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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.10 2005/04/09 11:30:48 swift Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.36 2010/01/02 03:02:40 nightmorph Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.9</version> 25<version>1.26</version>
26<date>2005-04-09</date> 26<date>2010-01-01</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<title>Kernel configuration</title>
92<body>
93
94<p>
95By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
96activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
97configuration. (Read the
98<uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel Configuration Guide</uri> if you
99don't know how to setup your kernel.)
100</p>
101
102<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
103Device Drivers ---&gt;
104 Input device support ---&gt;
105 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
106</pre>
107
91<body> 108</body>
109</section>
110<section>
111<title>make.conf configuration</title>
112<body>
92 113
114<p>
115Before you install Xorg, you have to configure two important variables in the
116<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file.
93<p> 117</p>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 118
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 119<p>
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 120The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
121that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you
122have. The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or
123<c>fglrx</c> for ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia
124and ATI respectively. If you would like to use the open source nVidia driver,
125use <c>nv</c> rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that
126using this driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and
127<c>radeonhd</c> drivers are available for ATI cards, and are more or less the
128equal of the proprietary <c>fglrx</c> driver. The <c>intel</c> driver may be
129used for desktops or laptops with common Intel integrated graphics chipsets.
130<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in this case list of them
131should be separated with spaces.
132</p>
133
134<p>
135The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
136drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
137<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
138devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
139<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
140</p>
141
142<p>
143Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
144the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
145</p>
146
147<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
148<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
149INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
150<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment>
151VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia"
152<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment>
153VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
154</pre>
155
156<note>
157More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in the
158<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in the
159<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
160which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
161</note>
162
163<p>
164If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
165xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
166your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
167touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
168</p>
169
170<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
171# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i>
172
173These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
174
175Calculating dependencies... done!
176[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.6.3.901-r2 USE="hal nptl xorg -debug
177-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -tslib" 0 kB
178[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.6 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
179-acecad -aiptek -citron -elographics -fpit -hyperpen -joystick -keyboard -mouse
180-mutouch -penmount -tslib -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
181VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
182(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) (-imstt) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic
183(-newport) -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage
184-siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb)
185(-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l (-vermilion) -vesa -via
186-virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB
187</pre>
188
189<p>
190After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
97</p> 191</p>
98 192
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 193<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 194# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
101</pre> 195</pre>
102 196
197<note>
198You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
199lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
200<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
201packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
202many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
203</note>
204
103<p> 205<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 206When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 207environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system 208by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
107in any way.
108</p> 209</p>
109 210
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 211<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 212# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 213# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 214</pre>
114 215
216<p>
217Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
218automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
219environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
220just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
221link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
222</p>
223
224<pre caption="Starting HAL">
225# <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
226# <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
227</pre>
228
115</body> 229</body>
116</section> 230</section>
117</chapter> 231</chapter>
232
118<chapter> 233<chapter>
119<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 234<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
235<section id="using_hal">
236<title>Using HAL</title>
237<body>
238
239<p>
240Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to
241manually edit Xorg's configuration files.
242</p>
243
244<p>
245You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating
246<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>.
247</p>
248
249<p>
250If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
251keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
252configuration files.
253</p>
254
255<p>
256By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
257devices such as keyboards and mice.
258</p>
259
260<p>
261HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
262files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
263that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
264<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
265</p>
266
267<impo>
268Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
269you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
270location.
271</impo>
272
273<p>
274For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
275the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
276</p>
277
278<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
279# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
280# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
281</pre>
282
283<p>
284There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
285may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
286management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
287<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
288</p>
289
290<impo>
291Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
292need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
293</impo>
294
295<p>
296You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
297liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
298functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
299</p>
300
301<p>
302One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
303Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
304etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
305</p>
306
307<p>
308Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
309can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
310<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
311line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
312</p>
313
314<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
315<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
317<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
318&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
319<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
320&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
321 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
322 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
323 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
324 string="Linux"&gt;
325 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
326 &lt;/match&gt;
327 &lt;/match&gt;
328</pre>
329
330<p>
331Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
332changes.
333</p>
334
335<p>
336There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
337useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
338tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
339key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
340way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
341</p>
342
343<p>
344Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
345If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
346manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
347</p>
348
349</body>
120<section> 350</section>
351<section>
121<title>The xorg.conf File</title> 352<title>The xorg.conf file</title>
122<body> 353<body>
123 354
355<note>
356Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It
357really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your
358configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working
359configuration, then read on.
360</note>
361
124<p> 362<p>
125The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it 363The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides
126resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example 364in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as
127configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to 365<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own
128create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need 366configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more
129of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 367documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
130</p> 368</p>
131 369
132<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page"> 370<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
133# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i> 371$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
134</pre>
135
136<p>
137Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
138with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
139</p> 372</pre>
140 373
141</body> 374</body>
142</section>
143<section> 375</section>
376<section>
144<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title> 377<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
145<body> 378<body>
146 379
147<p> 380<p>
148Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you 381Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
149will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and 382will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
150running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the 383running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
151resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully 384resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
152working) Xorg configuration file. 385working) Xorg configuration file.
153</p> 386</p>
154 387
155<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 388<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
156# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 389# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
157</pre> 390</pre>
159<p> 392<p>
160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 393Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 394probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 395manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 396will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
164for you to test. So let's test :) 397for you to test. So let's test. :)
165</p> 398</p>
166 399
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file"> 400<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i> 401# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre> 402</pre>
170 403
171<p> 404<p>
172If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if 405If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
173your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able 406your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
174to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low. 407to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
175You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. 408You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
176</p> 409</p>
177 410
178</body> 411</body>
179</section> 412</section>
180<section> 413<section>
181<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
182<body>
183
184<p>
185Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
186information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
187your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
188</p>
189
190<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
191# <i>xorgconfig</i>
192</pre>
193
194<p>
195Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
196attempts to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
197final tweaking.
198</p>
199
200<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
201# <i>xorgcfg</i>
202</pre>
203
204</body>
205</section>
206<section>
207<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title> 414<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
208<body> 415<body>
209 416
210<p> 417<p>
211Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 418Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
212<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 419<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
213<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 420<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
214</p> 421</p>
215 422
216<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 423<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
217# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 424# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
218</pre> 425</pre>
222<section id="using_startx"> 429<section id="using_startx">
223<title>Using startx</title> 430<title>Using startx</title>
224<body> 431<body>
225 432
226<p> 433<p>
227Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 434Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
228that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some 435that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some
229graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 436graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
230using the following logic: 437using the following logic:
231</p> 438</p>
232 439
233<ul> 440<ul>
234 <li> 441 <li>
236 execute the commands listed there. 443 execute the commands listed there.
237 </li> 444 </li>
238 <li> 445 <li>
239 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 446 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
240 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 447 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
241 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 448 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
242 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 449 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users on
243 </li> 450 the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
244<li> 451 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
245 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 452 and set the default X session to Xfce4.
246 usually <c>twm</c>.
247 </li> 453 </li>
248</ul> 454</ul>
249 455
250<pre caption="Starting X"> 456<pre caption="Starting X">
251# <i>startx</i> 457# <i>startx</i>
252</pre> 458</pre>
253 459
254<p> 460<p>
255If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 461You can kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This will
256<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 462however make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want.
257upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace
258combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully - something that you
259might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :)
260</p> 463</p>
261 464
262</body> 465</body>
263</section> 466</section>
264</chapter> 467</chapter>
468
265<chapter> 469<chapter>
266<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 470<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
267<section> 471<section>
268<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 472<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
269<body> 473<body>
270 474
271<p> 475<p>
272If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 476If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
273sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 477sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have
274which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 478the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server
275default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 479will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If
276case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 480this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in
277second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 481the second section, <e>Monitor</e>.
278</p> 482</p>
279 483
280<p> 484<p>
281What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 485What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and
282<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions. 486<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
283For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e> 487For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
284section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to 488section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
285look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also 489look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
286use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
287<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
288</p> 490</p>
289 491
290<warn> 492<warn>
291Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables 493Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
292without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting 494without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
293incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at 495incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
294worst. 496worst.
295</warn> 497</warn>
296 498
297<p> 499<p>
298Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 500Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from
299<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 501<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the
300<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 502<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1440x900 by
301default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 503default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely
302differ from the settings on your system. 504differ from the settings on your system.
303</p> 505</p>
304 506
305<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 507<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf">
306Section "Screen" 508Section "Screen"
307 Identifier "Default Screen" 509 Identifier "Default Screen"
308 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 510 Device "RadeonHD 4550"
309 Monitor "Generic Monitor" 511 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
310 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i> 512 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
311 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment> 513 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
312 SubSection "Display" 514 SubSection "Display"
313 Depth 24 515 Depth 24
314 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i> 516 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i>
315 EndSubSection 517 EndSubSection
316EndSection 518EndSection
317</pre> 519</pre>
318 520
319<p> 521<p>
320Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :) 522Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. :)
321</p> 523</p>
322 524
323</body> 525</body>
324</section>
325<section> 526</section>
527<section>
326<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title> 528<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
327<body>
328
329<p>
330To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
331section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
332point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
333for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
334</p>
335
336<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
337Section "InputDevice"
338 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
339 Driver "keyboard"
340 Option "CoreKeyboard"
341 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
342 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
343 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
344EndSection
345</pre>
346
347</body> 529<body>
348</section> 530
531<p>
532To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of
533<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to
534<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>:
535</p>
536
537<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
538# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
539</pre>
540
541<p>
542Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the
543Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain
544(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>).
545</p>
546
547<p>
548When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure
549that HAL picks up your configuration file changes.
550</p>
551
552</body>
349<section> 553</section>
350<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 554<section>
555<title>Finishing up</title>
351<body> 556<body>
352 557
353<p>
354If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
355by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as
356<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
357<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you
358can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those
359files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
360</p> 558<p>
361
362<pre caption="Checking the device files">
363# <i>cat /dev/input</i>
364<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment>
365</pre>
366
367<p>
368If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
369</p>
370
371<p>
372If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate
373<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
374options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users
375will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
376mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
377</p>
378
379<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
380Section "InputDevice"
381 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse"
382 Driver "mouse"
383 Option "CorePointer"
384 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i>
385 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
386 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
387EndSection
388</pre>
389
390<p>
391Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 559Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
392(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 560(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
393ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 561useful window manager (or even a desktop environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but
394environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 562that's not part of this guide.
395</p> 563</p>
396 564
397</body> 565</body>
398</section> 566</section>
399</chapter> 567</chapter>
568
400<chapter> 569<chapter>
401<title>Resources</title> 570<title>Resources</title>
402<section> 571<section>
403<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 572<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title>
404<body> 573<body>
405 574
406<p> 575<p>
407First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference 576First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
408about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a 577complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
409terminal near you when you edit your configuration file! 578to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration
410</p> 579files!
411
412<p> 580</p>
413A second point of resources on your system is the 581
414<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s 582<p>
415for individual graphical chipsets. 583Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish
584to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
585<path>xorg.conf</path>.
586</p>
587
588<p>
589You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
590on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
416</p> 591</p>
417 592
418<p> 593<p>
419There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 594There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only
420list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 595list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
421for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the 596for more.
422configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the 597</p>
423same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about 598
424<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well. 599</body>
600</section>
601<section>
602<title>Other resources</title>
603<body>
604
425</p> 605<p>
606More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
607environments and applications can be found in the <uri
608link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
609section of our documentation.
610</p>
426 611
427<ul> 612<p>
428 <li> 613If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.6 from an earlier version, then be sure to
429 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree 614read the <uri
430 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri> 615link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.6-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
431 </li> 616guide</uri>.
432 <li> 617</p>
433 <uri
434 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
435 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
436 </li>
437</ul>
438 618
439</body> 619</body>
440</section> 620</section>
441</chapter> 621</chapter>
442</guide> 622</guide>

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