the
633correct uid/gid values are in place. The maildirs should be created
634automatically by postfix when the user receives their first email. So, in
635general, it's a good idea to send a "Welcome" mail to a new user after you
636setup their account to make sure the .maildir gets created.
637</p>
638
358</body> 639</body>
359</chapter> 640</section>
360<chapter> 641</chapter>
361<title>The vmail user</title> 642
362<body>
363<p>At this point you may be wondering what user and directory to use for virtual mail users, and rightly so. Let's set that up.</p>
364<pre caption="Adding the vmail user" >
365# <i>adduser -d /home/vmail -s /bin/false vmail</i>
366# <i>uid=`cat /etc/passwd | grep vmail | cut -f 3 -d :`</i>
367# <i>groupadd -g $uid vmail</i>
368# <i>mkdir /home/vmail</i>
369# <i>chown vmail. /home/vmail</i>
370</pre>
371<p>So now when you're setting up vmail accounts, use the vmail uid, gid, and homedir. When you're setting up local accounts, use that users uid, gid, and homedir. We've been meaning to create a php admin page for this setup but haven't gotten around to it yet, as phpmyadmin generally works fine for us.</p>
372</body>
373</chapter>
374<chapter> 643<chapter>
375<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title> 644<title>Configuring MySQL Authentication and vhosts</title>
645<section>
376<body> 646<body>
377<p>Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace $password with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.</p> 647
378<pre> 648<p>
379# <i>emerge pam_mysql</i> 649Next we'll reconfigure our authentication to use the mailsql database in
380# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/imap</i> 650courier-imap and postfix. In all of the following examples, replace
381<codenote>Comment out the existing auth lines and add the following as shown.</codenote> 651<c>$password</c> with the password you set for the mailsql mysql user.
382
383#auth required pam_nologin.so
384#auth required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
385#account required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
386#session required pam_stack.so service=system-auth
387
388auth optional pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
389 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
390account required pam_mysql.so host=localhost db=mailsql user=mailsql \
391 passwd=$password table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=0
392
393# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/pop3</i>
394# <i>nano -w /etc/pam.d/smtp</i>
395<codenote>Make the same changes to the pop3 and smtp files</codenote>
396</pre> 652</p>
397<p>Next, we need to edit courier's authentication config's.</p> 653
398<pre> 654<pre caption="Configuring authentication">
399# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemonrc</i> 655# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authdaemonrc</i>
400authmodulelist=&quot;authmysql authpam&quot; 656authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"
401 657
402# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authdaemond.conf</i>
403AUTHDAEMOND=&quot;authdaemond.mysql&quot;
404
405# <i>nano -w /etc/courier-imap/authmysqlrc</i> 658# <i>nano -w /etc/courier/authlib/authmysqlrc</i>
406MYSQL_SERVER localhost 659MYSQL_SERVER localhost
407MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql 660MYSQL_USERNAME mailsql
408MYSQL_PASSWORD $password 661MYSQL_PASSWORD $password
409MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql 662MYSQL_DATABASE mailsql
410MYSQL_USER_TABLE users 663MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
411#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt (make sure this is commented out since we're storing plaintext) 664<comment>(Make sure the following line is commented out since we're storing plaintext.)</comment>
665#MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt
412MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear 666MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear
413MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid 667MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid
414MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid 668MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid
415MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email 669MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
416MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir 670MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir
417MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name 671MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name
418MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir 672MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
419 673
420# <i>/etc/init.d/authdaemond restart</i> 674# <i>/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart</i>
421# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i> 675# <i>/etc/init.d/saslauthd restart</i>
422</pre> 676</pre>
423<p>We're almost there I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary config's for postfix to interract with the database for all it's other transport needs.</p> 677
678<p>
679We're almost there, I promise! Next, set up the rest of the necessary configs
680for postfix to interract with the database for all its other transport needs.
681Remember to replace each value with the name of your own user, user id,
682password, alias, email address, and so on.
683</p>
684
424<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf" > 685<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf">
425# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i> 686# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf</i>
426# mysql-aliases.cf 687# mysql-aliases.cf
427 688
428user = mailsql 689user = mailsql
429password = $password 690password = $password
430dbname = mailsql 691dbname = mailsql
431table = alias 692table = alias
432select_field = destination 693select_field = destination
433where_field = alias 694where_field = alias
434hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 695hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
435</pre> 696</pre>
697
436<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf" > 698<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf">
437# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i> 699# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf</i>
438# mysql-relocated.cf 700# mysql-relocated.cf
439 701
440user = mailsql 702user = mailsql
441password = $password 703password = $password
442dbname = mailsql 704dbname = mailsql
443table = relocated 705table = relocated
444select_field = destination 706select_field = destination
445where_field = email 707where_field = email
446hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 708hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
447</pre> 709</pre>
710
448<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)" > 711<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf (optional)">
449# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i> 712# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf</i>
450# mysql-transport.cf 713# mysql-transport.cf
451 714
452user = mailsql 715user = mailsql
453password = $password 716password = $password
454dbname = mailsql 717dbname = mailsql
455table = transport 718table = transport
456select_field = destination 719select_field = destination
457where_field = domain 720where_field = domain
458hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 721hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
459</pre> 722</pre>
723
460<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)" > 724<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf (optional)">
461# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i> 725# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf</i>
462#myql-virtual-gid.cf 726# mysql-virtual-gid.cf
463 727
464user = mailsql 728user = mailsql
465password = $password 729password = $password
466dbname = mailsql 730dbname = mailsql
467table = users 731table = users
468select_field = gid 732select_field = gid
469where_field = email 733where_field = email
470additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 734additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
471hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 735hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
472</pre> 736</pre>
737
473<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf" > 738<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf">
474# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i> 739# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf</i>
475#myql-virtual-maps.cf 740# mysql-virtual-maps.cf
476 741
477user = mailsql 742user = mailsql
478password = $password 743password = $password
479dbname = mailsql 744dbname = mailsql
480table = users 745table = users
481select_field = maildir 746select_field = maildir
482where_field = email 747where_field = email
483additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 748additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
484hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 749hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
485</pre> 750</pre>
751
486<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)" > 752<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf (optional)">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i> 753# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf</i>
488# mysql-virtual-uid.cf 754# mysql-virtual-uid.cf
489 755
490user = mailsql 756user = mailsql
491password = $password 757password = $password
492dbname = mailsql 758dbname = mailsql
493table = users 759table = users
494select_field = uid 760select_field = uid
495where_field = email 761where_field = email
496additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y' 762additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'
497hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 763hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
498</pre> 764</pre>
765
499<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf" > 766<pre caption="/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf">
500# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i> 767# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf</i>
501# mysql-virtual.cf 768# mysql-virtual.cf
502 769
503user = mailsql 770user = mailsql
504password = $password 771password = $password
505dbname = mailsql 772dbname = mailsql
506table = virtual 773table = virtual
507select_field = destination 774select_field = destination
508where_field = email 775where_field = email
509hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock 776hosts = unix:/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
510</pre> 777</pre>
778
779<p>
511<p>Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.</p> 780Lastly, edit <path>/etc/postfix/main.cf</path> one more time.
781</p>
782
512<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf" > 783<pre caption="/etc/postfix/main.cf">
513# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 784# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
785<comment>(Ensure that there are no other alias_maps definitions)</comment>
514alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 786alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
515relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf 787relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf
516 788
517local_transport = local 789local_transport = local
518local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname 790local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname
519 791
520virtual_transport = virtual 792virtual_transport = virtual
521virtual_mailbox_domains = 793<comment>(The domains listed by the mydestination should not be listed in
522 virt-bar.com, 794 the virtual_mailbox_domains parameter)</comment>
523 $other-virtual-domain.com 795virtual_mailbox_domains = virt-domain.com, $other-virtual-domain.com
524 796
525virtual_minimum_uid = 1000 797virtual_minimum_uid = 1000
798<comment>(Substitute $vmail-gid with the GID of the vmail group)</comment>
526virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid 799virtual_gid_maps = static:$vmail-gid
527virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf 800virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf
528virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 801virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
802<comment>(Substitute $vmail-uid with the UID of the vmail user)</comment>
529virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid 803virtual_uid_maps = static:$vmail-uid
530virtual_mailbox_base = / 804virtual_mailbox_base = /
531#virtual_mailbox_limit = 805#virtual_mailbox_limit =
532</pre> 806</pre>
533<p>As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.</p> 807
808<p>
809For security reasons you should change the permissions of the various
810<path>/etc/mail/mysql-*.cf</path>:
811</p>
812
813<pre caption="Changing file permission">
814# <i>chmod 640 /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
815# <i>chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-*.cf</i>
816</pre>
817
818<p>
819As of Postfix 2.0.x, there were a number of significant changes over the 1.1.x
820release. Notably the transport, virtual-gid, and virtual-uid tables are no
821longer necessary. The tables are still included if you wish to use them.
822</p>
823
824<note>
534<note>It is recommended tha you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix doc's for more information.</note> 825It is recommended that you read VIRTUAL_README included with the postfix docs
826for more information.
827</note>
828
829<pre caption="Make postfix reload its tables">
535<pre># <i>postfix reload</i> 830# <i>postfix reload</i>
831</pre>
832
833<p>
834Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be
835able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address,
836for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that
837everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many
838things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the
839troubleshooting section of this howto.
536</pre> 840</p>
537<p>Now, if all went well, you should have a functioning mailhost. Users should be able to authenticate against the sql database, using their full email address, for pop3, imap, and smtp. I would highly suggest that you verify that everything is working at this point. If you run into problems (with as many things as this setup has going on, it's likely that you will) check the troubleshooting section of this howto.</p> 841
538</body> 842</body>
843</section>
539</chapter> 844</chapter>
845
540<chapter> 846<chapter>
541<title>Squirrelmail</title> 847<title>Squirrelmail</title>
848<section>
542<body> 849<body>
543<pre> 850
851<pre caption="Install squirrelmail">
544# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i> 852# <i>emerge squirrelmail</i>
545<codenote>I like to add a link to the htdocs space for a shorter url.</codenote> 853<comment>(Install squirrelmail to localhost so that it's accessed by http://localhost/mail)
854(Substitute 1.4.3a-r2 with the version you use)</comment>
546 855
547# <i>ln -s /var/www/localhost/htdocs/squirrelmail/ /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail</i> 856# <i>webapp-config -I -h localhost -d /mail squirrelmail 1.4.3a-r2</i>
548# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/conf</i> 857# <i>cd /var/www/localhost/htdocs/mail/config</i>
549# <i>./conf.pl</i> 858# <i>perl ./conf.pl</i>
550<codenote>Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.</codenote> 859<comment>(Change your Organization, Server, and Folder settings for squirrelmail.
551<codenote>Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,</codenote> 860Now you should be able to login to squirrelmail, again - with your full email address,
552<codenote>and use your new webmail setup.</codenote> 861and use your new webmail setup.)</comment>
553</pre> 862</pre>
863
554</body> 864</body>
865</section>
555</chapter> 866</chapter>
867
556<chapter> 868<chapter>
557<title>Mailman</title> 869<title>Mailman</title>
870<section>
558<body> 871<body>
559<p>Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done here.</p> 872
560<p>One further note, current versions of mailman install to /usr/local/mailman. If you're like me and wish to change the default install location, it can be overridden in the ebuild filoe by changing the INSTALLDIR variable.</p> 873<p>
561<pre caption="/usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild"> 874Last step: mailman. The new version of mailman has very nice virtual domain
562# <i>nano -w /usr/portage/net-mail/mailman/mailman-$ver.ebuild</i> 875support, which is why I use it, not to mention it's really a great package. To
563MAILGID="280" 876get this package installed and working correctly for virtual domains is going
564<codenote>Set MAILGID to the mailman group instead of nobody</codenote> 877to require a bit of hacking. I really recommend reading all of the mailman
565<codenote>This is needed for postfix integration</codenote> 878documentation, including README.POSTFIX.gz, to understand what's being done
879here.
566</pre> 880</p>
567<pre> 881
882<pre caption="Install mailman">
568# <i>emerge mailman</i> 883# <i>emerge mailman</i>
569<codenote>This package is currently masked as well, so you'll need to unmask it or give </codenote>
570<codenote>emerge an explicit path to the ebuild. Once it's installed, follow the directions</codenote>
571<codenote>in the README.gentoo.gz *except* do not add your aliases to /etc/mail/aliases.</codenote>
572<codenote>We will instead be linking the entire alias db into postfix.</codenote>
573
574# <i>zless /usr/share/doc/mailman-$ver/README.gentoo.gz</i>
575</pre> 884</pre>
885
576<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py"> 886<pre caption="Setting defaults: Mailman/Defaults.py">
577# <i> nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i> 887# <i> nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/Defaults.py</i>
578<codenote>Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.</codenote> 888<comment>(Change the values below to reflect your primary domain, virtuals will be set next.)</comment>
579DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com' 889DEFAULT_EMAIL_HOST = 'domain.com'
580DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com' 890DEFAULT_URL_HOST = 'www.domain.com'
581</pre> 891</pre>
892
582<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py"> 893<pre caption="mailman config: mm_cfg.py">
583# <i>nano -w /var/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i> 894# <i>nano -w /usr/local/mailman/Mailman/mm_cfg.py</i>
584MTA = "Postfix" 895MTA = "Postfix"
585POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com'] 896POSTFIX_STYLE_VIRTUAL_DOMAINS = ['virt-domain.com', 'virt.domain2.com']
586add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com') 897add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain.com', 'virt.domain.com')
587add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com') 898add_virtualhost('www.virt.domain2.com', 'virt.domain2.com')
588<codenote>This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.</codenote> 899<comment>(This is required for your virtual domains for mailman to function.)</comment>
589</pre>
590<pre> 900</pre>
901
902<pre caption="And last but not least">
591<codenote>Once that's finished, add your first list.</codenote> 903<comment>(Once that's finished, add your first list.)</comment>
592 904
593# <i>su mailman</i> 905# <i>su mailman</i>
594# <i>cd ~</i> 906# <i>cd ~</i>
595# <i>bin/newlist test</i> 907# <i>./bin/newlist --urlhost='www.virt-domain.com' --emailhost='virt-domain.com' test</i>
596Enter the email of the person running the list: your@email.address 908Enter the email of the person running the list: <i>your@email.address</i>
597Initial test password: 909Initial test password:
598Hit enter to continue with test owner notification... 910Hit enter to continue with test owner notification...
599<codenote>Virtual domain lists may be specified with</codenote> 911<comment>(Virtual domain lists may also be specified with
600<codenote>list@domain.com style list names</codenote> 912list@domain.com style list names.)</comment>
601# <i>bin/genaliases</i> 913# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
602<codenote>Now that your aliases have been generated,</codenote> 914<comment>(Now that your aliases have been generated,
603<codenote>verify that they were added successfully.</codenote> 915verify that they were added successfully.)</comment>
604 916
605# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i> 917# <i>nano -w data/aliases</i>
606# STANZA START: test 918# STANZA START: test
607# CREATED: 919# CREATED:
608test: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman post test" 920test: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman post test"
609test-admin: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman admin test" 921test-admin: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman admin test"
610test-bounces: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test" 922test-bounces: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman bounces test"
611test-confirm: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test" 923test-confirm: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman confirm test"
612test-join: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman join test" 924test-join: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman join test"
613test-leave: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman leave test" 925test-leave: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman leave test"
614test-owner: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman owner test" 926test-owner: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman owner test"
615test-request: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman request test" 927test-request: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman request test"
616test-subscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test" 928test-subscribe: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe test"
617test-unsubscribe: "|/var/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test" 929test-unsubscribe: "|/usr/local/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe test"
618# STANZA END: test 930# STANZA END: test
931
932<comment>(Create the required mailman list)</comment>
933# <i>./bin/newlist mailman</i>
934# <i>./bin/genaliases</i>
935
936<comment>(Return to the root user)</comment>
937# <i>exit</i>
619 938
620# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i> 939# <i>/etc/init.d/mailman start</i>
621# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i> 940# <i>rc-update add mailman default</i>
622<codenote>To start mailman at once and on every reboot</codenote> 941<comment>(To start mailman at once and on every reboot.)</comment>
623</pre> 942</pre>
624 943
625<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix"> 944<pre caption="Adding mailman alias support to postfix">
626# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 945# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
627owner_request_special = no 946owner_request_special = no
628recipient_delimiter = + 947recipient_delimiter = +
629<codenote>Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this</codenote> 948<comment>(Read README.POSTFIX.gz for details on this.)</comment>
630 949
631alias_maps = 950alias_maps =
632 hash:/var/mailman/data/aliases, 951 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/aliases,
633 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf 952 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf
634 953
635virtual_alias_maps = 954virtual_alias_maps =
636 hash:/var/mailman/data/virtual-mailman, 955 hash:/usr/local/mailman/data/virtual-mailman,
637 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf 956 mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf
638<codenote>This adds mailman alias file support to postfix</codenote> 957<comment>(This adds mailman alias file support to postfix
639<codenote>You may of course use the mysql tables for this,</codenote> 958You may of course use the mysql tables for this,
640<codenote>but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not</codenote> 959but I hate doing that by hand. Also, if you are not
641<codenote>using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps</codenote> 960using virtual domains, adding the virtual alias maps
642<codenote>to postfix may cause problems, be warned.</codenote> 961to postfix may cause problems, be warned.)</comment>
962</pre>
963
964<p>
965You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last
966note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su
967mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them.
968Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman
969lists.
643</pre> 970</p>
644<p> You should now be able to setup mailing lists for any domain on your box. Last note on this, make sure you run all mailman commands as the user mailman (<c>su mailman</c>) or else the permissions will be wrong and you'll have to fix them. Read the mailman doc's for more information on setting up and managing mailman lists.</p> 971
645</body> 972</body>
973</section>
646</chapter> 974</chapter>
975
647<chapter> 976<chapter>
648<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title> 977<title>Content Filtering and Anti-Virus</title>
649<body><p>Coming soon...it would be done already but I need some perl help and testing to make it so. If you'd like to volunteer for that, please email me.</p></body> 978<section>
979<body>
980
981<p>
982For content filtering and Anti-Virus, please consult our <uri
983link="/doc/en/mailfilter-guide.xml">mail filtering gateway guide</uri>.
984</p>
985
986</body>
987</section>
650</chapter> 988</chapter>
989
651<chapter> 990<chapter>
652<title>Wrap Up</title> 991<title>Wrap Up</title>
992<section>
653<body> 993<body>
654<p>Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix, courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all the services enabled.</p> 994
995<p>
996Ok, you're all set, edit <path>/etc/postfix/master.cf</path> and turn off
997verbose mode for production use. You'll probably also want to add the services
998to your startup routine to make sure everything comes back up on a reboot. Make
999sure to add all the services you're using - apache, mysql, saslauthd, postfix,
1000courier-imapd, courier-imapd-ssl, courier-pop3d, and courier-pop3d-ssl are all
1001up to your decision on what access you want to provide. I generally have all
1002the services enabled.
1003</p>
1004
655<pre caption="Wrap up" > 1005<pre caption="Wrap up">
656# <i>postfix reload</i> 1006# <i>postfix reload</i>
657# <i>rc-update add $service default</i> 1007# <i>rc-update add $service default</i>
658</pre> 1008</pre>
1009
659<p> 1010<p>
660<e>Have fun!</e> 1011<e>Have fun!</e>
661</p> 1012</p>
1013
662</body> 1014</body>
1015</section>
663</chapter> 1016</chapter>
1017
664<chapter> 1018<chapter>
665<title>Troubleshooting</title> 1019<title>Troubleshooting</title>
666<section> 1020<section>
667<title>Introduction</title> 1021<title>Introduction</title>
668<body> 1022<body>
669<p>Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this, it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.</p> 1023
1024<p>
1025Troubleshooting: This is a short troubleshooting guide for the set up we've
1026detailed how to install here. It is not exhaustive, but meant as a place to get
1027you started in figuring out problems. With a complicated setup such as this,
1028it's imperative that you narrow down the problem to the particular component
1029that is malfunctioning. In general I do that by following a few steps. Start
1030from the base of the system and work your way up, ruling out components that
1031work along the way until you discover which component is having the problem.
1032</p>
1033
670</body> 1034</body>
671</section>
672<section> 1035</section>
1036<section>
673<title>Step 1: Check your config files.</title> 1037<title>Step 1: Check your config files</title>
674<body> 1038<body>
675<p>Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system, it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service, make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.</p> 1039
676<pre> 1040<p>
1041Typos are killers, especially when dealing with authentication systems. Scan
1042your config's and mailsql database for typo's. You can debug all you want, but
1043if you're not passing the right information back and forth to your mail system,
1044it's not going to work. If you make a change to a config file for a service,
1045make sure you restart that service so that the config change gets picked up.
1046</p>
1047
1048<pre caption="How to restart a service">
677# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i> 1049# <i>/etc/init.d/service restart</i>
678</pre> 1050</pre>
1051
679</body> 1052</body>
680</section> 1053</section>
681<section> 1054<section>
682<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title> 1055<title>Step 2: Are all the necessary services actually running?</title>
683<body> 1056<body>
684<p>If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function. Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.</p> 1057
685<pre> 1058<p>
1059If it's not running, start it up. It's awful hard to debug a service that isn't
1060running. Sometimes a service will act like it's started but still not function.
1061Sometimes, when a bad config is used, or a bad transmission comes into a mail
1062component, the service will hang and keep the port from being used by another
1063process. Sometimes you can detect this with netstat. Or, if you've been at it
1064awhile, just take a break and reboot your box in the meantime. That will clear
1065out any hung services. Then you can come back fresh and try it again.
1066</p>
1067
1068<pre caption="Checking the status of a service">
686# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i> 1069# <i>/etc/init.d/$service status</i>
687# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i> 1070# <i>netstat -a | grep $service (or $port)</i>
688</pre> 1071</pre>
1072
689</body> 1073</body>
690</section> 1074</section>
691<section> 1075<section>
692<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title> 1076<title>Step 3: Are all the service using the current config's?</title>
693<body> 1077<body>
694<p>If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their current config's to you, like postfix.</p> 1078
695<pre> 1079<p>
1080If you've recently made a change to a config file, restart that service to make
1081sure it's using the current version. Some of the components will dump their
1082current config's to you, like postfix.
1083</p>
1084
1085<pre caption="Some services can dump their current config">
696# <i>apachectl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed) 1086# <i>apache2ctl fullstatus</i> (needs lynx installed)
697# <i>apachectl configtest</i> (checks config sanity) 1087# <i>apache2ctl configtest</i> (checks config sanity)
698# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using) 1088# <i>postconf -n</i> (will tell you exactly what param's postfix is using)
699# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i> 1089# <i>/etc/init.d/$service restart</i>
700</pre> 1090</pre>
1091
701</body> 1092</body>
702</section>
703<section> 1093</section>
1094<section>
704<title>Step 4: Check the logs.</title> 1095<title>Step 4: Check the logs</title>
705<body> 1096<body>
706<p>Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least, figure out which component is having the problem.</p> 1097
707<pre> 1098<p>
1099Repeat after me, logs are my friend. My next troubleshooting stop is always the
1100logs. Sometimes it's helpful to try a failed operation again then check the
1101logs so that the error message is right at the bottom (or top depending on your
1102logger) instead of buried in there somewhere. See if there is any information
1103in your log that can help you diagnose the problem, or at the very least,
1104figure out which component is having the problem.
1105</p>
1106
1107<pre caption="Checking the logs">
708# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering) 1108# <i>kill -USR1 `ps -C metalog -o pid=`</i>(to turn off metalog buffering)
709# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i> 1109# <i>nano -w /var/log/mail/current</i>
710# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i> 1110# <i>cat /var/log/mysql/mysql.log</i>
711# <i>tail /var/log/apache/error_log</i> 1111# <i>tail /var/log/apache2/error_log</i>
1112</pre>
1113
1114<p>
1115You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these
1116will increase log output over just verbose mode.
712</pre> 1117</p>
713<p>You may also find the debug_peer parameters in main.cf helpful. Setting these will increase log output over just verbose mode.</p> 1118
714<pre caption="adding debug_peer support"> 1119<pre caption="adding debug_peer support">
715# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i> 1120# <i>nano -w /etc/postfix/main.cf</i>
716debug_peer_level = 5 1121debug_peer_level = 5
717debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name 1122debug_peer_list = $host.domain.name
718<codenote>Uncomment one of the suggested debugger</codenote> 1123<comment>(Uncomment one of the suggested debugger
719<codenote>commands as well.</codenote> 1124commands as well.)</comment>
720</pre> 1125</pre>
1126
721</body> 1127</body>
722</section>
723<section> 1128</section>
1129<section>
724<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself.</title> 1130<title>Step 5: Talk to the service itself</title>
725<body> 1131<body>
726<p>SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session to the service itself and see what's happening.</p> 1132
727<pre> 1133<p>
1134SMTP, IMAP, and POP3 all respond to telnet sessions. As we've seen earlier when
1135we verified postfix's config. Sometimes it's helpful to open a telnet session
1136to the service itself and see what's happening.
1137</p>
1138
1139<pre caption="Connect to a service with telnet">
728# <i>telnet localhost $port</i> 1140# <i>telnet localhost $port</i>
729<codenote>SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,</codenote> 1141<comment>(SMTP is 25, IMAP is 143, POP3 is 110. You should receive at least an OK string,
730<codenote>letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.</codenote> 1142letting you know that the service is running and ready to respond to requests.)</comment>
731 1143
732Trying 127.0.0.1... 1144Trying 127.0.0.1...
733Connected to localhost. 1145Connected to localhost.
734Escape character is '^]'. 1146Escape character is '^]'.
735* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc. 1147* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
736</pre> 1148</pre>
1149
737</body> 1150</body>
738</section>
739<section> 1151</section>
1152<section>
740<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace.</title> 1153<title>Step 6: Sometimes only the big guns will give you the information you need: strace</title>
741<body> 1154<body>
742<p>You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.</p> 1155
743<pre> 1156<p>
1157You should have this installed anyway. This is an invaluable tool for debugging
1158software. You can start commands from the command line with strace and watch
1159all the system calls as they happen. It often dumps a huge amount of
1160information, so you'll either need to watch it realtime as you retry a failed
1161transaction with the mail system, or dump the output to a file for review.
1162</p>
1163
1164<pre caption="Using strace">
744# <i>emerge strace</i> 1165# <i>emerge strace</i>
745# <i>strace $command</i> 1166# <i>strace $command</i>
746# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i> 1167# <i>strace -p `ps -C $service -o pid=`</i>
747</pre> 1168</pre>
1169
748</body> 1170</body>
749</section> 1171</section>
750<section> 1172<section>
751<title>Step 7: Research</title> 1173<title>Step 7: Research</title>
752<body> 1174<body>
753<p>Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great! If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth which contains some great debugging ideas.</p> 1175
1176<p>
1177Once you have the information, if you can diagnose and fix the problem, great!
1178If not, you'll probably need to go digging on the net for information that will
1179help you fix it. Here's a list of sites you can check to see if your error has
1180already been resolved. There's also a really good howto on setting up smtp-auth
1181which contains some great debugging ideas.
754<p> 1182</p>
1183
755<ul> 1184<ul>
756<li>
757<uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li> 1185 <li><uri>http://forums.gentoo.org/</uri> - Great forums for gentoo users</li>
758<li> 1186 <li>
759<uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place to look for specific errors</li> 1187 <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org/</uri> - Bugs database for gentoo - great place
760<li> 1188 to look for specific errors
1189 </li>
761<uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li> 1190 <li><uri>http://postfix.state-of-mind.de/</uri> - smtp-auth howto</li>
762<li> 1191 <li>
763<uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing lists - searchable</li> 1192 <uri>http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=postfix-users</uri> - Postfix mailing
1193 lists - searchable
1194 </li>
764<li> 1195 <li>
765<uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> - Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable</li> 1196 <uri>http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=6705</uri> -
1197 Courier-imap mailing list archives - not searchable
1198 </li>
766<li> 1199 <li>
767<uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always google, which has never failed me</li> 1200 <uri>http://www.google.com/</uri> - If all else fails, there's always
768<li>I also spend a lot of time on irc.freenode.net #gentoo. Irc is a great place to go for help.</li> 1201 google, which has never failed me
1202 </li>
1203 <li>
1204 I also spend a lot of time on <uri
1205 link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>. IRC is a great place to go
1206 for help.
1207 </li>
769</ul> 1208</ul>
770</p> 1209
771</body> 1210</body>
772</section> 1211</section>
773</chapter> 1212</chapter>
774</guide> 1213</guide>
775

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