Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log

Revision 1.11 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Apr 16 00:33:55 2003 UTC (15 years, 9 months ago) by peesh
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.10: +3 -2 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
fixed code listing 1.2

1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
5 zhen 1.9 <title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
6 zhen 1.6 <author title="Author"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 zhen 1.9 <author title="Author"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
8 peesh 1.11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
9 drobbins 1.1
10     <abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide
11     XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document
12     itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
13     </abstract>
15 zhen 1.9 <version>2.0</version>
16 peesh 1.11 <date>15 April 2003</date>
17 drobbins 1.1
18     <chapter>
19     <title>Guide basics</title>
21     <section>
22     <title>Guide XML design goals</title>
23     <body>
25     <p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
26     learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
27     documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
28     This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
29     XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p>
31     <p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
32     documents.</p>
34     </body>
35     </section>
37     <section>
38     <title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title>
39     <body>
41     <p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
42     guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
43 zhen 1.6 file called <path>guide.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
44     tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide.xsl</path> file describes
45 drobbins 1.1 exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
46 zhen 1.9 create the target HTML file. The processing tool that Gentoo Linux uses
47     is called <c>xsltproc</c>, which is found in the <i>libxslt</i> package. </p>
48 drobbins 1.1
49 zhen 1.6
50 zhen 1.9 <pre caption="Installing libxslt">
51     # <c>emerge libxslt</c>
52     </pre>
53 zhen 1.6
54 zhen 1.9 <p>Now that we have the way, we need the means, so to speak. In other words,
55     we need some Gentoo XML documents to transform. Gentoo has two types of tarballs
56     that are available for download: </p>
58     <p><b>The first type contains the entire up-to-date Gentoo Linux website</b>.
59     Included are our XSL templates, so if you are planning to transform any documentation,
60     you will need this tarball. The tarball can be found
61     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/arch/xml-guide-latest.tar.gz">here</uri>.</p>
63     <p><b>The second type contains daily snapshots our XML documentation source</b> in
64     every language that we offer. Please note that it is impossible to transform
65     documentation with this tarball, so please download the web tarball if you want to fully
66     develop your own documentation. These tarballs are especially useful for translators.
67     These tarballs can be found <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/doc-snapshots">here</uri>.
68 drobbins 1.1 </p>
70 zhen 1.9 <p>After the web tarball is downloaded and extracted, go
71     to the directory where the tarball was extracted, and enter the
72     <path>htdocs</path> directory. Browse around and get comfortable with the
73     layout, but note the <path>xsl</path> and <path>doc</path> directories.
74     As you might have guessed, the XSL stylesheets are in <path>xsl</path>,
75     and our documentation is in <path>doc</path>. For testing purposes, we
76     will be using the Gentoo Linux CD Installation Guide, located at
77     <path>doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</path>. Now that the locations
78     of the XSL and XML file are known, we can do some transforming with
79     <c>xsltproc</c>. </p>
80 zhen 1.6
81     <pre caption="Transforming gentoo-x86-install.xml">
82 peesh 1.11 # <c>xsltproc xsl/guide.xsl doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</c>
83 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
85     <p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
86 zhen 1.6 <path>gentoo-x86-install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
87 drobbins 1.1 to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
88 zhen 1.6 <path>htdocs</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
89 zhen 1.9 as <path>css/main.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
90 drobbins 1.1 directory.
91     </p>
93     </body>
94     </section>
95     </chapter>
96     <chapter>
97     <title>Guide XML</title>
98     <section>
99     <title>Basic structure</title>
100     <body>
102     <p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
103     the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
104     XML document: </p>
106     <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
107 zhen 1.6 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
108     &lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt;
109 drobbins 1.1 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
110     &lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
111     <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
112     &lt;/author&gt;
113     &lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
114     <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
115     &lt;/author&gt;
117     &lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
118     our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official
119     format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
120     using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt;
122     &lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
123     &lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt;
124     </pre>
126     <p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
127     document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
128     guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
129     Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
130     guide document. </p>
132     <p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
133     about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
134     allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
135     relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
136     particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
137     <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
138     person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
139     more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
140     </p>
142     <p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
143     <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
144     current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format)
145     respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of
146     a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>
147     tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
148     <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
149     required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p>
151     </body>
152     </section>
154     <section>
155     <title>Chapters and sections</title>
156     <body>
157     <p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
158     the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
159     chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
160     and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
161     consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous
162     excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
163     (if minimal) guide document:
164     </p>
166     <pre>
167     &lt;chapter&gt;
168     &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
169     &lt;section&gt;
170     &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
171     &lt;body&gt;
172     &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt;
173     &lt;/body&gt;
174     &lt;/section&gt;
175     &lt;/chapter&gt;
176     </pre>
178     <p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
179     element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
180     adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
181     <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
182     <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
183     is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
184     content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
185     inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p>
187     <note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple
188     <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain
189     multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
190     element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note>
192     </body>
193     </section>
195     <section>
196     <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
197     <body>
198     <p>
199     Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
200     </p>
201     <pre>
202     &lt;p&gt;
203     This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
204     &lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
205     Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
206     &lt;/p&gt;
208     &lt;pre&gt;
209     This is text output or code.
210     # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
212     Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
213     &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
215     &lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
216     &lt;/pre&gt;
217     &lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt;
218     &lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt;
219     &lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt;
220     </pre>
221     <p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p>
223     <p>
224     This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
225     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
226     Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
227     </p>
229     <pre>
230     This is text output or code.
231     # <i>this is user input</i>
233     Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
234     &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
236     <codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
237     </pre>
238     <note>This is a note.</note>
239     <warn>This is a warning.</warn>
240     <impo>This is important.</impo>
241     </body>
242     </section>
244     <section>
245     <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
246     <body>
248     <p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
249     need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
250     block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
251     <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
252     Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
253     these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
254     <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
255     stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
256     <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
257     preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p>
259     </body>
260     </section>
261     <section>
262     <title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
263     <body>
265     <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
266     be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
267     <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p>
269     <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
270     <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>.
271     This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the
272     standard paragraph type. </p>
274     <p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
275     input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
276     that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
277     the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
278     element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
279     not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
280     quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
281     <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
282     necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
283     refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
284     the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p>
286     <p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
287     I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
288     offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
289     prose more <e>punch</e>!</p>
291     </body>
292     </section>
294     <section>
295     <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
296     <body>
298     <p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text
299     with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p>
301     <p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the
302     Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the
303     actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to
304     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
305     <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
306     when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
307     link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
308     link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
309     </p>
311     </body>
312     </section>
314     <section>
315     <title>Figures</title>
317     <body>
319     <p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
320     link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
321     time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
322     the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
323     the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
324     :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
325     for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p>
327     </body>
328     </section>
329     <section>
330     <title>Tables and lists</title>
331     <body>
333     <p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
334     a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
335     tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
336     HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
337     header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
338     block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> --
339     there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
340     first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
341     be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
342     </p>
344     <p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
345     <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
346     should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
347     <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p>
349     </body>
350     </section>
352     <section>
353     <title>Intra-document references</title>
354     <body>
356     <p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
357     hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
358     One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
359     One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
360     Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
361     Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
362     link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>,
363     type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
364     adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p>
366     </body>
367     </section>
368     </chapter>
369     <chapter>
370     <title>Resources</title>
371     <section>
372     <title>Start writing</title>
373     <body>
374     <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
375     can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
376     syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
377     to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please
378 zhen 1.10 post a message to the <mail link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail>
379 drobbins 1.1 stating what you'd like to tackle.
380     Have fun!</p>
381     </body>
382     </section>
383     </chapter>
384     </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20