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1 cam 1.41 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.58 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xml-guide.xml,v 1.57 2006/01/09 14:44:14 neysx Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
6 vapier 1.50 <title>Gentoo XML Guide</title>
7 swift 1.15
8     <author title="Author">
9 neysx 1.58 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Author">
12 swift 1.15 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
13     </author>
14 swift 1.19 <author title="Author"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
15     John P. Davis
16 swift 1.15 </author>
17     <author title="Editor">
18     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
19     </author>
20 swift 1.25 <author title="Editor">
21     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
22     </author>
23 drobbins 1.1
24 swift 1.15 <abstract>
25     This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight
26 vapier 1.50 Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo
27 swift 1.15 documentation, and this document itself was created using GuideXML. This guide
28     assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
29 drobbins 1.1 </abstract>
30    
31 swift 1.31 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
32 swift 1.46 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
33 swift 1.26 <license/>
34    
35 neysx 1.58 <version>3</version>
36     <date>2006-02-18</date>
37 drobbins 1.1
38     <chapter>
39     <title>Guide basics</title>
40     <section>
41     <title>Guide XML design goals</title>
42     <body>
43    
44 swift 1.15 <p>
45     The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
46 drobbins 1.1 learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
47     documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
48     This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
49 swift 1.15 XML/SGML or web-ready HTML.
50     </p>
51 drobbins 1.1
52 swift 1.15 <p>
53     The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
54     documents.
55     </p>
56 drobbins 1.1
57     </body>
58     </section>
59     <section>
60 swift 1.20 <title>Further Resources</title>
61 drobbins 1.1 <body>
62    
63 swift 1.15 <p>
64 neysx 1.34 If you are planning on contributing documentation to Gentoo, or you want to
65 neysx 1.52 test GuideXML, please read our <uri
66     link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Doc Tips 'n' Tricks</uri> guide
67     which contains tips and tricks for documentation development.
68     </p>
69    
70     <p>
71     You may want to look at the <uri link="?passthru=1">XML source</uri> of this
72     document while you read it.
73 drobbins 1.1 </p>
74    
75     </body>
76     </section>
77     </chapter>
78 swift 1.15
79 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
80 swift 1.15 <title>Guide XML</title>
81 drobbins 1.1 <section>
82     <title>Basic structure</title>
83     <body>
84    
85 swift 1.15 <p>
86 swift 1.36 Let's start learning the GuideXML syntax. We'll start with the the initial
87     tags used in a GuideXML document:
88 swift 1.15 </p>
89 drobbins 1.1
90     <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
91 cam 1.41 &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
92 swift 1.25 &lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
93 neysx 1.42 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
94    
95 neysx 1.43 &lt;guide link="<i>/doc/en/guide.xml</i>" lang="<i>en</i>"&gt;
96 vapier 1.50 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
97 neysx 1.49
98 swift 1.33 &lt;author title="<i>Author</i>"&gt;
99     &lt;mail link="<i>yourname@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;<i>Your Name</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
100 drobbins 1.1 &lt;/author&gt;
101    
102 swift 1.15 &lt;abstract&gt;
103     <i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
104     our new lightweight Gentoo GuideXML syntax. This syntax is the official
105 vapier 1.50 format for Gentoo web documentation, and this document itself was created
106 swift 1.15 using GuideXML.</i>
107     &lt;/abstract&gt;
108 drobbins 1.1
109 swift 1.27 &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
110 swift 1.46 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
111 swift 1.14 &lt;license/&gt;
112    
113 drobbins 1.1 &lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
114 neysx 1.35 &lt;date&gt;<i>2004-12-25</i>&lt;/date&gt;
115 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
116    
117 swift 1.15 <p>
118 neysx 1.42 On the first lines, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
119     document and specifies its DTD. The <c>&lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;</c> line
120     will be automatically modified by the CVS server and helps to track revisions.
121 neysx 1.51 Next, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire guide document is
122     enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair. The <c>link</c>
123 neysx 1.43 attribute is compulsory and should preferably contain the absolute path to the
124     document relatively to the document root even though the file name alone will
125     work. It is mainly used to generate a link to a printer-friendly version of
126 neysx 1.51 your document. If you use a wrong value, the link to the printable version will
127     either not work or point to a wrong document. Translated documents <e>must</e>
128     specify the full path because it is also used to check whether a more recent
129     original document exists. The <c>lang</c> attribute should be used to specify
130     the language code of your document. It is used to format the date and insert
131     strings like "<e>Note</e>", "<e>Content</e>", etc. in the specified language.
132     The default is English.
133 neysx 1.35 </p>
134    
135     <p>
136 drobbins 1.1 Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
137 swift 1.15 guide document.
138     </p>
139 drobbins 1.1
140 swift 1.15 <p>
141     Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
142 drobbins 1.1 about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
143 neysx 1.52 allows for an optional <c>title</c> element, used to specify the author's
144 drobbins 1.1 relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
145     particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
146     <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
147     person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
148     more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
149     </p>
150    
151 swift 1.15 <p>
152     Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
153 drobbins 1.1 <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
154 neysx 1.35 current version number, and the current version date (in YYYY-MM-DD format)
155     respectively. Dates that are invalid or not in the YYYY-MM-DD format will
156     appear verbatim in the rendered document.
157     </p>
158    
159     <p>
160     This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of a guide
161     document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tags, these
162     tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
163 drobbins 1.1 <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
164 swift 1.15 required) that these tags appear before the content of the document.
165     </p>
166 swift 1.14
167 swift 1.15 <p>
168 neysx 1.38 Finally we have the <c>&lt;license/&gt;</c> tag, used to publish the document
169 neysx 1.49 under the <uri link="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/">Creative
170 neysx 1.38 Commons - Attribution / Share Alike</uri> license as required by the <uri
171     link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-policy.xml">Documentation Policy</uri>.
172 swift 1.15 </p>
173 drobbins 1.1
174     </body>
175     </section>
176     <section>
177     <title>Chapters and sections</title>
178     <body>
179 swift 1.15
180     <p>
181 neysx 1.37 Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding the
182     structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
183     chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter and
184     section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
185     consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri
186     link="#doc_chap2_pre1">previous excerpt</uri> and append a
187     <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid (if minimal)
188     guide document:
189 drobbins 1.1 </p>
190    
191 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Minimal guide example">
192 drobbins 1.1 &lt;chapter&gt;
193     &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
194     &lt;section&gt;
195 swift 1.15 &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
196     &lt;body&gt;
197    
198     &lt;p&gt;
199     <i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>
200     &lt;/p&gt;
201    
202     &lt;/body&gt;
203 drobbins 1.1 &lt;/section&gt;
204     &lt;/chapter&gt;
205     </pre>
206    
207 swift 1.15 <p>
208     Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
209 drobbins 1.1 element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
210     adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
211     <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
212     <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
213     is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
214     content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
215 swift 1.15 inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit.
216     </p>
217 drobbins 1.1
218 swift 1.15 <note>
219     A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>
220     elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain multiple
221     <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
222     element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
223     </note>
224 drobbins 1.1
225     </body>
226     </section>
227     <section>
228     <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
229     <body>
230 swift 1.15
231 drobbins 1.1 <p>
232 neysx 1.37 Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for
233     an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
234 drobbins 1.1 </p>
235 swift 1.15
236 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Example of a body element">
237 drobbins 1.1 &lt;p&gt;
238     This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
239 neysx 1.35 &lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
240 drobbins 1.1 Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
241     &lt;/p&gt;
242    
243 neysx 1.37 &lt;pre caption="Code Sample"&gt;
244 drobbins 1.1 This is text output or code.
245     # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
246    
247     Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
248     &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
249    
250 neysx 1.58 &lt;comment&gt;(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)&lt;/comment&gt;
251 drobbins 1.1 &lt;/pre&gt;
252 swift 1.15
253     &lt;note&gt;
254     This is a note.
255     &lt;/note&gt;
256    
257     &lt;warn&gt;
258     This is a warning.
259     &lt;/warn&gt;
260    
261     &lt;impo&gt;
262     This is important.
263     &lt;/impo&gt;
264 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
265 swift 1.15
266     <p>
267 neysx 1.37 Now, here's how the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element above is rendered:
268 swift 1.15 </p>
269 drobbins 1.1
270     <p>
271     This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
272 swift 1.45 <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite web site.
273 drobbins 1.1 Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
274     </p>
275    
276 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Code Sample">
277 drobbins 1.1 This is text output or code.
278     # <i>this is user input</i>
279    
280     Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
281     &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
282    
283 neysx 1.58 <comment>(This is how to insert a comment into a code block)</comment>
284 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
285 swift 1.15
286     <note>
287     This is a note.
288     </note>
289    
290     <warn>
291     This is a warning.
292     </warn>
293    
294     <impo>
295     This is important.
296     </impo>
297    
298 drobbins 1.1 </body>
299     </section>
300     <section>
301     <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
302     <body>
303    
304 swift 1.15 <p>
305 neysx 1.52 We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you need
306     to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code block),
307     <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c>
308     (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text. Besides the
309     <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c> and
310     <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c> elements (which we'll cover in just a bit), these are the
311     only tags that should appear immediately inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element.
312     Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be stacked -- in other words,
313     don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As
314     you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element preserves its whitespace
315     exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts. You must name the
316 neysx 1.53 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> tag with a <c>caption</c> attribute:
317 swift 1.15 </p>
318 swift 1.12
319 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Named &lt;pre&gt;">
320 neysx 1.51 &lt;pre caption="Output of uptime"&gt;
321 swift 1.12 # &lt;i&gt;uptime&lt;/i&gt;
322     16:50:47 up 164 days, 2:06, 5 users, load average: 0.23, 0.20, 0.25
323     &lt;/pre&gt;
324     </pre>
325 drobbins 1.1
326     </body>
327     </section>
328     <section>
329 neysx 1.52 <title>Epigraphs</title>
330     <body>
331    
332     <p by="Anonymous student">
333     Delegates from the original 13 states formed the Contented Congress. Thomas
334     Jefferson, a Virgin, and Benjamin Franklin were two singers of the Declaration
335     of Independence. Franklin discovered electricity by rubbing two cats backwards
336     and declared, "A horse divided against itself cannot stand." Franklin died in
337     1790 and is still dead.
338     </p>
339    
340     <p>
341     Epigraphs are sometimes used at the beginning of chapters to illustrate what is
342     to follow. It is simply a paragraph with a <c>by</c> attribute that contains
343     the signature.
344     </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Short epigraph">
347     &lt;p by="Anonymous student"&gt;
348     Delegates from the original 13 states formed the...
349     &lt;/p&gt;
350     </pre>
351    
352     </body>
353     </section>
354     <section>
355     <title>
356 neysx 1.58 &lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt;, &lt;b&gt;, &lt;e&gt;, &lt;sub&gt; and &lt;sup&gt;
357 neysx 1.52 </title>
358 drobbins 1.1 <body>
359    
360 swift 1.15 <p>
361 neysx 1.52 The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
362     <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements can be used inside any child
363 neysx 1.58 <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>.
364 swift 1.15 </p>
365 drobbins 1.1
366 swift 1.15 <p>
367     The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
368     <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a
369 swift 1.45 <e>simple filename</e>. This element is generally rendered with a mono spaced
370 swift 1.15 font to offset it from the standard paragraph type.
371     </p>
372 drobbins 1.1
373 swift 1.15 <p>
374     The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
375 drobbins 1.1 input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
376     that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
377     the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
378     element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
379     not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
380     quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
381     <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
382     necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
383     refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
384 swift 1.15 the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and
385     adorable!
386     </p>
387 drobbins 1.1
388 swift 1.15 <p>
389 neysx 1.51 As you might have guessed, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c> is used to <b>boldface</b> some
390     text.
391     </p>
392    
393     <p>
394 swift 1.15 <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
395 drobbins 1.1 I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
396     offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
397 swift 1.15 prose more <e>punch</e>!
398     </p>
399 drobbins 1.1
400 neysx 1.52 <p>
401     The <c>&lt;sub&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;sup&gt;</c> elements are used to specify
402     <sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>.
403     </p>
404    
405 drobbins 1.1 </body>
406     </section>
407     <section>
408 neysx 1.58 <title>Code samples and colour-coding</title>
409     <body>
410    
411     <p>
412     To improve the readability of code samples, the following tags are allowed
413     inside <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks:
414     </p>
415    
416     <dl>
417     <dt><c>&lt;i&gt;</c></dt>
418     <dd>Distinguishes user input from displayed text</dd>
419     <dt><c>&lt;comment&gt;</c></dt>
420     <dd>Comments relevant to the action(s) that appear after the comment</dd>
421     <dt><c>&lt;keyword&gt;</c></dt>
422     <dd>Denotes a keyword in the language used in the code sample
423     </dd>
424     <dt><c>&lt;ident&gt;</c></dt>
425     <dd>Used for an identifier
426     </dd>
427     <dt><c>&lt;const&gt;</c></dt>
428     <dd>Used for a constant
429     </dd>
430     <dt><c>&lt;stmt&gt;</c></dt>
431     <dd>Used for a statement
432     </dd>
433     <dt><c>&lt;var&gt;</c></dt>
434     <dd>Used for a variable
435     </dd>
436     </dl>
437    
438     <note>
439     Remember that all leading and trailing spaces, and line breaks in
440     <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> blocks will appear in the displayed html page.
441     </note>
442    
443     <p>
444     Sample colour-coded <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> block:
445     </p>
446    
447     <pre caption="My first ebuild">
448     <comment># Copyright 1999-2006 <b>Gentoo Foundation</b>
449     # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2
450     # &#36;Header: $</comment>
451    
452     <ident>DESCRIPTION</ident>=<const>"Exuberant ctags generates tags files for quick source navigation"</const>
453     <ident>HOMEPAGE</ident>=<const>"http://ctags.sourceforge.net"</const>
454     <ident>SRC_URI</ident>=<const>"mirror://sourceforge/ctags/<var>${P}</var>.tar.gz"</const>
455    
456     <ident>LICENSE</ident>=<const>"GPL-2"</const>
457     <ident>SLOT</ident>=<const>"0"</const>
458     <ident>KEYWORDS</ident>=<const>"~mips ~sparc ~x86"</const>
459     <ident>IUSE</ident>=<const>""</const>
460    
461     <stmt>src_compile()</stmt> {
462     <keyword>econf</keyword> --with-posix-regex || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"econf failed"</const>
463     <keyword>emake</keyword> || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"emake failed"</const>
464     }
465    
466     <stmt>src_install()</stmt> {
467     <keyword>make</keyword> <ident>DESTDIR</ident>="<var>${D}</var>" install || <keyword>die</keyword> <const>"install failed"</const>
468    
469     <keyword>dodoc</keyword> FAQ NEWS README
470     <keyword>dohtml</keyword> EXTENDING.html ctags.html
471     }
472     </pre>
473    
474     </body>
475     </section>
476     <section>
477 drobbins 1.1 <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
478     <body>
479    
480 swift 1.15 <p>
481 neysx 1.51 We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link
482     some text with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail
483     link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>. If you want to display the
484     email address, you can use <c>&lt;mail&gt;foo@bar.com&lt;/mail&gt;</c>, this
485     would be displayed as <mail>foo@bar.com</mail>.
486 swift 1.15 </p>
487 drobbins 1.1
488 swift 1.15 <p>
489 neysx 1.35 The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the Internet.
490     It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the actual URI
491     displayed in the body text, such as this link to
492     <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
493     <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://forums.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
494 drobbins 1.1 when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
495 neysx 1.35 link="http://forums.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Forums</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
496     link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo
497     Forums&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You don't need to write <c>http://www.gentoo.org/</c>
498 swift 1.45 to link to other parts of the Gentoo web site. For instance, a link to the <uri
499 neysx 1.35 link="/doc/en/">documentation main index</uri> should be simply <c>&lt;uri
500     link="/doc/en/index.xml"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. You can
501     even omit <c>index.xml</c> when you link to a directory index, e.g. <c>&lt;uri
502     link="/doc/en/"&gt;documentation main index&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
503 drobbins 1.1 </p>
504    
505     </body>
506     </section>
507     <section>
508     <title>Figures</title>
509     <body>
510    
511 swift 1.15 <p>
512     Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
513 drobbins 1.1 link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
514 neysx 1.52 time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
515     the <c>short</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
516     the image's HTML <c>alt</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
517 drobbins 1.1 :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
518 swift 1.15 for adding images without captions, borders, etc.
519     </p>
520 drobbins 1.1
521     </body>
522     </section>
523     <section>
524 neysx 1.52 <title>Tables</title>
525 drobbins 1.1 <body>
526    
527 swift 1.15 <p>
528 neysx 1.52 Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start a
529 neysx 1.51 table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
530 neysx 1.52 tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
531 drobbins 1.1 HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
532     header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
533 neysx 1.51 block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>
534     -- there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
535     first row.
536 drobbins 1.1 </p>
537    
538 swift 1.15 <p>
539 neysx 1.52 Besides, the table header tag (<c>&lt;th&gt;</c>) accepts the <c>colspan</c>
540     and <c>rowspan</c> attributes to span titles across rows, columns or both as
541     shown below:
542     </p>
543    
544     <table>
545     <tr>
546     <th colspan="4">This title spans 4 columns</th>
547     </tr>
548     <tr>
549     <th rowspan="3">This title spans 3 rows</th>
550     <ti>Item A1</ti>
551     <ti>Item A2</ti>
552     <ti>Item A3</ti>
553     </tr>
554     <tr>
555     <ti>Item B1</ti>
556     <th colspan="2" rowspan="2">Blocky 2x2 title</th>
557     </tr>
558     <tr>
559     <ti>Item C1</ti>
560     </tr>
561     </table>
562    
563     </body>
564     </section>
565     <section>
566     <title>Lists</title>
567     <body>
568    
569     <p>
570 swift 1.39 To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the XHTML-style
571 neysx 1.52 <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. Lists may only
572     appear inside the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags which means
573     that you can have lists inside lists. Don't forget that you are writing XML and
574     that you must close all tags including list items unlike in HTML.
575 swift 1.15 </p>
576 drobbins 1.1
577 neysx 1.52 <p>
578     Definition lists (<c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>) are also supported. Please note that
579     neither the definition term tag (<c>&lt;dt&gt;</c>) nor the definition data tag
580     (<c>&lt;dd&gt;</c>) accept any other block level tag such as paragraphs or
581 neysx 1.53 admonitions. A definition list comprises:
582 neysx 1.52 </p>
583    
584     <dl>
585     <dt><c>&lt;dl&gt;</c></dt>
586     <dd>A <b>D</b>efinition <b>L</b>ist Tag containing</dd>
587     <dt><c>&lt;dt&gt;</c></dt>
588     <dd>Pairs of <b>D</b>efinition <b>T</b>erm Tags</dd>
589     <dt><c>&lt;dd&gt;</c></dt>
590     <dd>and <b>D</b>efinition <b>D</b>ata Tags</dd>
591     </dl>
592    
593     <p>
594     The following list copied from <uri
595     link="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/struct/lists.html">w3.org</uri> shows
596     that a definition list can contain ordered and unordered lists. It may not
597     contain another definition list though.
598     </p>
599    
600     <dl>
601     <dt><b>The ingredients:</b></dt>
602     <dd>
603     <ul>
604     <li>100 g. flour</li>
605     <li>10 g. sugar</li>
606     <li>1 cup water</li>
607     <li>2 eggs</li>
608     <li>salt, pepper</li>
609     </ul>
610     </dd>
611     <dt><b>The procedure:</b></dt>
612     <dd>
613     <ol>
614 neysx 1.53 <li>Mix dry ingredients thoroughly</li>
615     <li>Pour in wet ingredients</li>
616     <li>Mix for 10 minutes</li>
617     <li>Bake for one hour at 300 degrees</li>
618 neysx 1.52 </ol>
619     </dd>
620     <dt><b>Notes:</b></dt>
621 neysx 1.53 <dd>The recipe may be improved by adding raisins</dd>
622 neysx 1.52 </dl>
623    
624 drobbins 1.1 </body>
625     </section>
626     <section>
627     <title>Intra-document references</title>
628     <body>
629    
630 swift 1.15 <p>
631     Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
632 drobbins 1.1 hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
633     One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
634     One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
635     Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
636     Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
637 swift 1.40 link="#doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri
638 swift 1.15 link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri
639 neysx 1.52 link="#doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
640 swift 1.17 </p>
641 swift 1.23
642     <p>
643     However, some guides change often and using such "counting" can lead to broken
644     links. In order to cope with this, you can define a name for a
645 neysx 1.47 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> or a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> by using
646     the <c>id</c> attribute, and then point to that attribute, like this:
647 swift 1.23 </p>
648    
649     <pre caption="Using the id attribute">
650     &lt;chapter id="foo"&gt;
651     &lt;title&gt;This is foo!&lt;/title&gt;
652     ...
653     &lt;p&gt;
654     More information can be found in the &lt;uri link="#foo"&gt;foo chapter&lt;/uri&gt;
655     &lt;/p&gt;
656     </pre>
657 swift 1.17
658     </body>
659     </section>
660 neysx 1.51 <section>
661     <title>Disclaimers and obsolete documents</title>
662     <body>
663    
664     <p>
665 alin 1.54 A <c>disclaimer</c> attribute can be applied to guides and handbooks to display
666     a predefined disclaimer at the top of the document. The available disclaimers
667     are:
668 neysx 1.51 </p>
669    
670     <ul>
671     <li>
672     <b>articles</b> is used for <uri link="/doc/en/articles/">republished
673     articles</uri>
674     </li>
675     <li>
676     <b>draft</b> is used to indicate a document is still being worked on and
677     should not be considered official
678     </li>
679     <li>
680     <b>oldbook</b> is used on old handbooks to indicate they are not maintained
681     anymore
682     </li>
683     <li><b>obsolete</b> is used to mark a document as obsolete.</li>
684     </ul>
685    
686     <p>
687     When marking a document as obsolete, you might want to add a link to a new
688     version. The <c>redirect</c> attribute does just that. The user might be
689     automatically redirected to the new page but you should not rely on that
690     behaviour.
691     </p>
692    
693     <pre caption="Disclaimer sample">
694     &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
695     &lt;!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"&gt;
696     &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
697    
698     &lt;guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml" disclaimer="obsolete" redirect="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml"&gt;
699     &lt;title>Gentoo x86 Installation Guide&lt;/title&gt;
700    
701     &lt;author title="Author"&gt;
702     ...
703     </pre>
704    
705     </body>
706     </section>
707 swift 1.17 </chapter>
708    
709     <chapter>
710     <title>Coding Style</title>
711     <section>
712     <title>Introduction</title>
713     <body>
714    
715     <p>
716     Since all Gentoo Documentation is a joint effort and several people will
717     most likely change existing documentation, a coding style is needed.
718     A coding style contains two sections. The first one is regarding
719 swift 1.45 internal coding - how the XML-tags are placed. The second one is
720 swift 1.17 regarding the content - how not to confuse the reader.
721     </p>
722    
723     <p>
724     Both sections are described next.
725     </p>
726    
727     </body>
728     </section>
729     <section>
730     <title>Internal Coding Style</title>
731     <body>
732    
733     <p>
734     <b>Newlines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
735     GuideXML-tag (both opening as closing), except for:
736     <c>&lt;version&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;date&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>,
737     <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
738     <c>&lt;li&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;i&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;e&gt;</c>,
739 swift 1.44 <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;b&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>,
740 neysx 1.37 <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>.
741 swift 1.17 </p>
742    
743     <p>
744     <b>Blank lines</b> must be placed immediately after <e>every</e>
745     <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> (opening tag only) and before <e>every</e>
746     <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>,
747 swift 1.18 <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> (set), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
748     <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> and
749     <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (opening tags only).
750 swift 1.17 </p>
751    
752     <p>
753     <b>Word-wrapping</b> must be applied at 80 characters except inside
754 neysx 1.51 <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. You may only deviate from this rule when there is no other
755     choice (for instance when a URL exceeds the maximum amount of characters). The
756     editor must then wrap whenever the first whitespace occurs. You should try to
757     keep the <e>rendered</e> content of <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> elements within 80
758     columns to help console users.
759 swift 1.17 </p>
760    
761     <p>
762 neysx 1.51 <b>Indentation</b> may not be used, except with the XML-constructs of which the
763     parent XML-tags are <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c> (from <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>),
764 neysx 1.53 <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, and
765     <c>&lt;author&gt;</c>. If indentation is used, it <e>must</e> be two spaces for
766     each indentation. That means <e>no tabs</e> and <e>not</e> more spaces.
767     Besides, tabs are not allowed in GuideXML documents.
768 swift 1.17 </p>
769    
770     <p>
771 neysx 1.53 In case word-wrapping happens in <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;th&gt;</c>,
772 neysx 1.57 <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;dd&gt;</c> constructs, indentation must be used for
773 neysx 1.53 the content.
774 swift 1.17 </p>
775    
776     <p>
777     An example for indentation is:
778     </p>
779    
780 neysx 1.37 <pre caption="Indentation Example">
781 swift 1.17 &lt;table&gt;
782     &lt;tr&gt;
783     &lt;th&gt;Foo&lt;/th&gt;
784     &lt;th&gt;Bar&lt;/th&gt;
785     &lt;/tr&gt;
786     &lt;tr&gt;
787 swift 1.48 &lt;ti&gt;This is an example for indentation&lt;/ti&gt;
788 swift 1.17 &lt;ti&gt;
789     In case text cannot be shown within an 80-character wide line, you
790 swift 1.48 must use indentation if the parent tag allows it
791 swift 1.17 &lt;/ti&gt;
792     &lt;/tr&gt;
793     &lt;/table&gt;
794    
795     &lt;ul&gt;
796     &lt;li&gt;First option&lt;/li&gt;
797     &lt;li&gt;Second option&lt;/li&gt;
798     &lt;/ul&gt;
799     </pre>
800    
801     <p>
802 neysx 1.53 <b>Attributes</b> may not have spaces in between the attribute, the "=" mark,
803     and the attribute value. As an example:
804 swift 1.17 </p>
805    
806     <pre caption="Attributes">
807     <comment>Wrong :</comment> &lt;pre caption = "Attributes"&gt;
808     <comment>Correct:</comment> &lt;pre caption="Attributes"&gt;
809     </pre>
810    
811     </body>
812     </section>
813     <section>
814     <title>External Coding Style</title>
815     <body>
816    
817     <p>
818 neysx 1.53 Inside tables (<c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) and listings (<c>&lt;ul&gt;</c>,
819     <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>) and <c>&lt;dl&gt;</c>, periods (".") should not be used
820     unless multiple sentences are used. In that case, every sentence should end
821     with a period (or other reading marks).
822 swift 1.17 </p>
823    
824     <p>
825     Every sentence, including those inside tables and listings, should start
826     with a capital letter.
827     </p>
828    
829     <pre caption="Periods and capital letters">
830     &lt;ul&gt;
831     &lt;li&gt;No period&lt;/li&gt;
832     &lt;li&gt;With period. Multiple sentences, remember?&lt;/li&gt;
833     &lt;/ul&gt;
834     </pre>
835    
836     <p>
837     Code Listings should <e>always</e> have a <c>caption</c>.
838     </p>
839    
840     <p>
841     Try to use <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> with the <c>link</c> attribute as much as
842 neysx 1.35 possible. In other words, the <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org">Gentoo
843     Forums</uri> is preferred over <uri>http://forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
844 swift 1.15 </p>
845 swift 1.18
846     <p>
847 neysx 1.37 When you comment something inside a <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> construct, use
848     <c>&lt;comment&gt;</c> and parentheses or the comment marker for the language
849     that is being used (<c>#</c> for bash scripts and many other things, <c>//</c>
850     for C code, etc.) Also place the comment <e>before</e> the subject of the
851     comment.
852 swift 1.18 </p>
853    
854     <pre caption="Comment example">
855     <comment>(Substitute "john" with your user name)</comment>
856     # <i>id john</i>
857     </pre>
858 drobbins 1.1
859     </body>
860     </section>
861     </chapter>
862 swift 1.15
863 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
864 swift 1.25 <title>Handbook Format</title>
865     <section>
866     <title>Guide vs Book</title>
867     <body>
868    
869     <p>
870     For high-volume documentation, such as the <uri
871 neysx 1.29 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">Installation Instructions</uri>, a
872 swift 1.25 broader format was needed. We designed a GuideXML-compatible enhancement that
873     allows us to write modular and multi-page documentation.
874     </p>
875    
876     </body>
877     </section>
878     <section>
879     <title>Main File</title>
880     <body>
881    
882     <p>
883     The first change is the need for a "master" document. This document contains no
884     real content, but links to the individual documentation modules. The syntaxis
885     doesn't differ much from GuideXML:
886     </p>
887    
888     <pre caption="Example book usage">
889     &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
890     &lt;!DOCTYPE book SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
891 neysx 1.42 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
892 swift 1.25
893     &lt;<i>book</i> link="example.xml"&gt;
894     &lt;title&gt;Example Book Usage&lt;/title&gt;
895    
896     &lt;author...&gt;
897     ...
898     &lt;/author&gt;
899    
900     &lt;abstract&gt;
901     ...
902     &lt;/abstract&gt;
903    
904     &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
905 neysx 1.49 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
906 swift 1.25 &lt;license/&gt;
907    
908     &lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
909     &lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
910     </pre>
911    
912     <p>
913     So far no real differences (except for the <c>&lt;book&gt;</c> instead of
914     <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag). Instead of starting with the individual
915 neysx 1.56 <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s, you define a <c>&lt;part&gt;</c>, which is the
916 swift 1.25 equivalent of a separate part in a book:
917     </p>
918    
919     <pre caption="Defining a part">
920     &lt;part&gt;
921     &lt;title&gt;Part One&lt;/title&gt;
922     &lt;abstract&gt;
923     ...
924     &lt;/abstract&gt;
925    
926     <comment>(Defining the several chapters)</comment>
927     &lt;/part&gt;
928     </pre>
929    
930     <p>
931     Each part is accompanied by a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and an
932     <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c> which gives a small introduction to the part.
933     </p>
934    
935     <p>
936 neysx 1.56 Inside each part, you define the individual <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c>s. Each
937     chapter <e>must</e> be a separate document. As a result it is no surprise that
938     a special tag (<c>&lt;include&gt;</c>) is added to allow including the separate
939 swift 1.25 document.
940     </p>
941    
942     <pre caption="Defining a chapter">
943     &lt;chapter&gt;
944     &lt;title&gt;Chapter One&lt;/title&gt;
945     &lt;abstract&gt;
946     This is a small explanation on chapter one.
947     &lt;/abstract&gt;
948    
949     &lt;include href="path/to/chapter-one.xml"/&gt;
950    
951     &lt;/chapter&gt;
952     </pre>
953    
954     </body>
955     </section>
956     <section>
957     <title>Designing the Individual Chapters</title>
958     <body>
959    
960     <p>
961     The content of an individual chapter is structured as follows:
962     </p>
963    
964     <pre caption="Chapter Syntax">
965     &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?&gt;
966     &lt;!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"&gt;
967 neysx 1.42 &lt;!-- &#36;Header&#36; --&gt;
968 swift 1.25
969     &lt;!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --&gt;
970 neysx 1.49 &lt;!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --&gt;
971 swift 1.25
972     &lt;sections&gt;
973    
974 neysx 1.35 &lt;version&gt;...&lt;/version&gt;
975     &lt;date&gt;...&lt;/date&gt;
976    
977 swift 1.25 <comment>(Define the several &lt;section&gt; and &lt;subsection&gt;)</comment>
978    
979     &lt;/sections&gt;
980     </pre>
981    
982     <p>
983 neysx 1.56 Inside each chapter you can define <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>s (equivalent of
984     <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> in a Guide) and <c>&lt;subsection&gt;</c>s (equivalent
985 swift 1.25 of <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> in a Guide).
986     </p>
987    
988 neysx 1.35 <p>
989     Each individual chapter should have its own date and version elements. The
990     latest date of all chapters and master document will be displayed when a user
991     browses through all parts of the book.
992     </p>
993    
994 swift 1.25 </body>
995     </section>
996     </chapter>
997    
998     <chapter>
999 drobbins 1.1 <title>Resources</title>
1000     <section>
1001 swift 1.15 <title>Start writing</title>
1002     <body>
1003    
1004     <p>
1005 neysx 1.35 Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers can
1006     spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
1007 swift 1.15 syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
1008 vapier 1.50 to start writing quality Gentoo documentation. You might be interested
1009 neysx 1.35 in our <uri link="/proj/en/gdp/doc/doc-tipsntricks.xml">Documentation
1010     Development Tips &amp; Tricks</uri>. If you'd like to help (or have any
1011     questions about guide), please post a message to the <mail
1012     link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail> stating what you'd
1013 neysx 1.55 like to tackle. Have fun!
1014 swift 1.15 </p>
1015    
1016     </body>
1017 drobbins 1.1 </section>
1018     </chapter>
1019     </guide>

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