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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.34 2009/12/17 04:41:24 nightmorph Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.35 2009/12/31 01:37:01 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide> 5<guide>
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
10</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/> 12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.24</version> 25<version>1.25</version>
26<date>2009-12-16</date> 26<date>2009-12-30</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
201packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in 201packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
202many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop. 202many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
203</note> 203</note>
204 204
205<p> 205<p>
206When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some 206When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
207environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 207environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
208by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. 208by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
209</p> 209</p>
210 210
211<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables"> 211<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
212# <i>env-update</i> 212# <i>env-update</i>
213# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 213# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
214</pre> 214</pre>
215 215
216<p>
217Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
218automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
219environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
220just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
221link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
222</p>
223
224<pre caption="Starting HAL">
225# <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
226# <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
227</pre>
228
216</body> 229</body>
217</section> 230</section>
218</chapter> 231</chapter>
219 232
220<chapter> 233<chapter>
221<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 234<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
222<section> 235<section id="using_hal">
223<title>Using HAL</title> 236<title>Using HAL</title>
224<body> 237<body>
225 238
226<p> 239<p>
227Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to 240Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to
228manually configure Xorg's configuration files. 241manually edit Xorg's configuration files.
229</p> 242</p>
230 243
231<p> 244<p>
232You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating 245You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
233<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>. 246<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
234</p> 247</p>
235 248
236<p> 249<p>
237If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your 250If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
238keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right 251keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
239configuration files. 252configuration files.
240</p> 253</p>
241 254
242<p> 255<p>
243By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure 256By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
261For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy 274For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
262the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>: 275the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
263</p> 276</p>
264 277
265<pre caption="Using HAL policy files"> 278<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
266# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i> 279# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
267# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i> 280# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
268</pre> 281</pre>
269 282
270<p> 283<p>
271There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that 284There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
272may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power 285may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
273management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to 286management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
274<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. 287<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
275</p> 288</p>
289
290<impo>
291Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
292need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
293</impo>
276 294
277<p> 295<p>
278You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your 296You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
279liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional 297liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
280functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy. 298functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
281</p> 299</p>
282 300
283<p> 301<p>
284One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing 302One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
285Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen, 303Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
286etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del. 304etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
287</p> 305</p>
288 306
289<p> 307<p>
290Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you 308Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
296<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi"> 314<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
297<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment> 315<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
298# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i> 316# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
299<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment> 317<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
300&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt; 318&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
301<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment> 319<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
302&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt; 320&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
303 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt; 321 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
304 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i> 322 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
305 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name" 323 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
306 string="Linux"&gt; 324 string="Linux"&gt;
307 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt; 325 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
308 &lt;/match&gt; 326 &lt;/match&gt;
309 &lt;/match&gt; 327 &lt;/match&gt;
310</pre> 328</pre>
329
330<p>
331Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
332changes.
333</p>
311 334
312<p> 335<p>
313There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is 336There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
314useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and 337useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
315tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this 338tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
316key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this 339key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
317way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on. 340way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
318</p> 341</p>
319 342
320<p> 343<p>
321Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop. 344Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
322If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to 345If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
323manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section. 346manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
324</p> 347</p>
325 348

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